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K f /S%Sf 





/ S'' s 






Rev. J. R. BEARD, D.D., 


YOL 11. 




Manohbstbr: AINSWORTH. 

Glasgow: CHAMBERS. Dublin: M'GLASHAK. 

Nbw Yobk : WILEY & PUTNAM. Boston, U. S. : CROSBY & NICHOLLS. 


K^ fS^S7 




• f 





HABAKKUK (H. one who folds his hands), the king of Israel had diffionlty to put down 

a prophet to whom is ascribed the oomposin (z. B, seq.). 

lion, in three chapters, which ib the Bible > HADADBIMMON, a town in the plain 

stands with his name (i. 1). Of his history Megiddo, where took place the unsuocessM 

nothing certain is known. Jewish tradition batUe of Josiah against the Egyptians, in 

represents that his abode was at Bethsachar, which that excellent monurph received a 

in the territory of Simeon, and that he him- mortal WQohd (2 Kings Z3^j^ 20 ; oomp. 

self, after the destraction of Jemsalem by Zeoh. xii. 11). ^ 

Nebnehadneuar, was carried to Babylon, HADBAGH, a district which, with proba- 

where he had interooorse with Daniel. bly a city of die same name, lay on the east 

His brief work may be referred to a short of Damascos (Zech. ix. 1). 
time before the first invasion of the Assy- HA6AR. See Abbaham (i. 11). 
rians, who appear here, as hitherto, person- HAGABENES, an Arab tribe mentioned 

ally unknown to the Israelites (L 6 — 10). in Ps. Ixxxiii. 6, in union with other tribes 

This would fix the piece in the reign of Je- of the same people, and whom we may eon- 

hoiakim, eir, 610 A. 0. Its contents refer clnde the Hebrews regarded as descendants 

to the approaching invasion of the kingdom of Hagar (Gen« xxv. 12). The same tribe 

of Jndidi, whose rain at the hand of the appears to be meant in 1 Chron. v. 10, 19, 

Chaldees he knows and declares to be near, seq, under the modified name Hagarites, 

That rain is described as the result of na- dwelling on the borders of Beuben, by whom 

tional wickedness. Those who were instru- they were defeated and expelled from their 

ments in God's hand for the punishment of territoiy. 

his guilty people were themselves, on ao- HAGGAI (H. one who observes a festival J, 

eount of their own guilt, to be punished and the earliest prophet after the ei^tivity, from 

overthrown. These subjects are embraced whom we have a collection of short oracles 

in ehapters i. and iL, which, forming a com- relating to the rebuilding of the temple, 

plete whole, justify God's dealings with trans- under Zerubbabel, on the return of the first 

gressors. Chapter iii. is a separate piece, colony from Babylon. The writing, which 

bearing the name of ' a prayer of Habak- has several distinct notices of time, is to be 

kuk,* which in point of beauty may endure refeired to the period of Darius Hystaspis 

comparison with David's odes, and was re- {eir. 520 A.C.). Owing to the Interference 

eeived by the Jews into the collection of of the Samaritans and the indifierenoe of 

poetry used in the temple-senice. the Jews, who employed all their seal in 

A tone of heartfelt sorrow and anxiety pre- building houses and mansions for them- 

vails in Habakkuk, who, labouring to un- selves, the restoration of the temple was 

derstand present and coming events, throws suffered to lie neglected ; when Haggai and 

open his heart to the reader. Two things, Zechariah came forward to awaken the peo- 

however, are to him very clear, namely, that pie to a sense of their duty, and aid Zerub- 

sin and suffering are yoke-fellows, and that babel in forwarding the important work 

' the just shall live by his faith ;' that is, shall (comp. Ezra v.). Chap. ii. 5 — 9 contains a 

in the midst of calamities be preserved of remarkable promise of success on the efforts 

God, in consequence of his fidelity (ii. 4). to which Haggai endeavours to rouse the 

Parts of the piece are of great force and people. This promise, which refers to Ze- 

beauty (L 6—10, 12, IS ; ii. 18—20 ; iii. 2— rubbabel, Babbi Akiba and most Christian 

7, 17 — 19). The language employed for the commentators apply to the Messiah, 
expression of the prophef s confidence in No trnstwordiy information has come 

God (iii. 17, 18) has become a sacred and down to us respecting Haggai, the preser- 

appropriate formulaiy of high and abiding vation of whose short composition affords a 

trust striking instance of the longevity of human 

HADADEZEB, a king of Zobah in Syria, thoughts when they relate to great rehgious 

whose kingdom was subdued by David (2 and social realities, and are expressed in a 

Sam. viii. 8 — 8), a conquest which occa- manner befitting those important subjects, 
sioned a transjordanic confederacy which HAIL (T., Ger. hagel), rain frozen in 



filling through the atmosphere, is in Pales- Osbnm ('Ancient Egypt') has firom the 
tine not common, bat often very destraetive Egyptian monuments shown that several of 
(Joah. z. 11. Ps. xviii. 12; comp. Ezod. the Canaanitish nations shaved some part 
iz. 18, teq., and Ps. Izxviii. 47, 48). Its de- of the head. The Zuzim shaved the back 
straotiveness is implied in the figurative use of the head ; the If oabites of Kabbah shaved 
of the word, whieh is connected with ' over- the forehead half way to the crown ; thellit- 
ilowing rain, fire, and brimstone,* to signify tites closely shaved the beard, moustaches, 
God's ponishments on a guilty nation (Ezek. and eye-brows ; they also shaved a square 
xiii. 11 ; xxxviii.22). The term ' hail stones' place just above the ear, leaviog the hair on 
(in the Hebrew, literally, < stones of hail,' the side of the face and the wh^kers, which 
It. zxx. 80), denotes hail of an extraordi- hung down in a long plaited lock. 
Dtry aize. • John the Baptist wore a garment of ca- 

HAIR. A thick and long head of hair mels' hair, which, unlike some other, was 
was among the ancient Hebrews accounted obviously coarse (Matt iii. iv. Mark L 6). 
ornamental (2 Sam. xiv. 2d, 26. Ezek. xvL The hair, according to Ghardin on 1 Sam. 
7)f and probably a token, if not a source, of xxv. 4, is not shorn from the camels like 
strength (Judg. zvL 17). Hence the rich wool firom sheep; but they pull off this 
and eminent, especially of the female sex, woolly hair, which the camels are disposed 
bad their hair artistically dressed and oiled in a sort to cast off, as many other creatures 
(Judg. xvi. 18. 2 Kings ix. 80. Cant. iv. 1). change their coats, yearly. The hair is made 
2Sam. xiv. 2). Long and ornamental hair into cloth now. Modern dervishes wear such 
became a sign of effemioacy and moral weak- garments. 

nesa (1 Cor. xi. 14. 1 Tim. ii. 9. 1 Pet iiL Campbell, the poet, mentions a tent of 
3). The hair, however, in a hot country cainel^-hair cloth which he saw in the king- 
might interfere with personal cleanliness ; dom of Algiers. It was twenty-five feet in 
on which account the priests and Levites, on diameter and very lofty. 
being uiaugurated, were required to have HALL, COMMON, is, in Matt xxvii. 27, 
their hair cut, as symbolical of purity (Numb, the rendering of the Latin word (in Greek 
viiL 7). With a similar import, as well as letters) pratorium, which is elsewhere trans- 
to promote bis cure, the leper was to have lated *hall of judgment' (John xviii. 28), 
bis hair cut off (Lev. xiv. 8, 9). During the and * palace' (Philipp. i. 13). In Mark xv. 
period of service, the priests were not to 16, the Latin pratorium is retained. The 
fhave their heads nor suffer their locks to prsBtorium, from pretor, properly signified 
grow long ; they shall only poll their heads the general's tent in a camp. As the word 
(Ezek. xliv. 20; comp. Numb. vi. 5). Com- pnetor was used of magistrates who admi- 
plete shaving of the head was probably rare, nistered justice, for example the governors 
since a bald head attracted special notice of provinces, so pnetorium came in general 
(2 Kings ii. 23), and was an object of con- to signify the residence of such officers (John 
tempt ; the rather because leprosy occa- xviii 28, 33 ; xix. 9). The word was trans- 
tioned the loss of the hair. As long and fisrred to the camp of the praetorian cohort, 
decorated hair was an accompaniment of and so was applied to the camp before the 
ioy, so shaving of the beard and the head pnetorium of Pilate (Matt xxvii. 27. Mark 
was a sign of grief (Jer. xli 5. Ezek. v. 1). xv. 16). 

Cutting the hair of males became so custo- The Roman procurators or governors who 
mary, &iat it was a distinction of sex; which ordinarily dwelt at Caesarea, when they came 
made Paul speak strongly of those men who to Jerusalem, chose for their residence a 
wore long hair (1 Cor. xi. 14, 10). In later pslace built by Herod (Acts xxiii. 30) near 
days, shaving the head of males has become the upper city, and forming part of Fort An- 
a general custom ; so that hairdressers have tonia, where lay the Roman cohort that kept 
to do more with the head than the beard, the Jewish capital in subjection. The greater 
The Orientals, therefore, say that Europeans part of this * band ' was drawn up in the 
have the head of women, since the latter camp for the political purpose of witnessing 
shave the beard and let the hair of the head the ignominious derision of ' the king of 
grow. The modem custom of shaving the the Jews ' (Matt xxvii. 26 — 28). 
head is connected with that of wearing on HAM, firom a Hebrew word signifying 
it folds of rich and heavy cloth, for the heat ' hot,' unless it should be thought that it is a 
of the elimate renders turbans and long hair Hebrew form of Chemi, the Egyptian name 
oppressive. See Hbad. for Egypt, appears in the table of nations 

It was forbidden by the Mosaic law to (Gen. x.) as one of the three sons of Noah, 
round the comers of the head, or mar ( pluck and the progenitor, among others, of Mizraim, 
up or destroy) the comers of the beard (Lev. another appellation for Eg^t, and is aocount- 
XIX. 27). 'This prohibition was doubtless ed to represent Africa. InPs. Ixxviii. 01,'the 
intended to prevent the Israelites from yield- land of Ham ' is certainly Egypt The po- 
ing to the customs of the inhabitants of Ca- pulation of Egypt, if viewed in connection 
naan, lest^ becoming like, they might be of with Biblicsl statements, occasions great 
them (see Jer. ix. 26, marg. ; xxv. 21—23). ethnographical difficulties. The culUvated 


Egjptims and Ouahites (£tliiopi«n8) most from letters (' the letter killeth, bat the spi- 

in verf early timea hare bean dinaiinilar to rit giveth life,' 2 Cor. ill. 6 ; oomp. Bom. ii. 

tha Negro race. 39), by the Holy Spirit in the preaching of 

HAMAN. See Esthbb. the irord of life, whieh in Jesua Chriat re* 

HAMATH, tiimamed 'the great' (Amoa deema bellevera from the corse of the law 

tL jf), a diatiaguished city of Syria, on the (Gal. iu. 13). In the apocryphal book To- 

north-eastern side of Lebimon (Judg. iiL 8), bit (t. 8 ; iz. 5), the same word is used to 

on ihe river Orontes, waa in ' the olden time' denote a bill or accoont of money due, a 

ihe residence of Syrian kings, of whom one, sense which throws light on its application 

namely Toi, came into friendly relations to the law of Moses, which was a list or 

with, if he did not become tributary to. Da- schedule of obligations. Comp. Lake xv'u 

▼id (3 Samuel yiii. 0, teq,; oomp. 1 Chron. 6, where grammaSa, ' writings,' is the word 

xilL 6. 1 Kings TiiL 65.). In the latter paa- used. The thus highly estimated inde- 

aage, Hamath appears as the northern, while pendence of Christianity on dead lettera 

'theriterof Egypt^ is the sontfaam boundary neceasarily postponed the time when its 

of Solomon's dominions. Comp. Amos vi. doctrine and facts were committed to writ- 

li, where by 'the river of the wilderness' ing, at least in so express and formal a 

the yalleyof tha Arabah ia meant In Ezek. manner aa is implied iu the composition of 

▼IviL 16, 20, Hamath is given as a norih- histories. But the very epistles which con* 

western limit of the ftiture kingdom of Is- veyed those indirect reproaches against a 

rael; with which agrees the fMt, that in Gen. religion in lettera, became the germ of a re- 

X. 18 the Hamathite ia placed with the de- Ugiona literature by far the richest as well aa 

seendants of Canaan. Hamath beeame anb- moat precious of all others, whose only great 

ject to Aasyria (2 Kings xrii. 24 ; comp. Jer. defect now is found to be a want of imme- 

zUz. 23). From ihe Syro-Maoedonian king, diate conneetion with the first days of the 

Antiochus Epiphanes, it received the Greek planting of the gospel. That literatxire, under 

name of Epiphania, which it retains with its the guidance of Providence, came into ezist- 

original appellation. In die period of the ence at the bidding of circumstances. Paul'a 

Arabian dominion it had princes of its own, churches required instruction and conac- 

ofwhomwaaoneof theranownedgeographera tion; therefore he wrote epistles. For tha 

and hiatoriana, namely, Abullbda. The place, conversion of large maases of the world, ar- 

atill considerable in virtue of its oommeroe, guments in proof of the Messiahship of 

ia the centra of a Turkiah government Jesus were needed, different in character, 

HAND, THE, was laid under the thigh in like those for whom they were intended, 

giving a pledge or taking an oath (Gen. xxiv. hence the gospels. 

2), and given aaatoken of good faith (2 Kings Christianity waa tbuB oonaigned to letters, 
z. 15) or sumnder (2 Chiwn. zzx. 8). In sa- These eompositiona were literally handwrit- 
crifices, the hand was put on the head of the inga, or, to use the more common term, ma- 
animal in order to indicate and ofBsr it (Ezod. nuscripts. Such manuscripts, aa piooeeding 
xziz. 10. Lev. L4). Laying on of handa, fkoro their authora, may be called autographa; 
aa offoring the person to the service of Je- aa tranaeribed by othera from the originals, 
hovah, waa praetiaed in the inauguration of apographa or copiea. A manuscript is an 
civil oi&cera (Numb. zzviL 18) and Levites autograph, whether written by the author or 
(viii. 10). Jesus signified the gift of his an amanuenais. The aneients aeldom wrote 
blessing by laying on his handa (Matt six. their treatises with their own hands, but die- 
18). This custom was observed by the apos tated them to others, called ' swift writers,' 
ties in appointing to offices in the church ' fair writers,' or simply ' book writers.' In 
(Acts vL 6. 1 Tim. v. 22). Washing of Ihia way, probably, a great part of the hooka 
tiie handa waa required to puri^r frmn Levi- of the New Testament were written (Bom. 
tical defilement (Lev. zv. II), and of priests zvi. 23. Gal. vi. 11). At first, all manu- 
before they performed their duties (Ezod. scripts were autographs ; now, in aU prober 
zzz. 19). It was an indication of being bility, all are apographs, fDr we have no evi- 
pure from human blood (Deut zzi 6 — 8). dance that the originals have been preserved. 
Hence the phraae, ' I wiB wash my hands in With the progress of the gospels apographs 
innocency ' (Ps. zzvL 6. Matt zzviL 24. were multiplied till they became very nu- 
1 Tim. IL 8). After the captivity, arose the merous, inasmuch aa the demand for copiea 
practice of washing the hands before meat increased and spread on every side. Manu- 
(Matt zv. 2, 20. Luke zi. 38). acripts, whether originals or copies, oom- 

HANDWBITING, a verbally exact En- prised either portions or the whole of the 
glish rendering of the Greek original, ehtiro* New Testament Sach aa comprised por- 
graptum, whieh in Latin is manmcriptum, tions came first into ezistence. They con- 
denoting that which is written by the hand, sisted of one letter or one gospel, or, in each 
The word ia employed by Paul (Col. ii. 14) caae, of more than one. At an early period 
to signify the Bfosaio law, ' the handwriting the Chriaiian writings were read in the 
of oridinauees that was against us,' in con- churoh assemblies, for which pujrpose they 
tradistinction to Christianity, taught apart were divided into portiona, containing either 




Mtoet pMMgei whieli, trhen pnt together, 
neeivsd the oommon luune of IiMtioiuirttAiii, 
or Reader; and if it oontdned the gospels, 
Emmgeliarium ; if the Aets and the Epistles, 
Efiitolmr^ Often, the several parts follow 
in the order In which they were pablidy 
read. Snoh Beadera arose in the Latin 
ehoroh in the fifth, in the Greek in the 
eighth centorf . The manoseripts were tran- 
aertbed with great care and diligence, and 
transmitted trom hand to hand, horn ohoreh 
to chnreh, and from age to age. At first, 
transcription was the work of pioas indiii- 
doals; afterwards, it became the dnty of the 
inhabitants of religions booses, in most of 
which was set apart a &rtptormm, or Writ- 
ing-room, in which the transcription of 
MSS. was systematically carried on. The 
oonseientious care bestowed on this impor- 
tant taak aeenred the copies from deprava- 
tion; and we have every reason to believe 
that, with only some one or two exceptions, 
the MSS. have not suffered fh>m intentional 
falsification. These precious documents 
ware thus preserved in and by writing till 
the revival of letters, when they were brought 
forth out of the dusty repositories in which 
they had very long and, in later ages, too 
quietly lam, and shortly after the invention 
of printing were hi^pily put beyond the reach 
of danger, by being consigned to the custody 
of the press. It may, however, be doubted 
whether the ordinary Oreek text, which has 
been made the subject of all modem criti- 
cism, might not with advantage be super- 
seded by one to be immediately obtained 
from the oldest manuscripts in existence, 
which represent a state of the writings more 
nearly approaching to the originals. 

For writing materials the New-Testament 
anthors used Egyptian paper (2 John L2), 
aad the lettsf-writers a finer kind, patronised 
by the emperor. Augustas, which was very 
perishable. At a later period, the New Tes- 

tament was written on ddns of animals. 
Parchment, as being costly, was rarely used. 
In the eleventh century, cotton-paper, and 
in the thirteenth our ordinary Ihien-paper, 
came into use. The original writers appear 
to have written without separation of words^ 
accents, or punctuation, and without any di- 
vision of the text into sections or chspters. 
The subject-matter was arranged in a co- 
lumnar form, in a character which resem- 
bled Uie Greek inscriptions on stone, only 
somewhat rounder in form. The written 
leaves were rolled together. The inconve- 
nience of these rolls gave rise to bound 
books, not unlike our own. Still the old 
characters held their place, as well as the 
distribution of the matter in columns. By 
degrees the former lost their stiffiiess and 
perpendicularity, till at length, in the tenth 
century, the current hand became general, and 
the larger letters were kept for ornamental 
eodices or books. About the same period, 
ornaments of various kinds, as painted ini- 
tials and gilding, became fashionable. The 
Greek characters of the existing MSS. 
may be divided into two kinds, the large 
and the small. The latter were chiefly em- 
ployed in the cursive or rapid hand. The 
former were used for works of greater pre- 
tension : they are called uncial, and in form 
are square or round. The older are square, 
upright, and without junction with each 
other. Care and labour were on special oc- 
casions lavished on MSS., the letters being 
formed in gold or silver, on vellum stained 
irith purple. This specimen of ancient 
writing is a fao-simile of a portion of the 
funous Godex Purpureo-Argenteus, or Pur- 
ple Silver Manuscript, preserved in the Bri- 
tish Museum, and referred to the fifth 
century, though so eariy an age may be 
questioned. The words are found in the 
Greek of John ziv. 6. 





tl vill be DOtiMd thit Omi* an no Inter- tnia Jobn, a priest, and oompleled on be 

Till between either the wonli or tbs letter*, SOlh of April, 1AT8, «■ appears bj a note m 

and the lioee are fbimed iDdependentlj of the last page. It eonsistB of the four pw- 

tlie sense. Hor are Ilia letter* of a uniform pels, eu^ preoeded by a table ttt aeotionl, 

aiae and ihsMt though a general limlliritj written tn red ink. Eaoh gospel has at its 

preTsil*. The two laat latter* in tha first eommeniiamaut a figure ot its respeatlTS 

line lie an abbreriaHou for Janu. erangalial, and the Bm page of eaeh gospel 

Of the onniia or running hand the reader is beautlfallj illominated with an eleganUj- 

maj itadj the following, a fao-aimUe of the designed heading and a large coloured ini- 

beginning of Mark's Ooqwl, one ot tbe gents Hal letter, onumenled with bemlifal and 

of the Hadeian Librar; in the British Mn- ddieatelj-drawn arabeaqaes. 
■MHO. Tbe 113. was written at Borne hj 


In (his ipecimen tfaare an on eertaia 
lelten marita termed aocania; laige pointa 
also denote diTisiona, which dirislons an 
according to the senie. 

The wuit of interralB uniad the word* to 
be differflDll; divided, and diipnteswara car- 
ried on respeoting tha right separation of the 
aenteneei. Ilwaa adiiBiiiiIt tuk forateader 
10 read the Bible intelligiblj in the pablie 
auamblie* while it wa* wilhoat mj marka 
of diatinction ; tor priTile reading also some 
assiatanoe was desuvble. On this aceount 









Enthalins, a daaaon at AlexancbiB (rir. iW 
AJ).), dirided tha Panline Epiatles and the 
Book cut Acta into lines (ttuhoi, hen» H88. 
so dirided an oaUed gticlumttritai). Tb* 
plan condsled in setting lo man; words is 
one line as wen to ba niA oninterrnpledlr, 
»a aa dearly to bring ont the senss of the 
anlhoi. We give a ipeeimeD oat ot the frag' 
ment of Paul's epistle*, whioh Wetsteln haa 
marked with the lauar H. The passage is 
Titn* ii. 2, 3 ; the corresponding English 
stands on the right hand. 











These lines wete generaUy adopled In for pre»erTing the InlegrltT of the books 
riUng, and appear in scTersl sxtant menu- wan thna supplioA In order ^ "" '^'"' 

script*. As the nmnber ot lint 
In a goapel or letter, and erai 
ot words, wen sat at the eitd. 

and M laid tb* fcmndation tor a sjetein » 


^netnatioa timiUKr to what is now prerft- fhe shape of the letters, to the materialf, 

lent la the ninth centniy, the di^lon of &o., gire critics assistance in conjeetaring 

words hj intervals, or points, beoame ous- the age of MS3. We subjoin an instanee in 

mnarj. In the tenth, aeeentaation was in which will be seen how the titles are blended 

general nse. Begaid to these facts, also to with the works themseWes. The mannseript^ 

1> S ^i tTOTen«rf% g) . ... On the fifth after Eut(er) 
Kiara) lO(ANNHN) .... ac(cordiiig to) JO(HN) 

NOAN(epon)orn2 .... mbacertainm(A)N 



of the eighth century, is a Greek Evangelista- a second hand refreshed the charaoters 
rinm in the Imperial Library at Vienna, con- with new ink. Traces of a third hand are 
talning short portions of the gospels which seen. There are a rezy few stops, snd these 
were selected Ir^ the Greek choroh for each of from a second hand. The titles are added, as 
the feasts in the year. The yolome is about of secondary consideration, in a somewhat 
scTen inches by six in size, with nine lines smeller hand. Peculiarities of spelling show 
in a page. It is written on a purple ground the book to have proceeded from an Egyptian 
in fine gold uncials, with a few accents, sup- o^lllgraphist (fine writer). The masuscript 
posed to be of later date. The history of designated as A, or Aiexandm. Mus. Britan. 
this manuscript is curious snd illustrates its of the sixth century, contains the Old and 
Tslne. At the beginning of the eighteenth New Testament ; the latter, destroyed at the 
century, it belonged to die monastery ot the beginning, commences in Matt xxv. 6, with 
Augustines of St Jesn de Carbonaria, at the words, 'go ye out to meet him.' The 
Naples, who presented it to Charles VI., order of ike books is the same as In the 
emperor of Germany. When the Tictorious Vatican Codex. Each page has two co- 
armies of France ransacked Vienna, it was lumns. The characters are fair, square, and 
carried as a precious prize to Paris, where upright, greater than in the Vatican copy, 
it was placed in the fioyal Library, whence The letters are equidistant firomeach other, 
ft was afterwards restored to Vienna. the words not divided, but the initial letters 
The total number of Greek MSS. of the stand, in a larger form, at the beginning of 
New Testament, or portions of it, known to each book and each of the minor sections ; 
have been collated (compared together) by for the book has many sections, not unlike 
modem scholars, may be thus stated :^> our verses, yet at a somewhat greater length, 

Acts and PauL ^ * section does not end until the sentence 

Goip. Cath. £p. £p. Apoc. is completed. A void space of the length of a 

InUnclala. . , V 8 9 8 wordgenerally denotes the end of the section. 

gSma^l Letters. 469 ^^^^ " It is free from accents. Codex 0, or n. 9. Be- 

— —^ — gio-Pansmus, is called also that of Ephraem 

674 800 SS5 91 8yrus, because the more ancient writing was 
making altogether 1278, from which must partially obliterated with a sponge, and the 
be taken 830 reckoned more than once ; so parchment prepared to receive on it some 
that there remain 948. Of these, what are of the ascetic treatises of Ephraem ; being, 
termed the Alexandrian and Vatican Codices accordingly, what is called a paUmpsett, The 
or MSS. occupythe foremost place, as contain- old ink retaining a portion of its strength, 
ingthe entire Bible and being of very high an- presents the first characters under the new 
tiquity. The oldest MSS. are, for critical ones, so that whole sentences and para- 
purposes, marked A, B,C,&c. Of two or three graphs may be consecutively read. The 
of these we subjoin a few particulars. Co- pages of the Codex C contain passages firom 
dex B, or Vaticanus 1209, of the fifth cen- the Old, and, with considerable chasms, the 
tury, contains the Old and New Testament, whole of the New Testament, in the same 
the last in the following order — Gospels, order as the Vatican and Alexandrine copy. 
Acts of the Apostles, the Catholic Epistles, The text is not divided into columns. 
PauFs, as far as Heb. ix. 14. The Epistles The letters are beautiful, uniform, upright, 
to Timothy, Titus, and Philemon, together and square; the words not divided. It has 
with the Apocalypse, have perished. The initial letters, and, like the Alexandrine, is 
book is written on the finest parchment, divided into sentences similar to our verses, 
with unique and beautiful square letters, It has also marks of division : at the close 
every where uniform, all equidistant from of a passage a full stop is commonly found 
each other, no word separated fit>m ano- in the shape of a cross. No accents any 
ther, and each line seeming to be only one where appear. The MS. was in 1843-0 
word. The letters had become so pale that published at Leipsie by Tischendoit 


The oldest exemplan or oopies eontuned oiUtions from Sezipture, were inTeetigated 
nothing bnt the Oieek text Learned and and made use o£ In ooneeqnence, there 
unlearned proprietors of them began, how- appeared editions of the Greek in which 
ever, at an early day to write in the margin were given variations from the Beoeived 
explanations, correctionSyandremarks, which Text, accompanied by attempts to correct 
sometimes extended to something like a re- that text nnder the aid of these various read- 
golar commentary. Sometimes, die addition ings. But the Beoeived Text had now gained 
was merely a word designed to explain one not only a prescriptive right, bnt also, on 
of some difficulty in the text Sometimes, the part of those who did not know or were 
it consisted of several words of an exege- unable to judge the character of its origin, 
tical or admonitory nature. From these, a certain sacred authority, which made its 
words were occasionally transferred to the inviolability a kind of article of faith. Wet- 
text, either in addition to or in substitution stein, an able and indefatigable inquirer, 
fur the original term. Hence arose another had the intention of putting fbrth ^a new 
source of corruption and variety, which has edition, as the result of critical investiga- 
perhaps operated in cases not allowed for tions made in the course of his travels, 
in ordinary criticism. A knowledge that, on the strength of an- 

We have already hinted at the possibility cient authorities, he intended to introduce 
of the production ot a better text The idea certain new readings, gave so much offence 
has been put forth by Tischendorf,justmen- to his colleagues, Uie theologians of Basle, 
tioned, who, devoting his life to questions of that he was compelled to submit the first 
Biblicid criticism, gives promise of rivalling sheet of his work to a species of inquisition, 
even Griesbach. In the pursuit of his in- and after a protracted law-suit he was de- 
tentions, Tischendorf has already enriched prived of his office as deacon, and compelled 
the church with publications of great value, to seek refuge in Holland. About the same 
among which we may mention one which time (1780), the genial critic Bichard Bent- 
bears immediately on the point in regard to ley was refused by the English Government 
which we are about to say a few words : the remission of the tax on paper which he 
Manvmenta Sacra Jnedita, iiv€ Reliqum wished to import from France for printing 
Antiq, TextuM N, T. Gr, ax Novem plus mills a new edition of the Greek Testament His 
ann. Cod, per Buropam ditpersis. 1846. consequent vexation prevented the publica- 

Erasmus, in March 1516, presented to tion of the work. However, towards the end 
the world the first printed edition of the ori- of the last century, appeared at Jena, in 
giual text of the New Testament The few Germany, a theologian, the justly-celebrated 
manuscripts which he used in its formation Griesbach, who with learning and skill pro- 
were written a thousand and more years daced a new text, and gave an impulse to the 
after the time in which the compositions subject which stUl endures. Tet, as in the 
first made their appearance. Nineteen years case of all great men, his influence has in 
later, near the end of his life, Erasmus pub- a degree degenerated into a superstition, 
lished the fifth edition of his Greek Testa- and no few ttiere are who would hear with 
ment, for which he had consulted some fa- astonishment the opinion uttered, that it is 
there of the church and the ordinary Latin possible to improve on what Griesbach did. 
version in use among Catholics, but which Since his day, others, chiefly Gteimans, as 
in leading particulars remained Uie same as Knapp, Scholz, Lachmann, and Tischendorf, 
his originid publication. Soon afterwards, have, however, laboured in promotion of the 
Bobert Stephens, a Parisian printer, put same great work. But until the last-named 
forth an edition of the New Testament with- theologian opened a new path, a ftanda* 
out material improvements, whidi, passing mental error attached to all that was done, 
uninjured through the hands of Beza, was The error consists in making a text — that 
published in a beautiful type by the EIze- of Erasmus, of a late date, and formed 
virs, and honoured with the title of the apart from the aid of criticism — ^the base 
* Beceived Text' This honourable epithet and gronndwork of critical operations, while 
the Testament of Erasmus and of the Elze^ one of an earlier origin and better character 
virs has continued to bear, for the most may be had. 

part, with little disturbance. Bnt the atten- Documents of the Greek text as early as 

tion of the learned world had been called to the fourth century are in existence : in the 

the condition of the text, and in England, works of the Christian fathers we have evi- 

Germany, France, Holland, and Italy, much dences as to the true text, ranging ih>m the 

was done of high importance for the critical second to the fourth and following centu- 

study of the subject Manuscripts wriUen ries; of the ancient versions originally made 

only a few centuries after Christ were dis- in the first periods, we possess documents 

covered and examined ; very ancient transla- which go back nearly to the age when the 

tions of the Greek into Latin and several versions themselves came into existence. 

Eastern languages were brought forward Of these witnesses, taken together, it may 

out of libraries, and carefully gone over ; the in general be remarked, that the old text 

ancient fathers of the church, with their bears a colour dissimilar to that of the new. 


JM OS toppoM that on our ri|^t hand lay worid was iiuprised, nnleamed Christiana 
di0 aueiant doevments of which we have were alarmed, and nnbelieTera ntlered a 
spoken ; on oor left, the modem : would it shout of triomph. Better and more widely 
not be inational to take the latter for oar spread information has shown that then 
mt, and the former only as a source of was little reason for any of these nndne 
coneetions ? Tet this is what has hitherto emotions. The more the matter is rightly 
been done. apprehended, the more will it appear, to use 
To the established text some support has the words of the learned and eloquent Co- 
in appearance been giren by the discoreiy querd, that * there eKists not a six^le Greek 
of a kind of families in manuscripts. By author the text of which is as certain as that 
the obserred prevalence of certain peeulia- of the New Testament' In by <kr the great- 
riiies in each, classes of these precious est number of oases, the diversities regard 
remains of Christian antiquity have been purely points of grammar or style. In some, 
formed. Of these dasses, one was used in matters of fact and histoiy are affected. In 
one and another in another part of the world, a few instances, passages bearing on re- 
Henee critics speak of an Oriental or Alex- ceived opinions undergo alteration. In re- 
andrine (from Alexandria, in Egypt) text, gard to the last, we translate the words of 
and a Western or Constantinopolitan (Con- Tisohendorf himself; who belongs to the 
stantinople, in Turkey) text To the Alex- Catholic church: — * In the first epistle of the 
andrine, it may in general be said, belong Apostle Paul to Timothy, iiL 10, there stand 
the more ancient, to the Constantinopolitan in the common Greek text words ot which 
the more modem witnesses. The origin of these are the equivalents, * God was manifest 
each class is traced to some learned hand in the flesh;' for which the oldest authorities 
of the third century, while both are affirmed among the manuscripts, among the Chris- 
to be free from falsification. By good for- tian fsthers, among the versions, have the 
tune, it is added, the purer text was tsken reading *who' or * which was manifest in the 
for the edition of the sixteenth eentniy. But flesh.' The passage is especially important, 
what does impsrtial inquiry say to this by- since in the common reading It aflbids the 
pothesis ? The most learned men of anti- best proof that Christ was named God by 
quity, as the Biblical critic Jerome, in the PauL The other reading, however, by no 
fourth centniy, knew nothing of this labour means disturbs the doctrine of the Deity of 
in the formation of classes of manuscripts. Christ, as unlearned persons have dreamed 
The so-called Alexandrine text was followed and weak persons feared ; for whether the 
in their citations by the greater number and apostle named the Saviour God or not, the 
the oldest of the Christian fathers in Asia, doctrine with him remains as fimi as the 
and by the Africans. The manuscripts of fact of his conversion. We pass to the fa- 
the Alexandrine transcribers were at a veiy mous passage on the Trinity in 1 John v. 
early period most Tslued. Among modern 7, 8, * For Uiere are three that bear record 
documents there is a great agreement, but [in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the 
only a much less acoozdance among the an- Holy Ghost, and these three ere one. And 
cient ones, though their number is compa- there are three that bear witness in earth], 
ratively very small. Finally, the more mo- the spirit, and the water, and the blood ; and 
dem, in many instances, bear the appearance these three agree in one.' Here, according 
of having been arbitrarily derived firom a to the testimony of all the ancient Greek 
few ancient manuscripts. From these facts manuscripts, all the Greek and the oldest 
it follows that the theory of Recensions, or Latin fathers, and all the ancient versions, 
classes, can in no way be considered as a the words placed within brackets, namely, 
primary principle in the work of textual cri- fh>m 'in heaven* to 'that bear witness in 
ticism, especliJly as the most learned theo- earth,* ought to be strack out of the text The 
logians differ in the views which they seve- words stand, however, in the Vulgate antho- 
rally take on the subject The most natural rised by the (Catholic) church, and in our 
proceediug, on the contrary, is, to give the common German versions, although Luther 
preference to the ancient over the modem did not receive them into his Tran^ation. 
documents. The ordinary reader will at This passage is frill of importance for the 
once see the bearing of this question on his Trini^. Tet, without heecQng the passage, 
own interests when he is informed that the Luther had the firmest belief in the doe- 
English version, in common with others of trine. There also belongs to the question 
a recent date, owes all its authority to the under consideration the paragraph, in the 
Beceived Text True, the points of diver- gospel of John, touching the woman taken 
aity in the manuscripts are for the most part in adultery (vii. 53 — ^viii. 11). The strong- 
inconsiderable. Yet the smallest matter in est critical evidence denies its genuine- 
regsrd to a book which is the Magna Oharta ness, or at least the place it holds in the 
of Christianity, rises into consequence. When gospeL The question is of ancient date, for 
the Biblical critic Mill aflirmed, as one re- it was treated by Augustine, who declared 
^t of his labours, the existence of various that only persons weak in the faith could 
readings to the number of 80,000, the learned reject it But this opinion serves to illus- 


tnlo fbe importanoe of the oritioiBm of the Jnttin, too, makes Damasens ^ natiTe 

New Testament Augostme was ignoiant of plaoe of the Hebrews. Near Damaseas, if 

Greek : he was attached to the liatin trans- these remarks are eoneet, we may also place 

lation. In consequence, he was prevented Padan Aram and Aram Naharaim, names 

firam seeing that the whole passage departs which imply a district of similar characters 

from John's manner of writing so decidedly to those of Damasens, namely, a high land 

as to be CTidently an interpolation ' (' Beise with a plain watered by two riTers, ihe Ab*- 

in den Orient/ ii. 167, 158). na and Phaipar (Oen. xzzL — ^xzziil. ; eomp. 

The details into which we have now gone, Judg. lii. 8). 

while they show that Ood in his wisdom left HABES are foond in great nombers in 

the New Testament to the influences of his Western Asia, and of a larger sise than with 

ordinary proTidenoe, prove also how efifec- us. In the holy Scripture they are men- 

taal the onstody has been. The history of tioned only among the animals which might 

literatore has no parallel case. A literature not be eaten, *becanse he eheweth the cud, 

springs from the people of a despised and bnt divideth not the hoof (Lev. jL 6). Its 

bigoted land, whit^ for seyenteen successive being ruminant was a long time under de- 

centories excites the deepest interest and bate, but seems now to be admitted. Turks 

engages all the energies of men of the high- and Armenians avoid its flesh. Hares are 

est eultore in each age, and works, mean- said to be liable in summer to a speoies of 

while, moral and social changes of the widest mange, and ancient physicians held that 

extent and the most benign tendency. See their flesh made thick blood, inclining those 

Book and Cahoh. who eat it to melancholy. These impres- 

HANES, a city in Egypt, into which Jew- sions may have had an influence in eansing 

ish ambassadors esme in order to treat of a hares to be aeoounted unclean, 

union between that country and Judah (Is. HABP. See Musio. 

I, 4). Probably, Hanes is the Egyptian HABYEST, the, in Palesthie takes plaee 

Chnes, the Arabian Ahnas, which is by He- in the spring of the year, in the month Abib 

rodotus termed Anysis, and is generally ('ear-month'). In hot plains, as that of 

known in Greek writers as Heracleopolis. Jericho, it commences towards the end of 

It was the dhief eity of a district, and lay March ; in the higher lands, about the end 

aonth of Memphis, on the western bank of of April ; in the greatest part of the country, 

the Nile. between these two limits. The labours of 

HABAN, or Chairan, the district out of the field lasted with the Hebrews for a longer 

which Abraham was called to proceed into time than with us, because they performed 

Canaan. This country has been identified the threshing and winnowing in the open 

with the plaee in Mesopotamia, not far ih>m air. Thus it happened that, while the 

Edessa, named by the Greeks and Bomans commencement of the harvest was ode- 

CarrBB. It may be doubted whether this view brated on the second day of the Passover 

is correct, for the words of Stephen (Acts (Lev. xxiii. 10 — 14), it was not till seven 

viL 12—4) imply diat Haran was out of Me- weeks later, at the feast of Pentecost, that 

sopotamia. From Genesis it appears that it was terminated with religious joy (Exod. 

the plaoe lay more to the south-west than the i^xiii. 16. Dent xvi. 10. Isidah ix. 3). First 

Carres just alluded to— more towards Ca- came bariey- harvest (2 Sam. xxi. 9), which 

naan. Abraham's father, Terah, dwelt on- was followed by wheat-harvest, at the end of 

giually in * Ur of the Chaldees,' in Uie north- April near Jericho, later in other parts (Gen. 

west of Mesopotamia. Thence he removed xxx. 14. Judges xv. 1). That of spelt fol- 

with his famOy to go into Canaan, on which lowed (Exod. ix. 82. Is. xxviii.25— not' lye'), 

route they stopped in Haran (Gen. xi. 28, and of other grains, of which an iniisrior 

81). Here, in Haran, Abraham received his bread was made (Ezek. iv. 9). The reapers, 

divine call, and thence they came into Ca- who, using the sickle (Dent xvi. 9), cut 

naan, pursuing a southerly direction (xiL down the com (I Sam. viiL 12), and, gath- 

1 — 9). From tiie same district Laban came ering it in their arms (Ps. cxxix. 7), placed 

to Gilead in seven days, and Jacob in ten — it in heaps (Buth iii. 7), found the labour 

an impossibility if Haran lay at the foot of exhausting, and were refreshed with bread 

the Armenian mountains, a distance of above and ordinary wine or beer (ii. 14). Having 

400 miles. The true Haran is probably to been threshed, the com was carried into 

be identified with Carah (about 150 mUes granaries (Job v. 26. Matt iii. 12; xiii.80), 

from Gilead), not far north of Damascus, which were often natural or artificial caves, 

which Thevenot describes as * a good town, though the Hebrews may have also had 

having a rivulet running by it There are bams erected on the soil (Luke xii. 18). 

a great many nuns to be seen there.' In The comers of the field and the gleanings 

thus placing Abraham near Damascus, we were left for the poor (Lev. xix. 9). To tra- 

are supported by Nicolaus Damascenus, se- vellers the privilege was secured of plucking 

cretary of Herod the Great Joseph us de- ears with their hands, but were not to use 

dares that in his time the name of Abraham the sickle (Deut xxiii. 2d). Bee HuirOBBy 

was honoured in the district of Damascus. Gabxbb, and Glbajt. 

HEA 1 

BAUBEBQEON, > dimlnutiTi fonn of 
•^^^iluuberg (tram the Qtxa. Aoli, 'tbi IhnM,' 
^~^ tai bergeit, to 'ooibt' or 'pivMot'}, aamM 
to Ds bma the Frenab havbal, > breu^iUtei 
bal from ligni^ing t, detaiuiTa, it pused [o 
nuui *it offenaiTB pieoe irf inaaar, tnd ii 
found in onr modBm haUrtrd, or pike, Thl« 
ii ill import in Job xti. 26, wbete it ii man- 
tiaoed with otbai w«^>o[U of uaiult Aso- 
thar lorin, tahgharah, U lh« ptoper Hebrew 
word for ooMt of miil, aod ia fooitd Id Ezod. 
ixTiii. 83. 

HAVILAH, lbs nung of % Haonila trfb«, 
piobablj lo b« looked for in the soDth-Mtt 
of Afrioa (Oin. x. T ) j of ■ Shemila funilj, 
wbioh maj have beeu Mitled in Iba sut of 
Arabia ((Hnesis i. 30 ; oomp. ixr. IB, and 
1 Samoel it. 7); iIbo of ■ coimti7 oalo- 
brued toi ita gold, which loma biTe flxad 
in ColohiB. 

HAVOCS, connectad probkbl; with tha 
Saxon kqfoc, ' ■ hawk/ means daatmetioiL 
The word, of which the origjoal might ba 
reodered ■ voted,' ia naed to deacribe Baol'i 
peraeoDlion of the inl«u( ohdreh at Jemsft- 

' Crj haroo, and let lU; the doct ol War.* 

HAWK (T. Ml, faleon), an onolaan bird 

(Lev. li. IS) of the order n^tora, mignlorf, 

which in great nnmbera Tiait Sfria, when, 

abundant pny- 

HAZELli therendsring, lnaaii.m.flT, 
of loot, whioh probably maana the almond tree. 

HEAD (T.), atanda fbr a Hebrew word, 
nuft, whoM tnimarr aignifieatioa ia the bn- 
man head, aiid benoa * tha top,' < tbe ehieC 
and other allied qiplioationa (Gen. iL IB. 
Eiod. xrii. S. Numb. xn. I). On the head 
oil VM ponred in oonaearating tba higb- 
priaata (Ler. Tiii. 12) and the monatcfa (3 
Eingi ii. 3, h;.), and probably on fciliTa 
oeoaaion* (Pi. xxiii. 0; comp. xeli.lO). In 
token of grief, doal was oaat on tha head 
(Joab. TiL e. 1 Sam. It. 13. Bei. iriii. IB) ; 
a auBtom which ia atrikinglj illDBtraled by . 
this Tiew, taken from Thcbea, of Egyptians 
bewailing tbe death of a king. 

Bwearing by lb« head (Halt *. SB) waa 
onsloniuy among most ancient naCiona. So 
in Virgil (,En. ii. 30), 'By thia head 1 swear, 
by which my father swore before.' Thia ape- 
cies of oath was empleyed by the Jewa, aa 
appears from Iheae words — 'Promiee me by 
the life of thy head.' 

HEARTH (T.), a Ore-place, is tha repre- 
sentatiTe of two Hebrew words which con- 
car in giving the idea that the hearth, with 
the Israelites, was a heated place or a place 
for heal, that is, a atone laid on a brazier 
standing on the ground, (o receive the tnel 
nnd communicate beat (Fs.cii.3. Jer.nxTi 
23, 23. Ia. jdrii. 14. John xriii. 18). One 
Hebrew word, ggogah, atande for the ' cakca 
bolred on the heinb,' mentioned aa a deli- 
cacy in Qeu. iviii. fl (eomp. I King* xrii. 
13; xii. 6. Eiek. it. 12). Thin round 

eak«« of tha kind are atill in the EaM baked 
on healed >and or atonee. by means of ashes 
or bajf-bnml wood laid thereon (comp. Is. 
xliT. IB), also between layers of eow or 
camel dang, and eaten by the Araba as a 
well-daToared article of food ; spaoially ars 
they naed when there is not time for tlis 
longer proceaa of ordinary baiting. In order 
to be dona through aud avoid buming, they 
miiil be tamed. To tbia fact reference is 
made in Hosea Tii. 8. Generally, they are 
made of wheat-floor (Geo. iviii. 6). Sariey 
wasnaedin casesof dearth; hence Eiek.iv.U. 
HEATHKN ia tbe reprsaentatiTe of words 
in the original Soriptarea which properly 
denote people or nation. Aa the Greeks need 
the term barbarian of all sare themselrea. 
to 'heathea' aignifiea g<Baeral]y those who 
are not Hebrews, or those who are not 


Cbriatiaiuk At now those natioiu weie aceofdiog to Jotephns (Aotiq. iv. 8, 48)» 
idolaters, so the epithet sometimes denotes Moses, bat no oUien of the hnmsn raes 
sach as worshipped the oreatnre rather (John yU. 84). This early view was modi- 
than the Creator, in contrast with the wor> fied, without being improved, in siter timet, 
shippers of the trae and only God (Lev. DiiTerenoas were made and ssTeral heavens 
zxn. 88). The word is often lendered by set forth, in the hi^estand purest of which, 
'nations' (Nomb. ziv. 15; zxir. 8), some- the Empymnm, dwelt the Almighty. Paul 
times with special reference to flie idola- makes mention of a ' third heaven ' (3 Cor. 
troas Canaanites (Exod. zzxiv. d4). There zii. 2). In the Testament of the Twelve 
are occasions in which no immediate refer- Patriaiehs the idea is eanried farther. Ae- 
ence maybe made to religions practices, the cording to it, the first heaven is the spate 
word being simply equivalent to our term between the earth and the clouds; the se- 
nation or people — ^the world as not inolnd- cond, the place of douds, water, hail, and 
ing Jews (Luke iL 83), in which case we evil spirits ; the third is more lofty and more 
find the rendering Gentiles (Rom. i. 18). bright, the dwelling-place of the heavenly 
* Gentiles ' also signifies Christians con- host of angels; in the fourth dwell the saints; 
verted tram heathenism (GaL ii. 12, mq, in the fifth, Uie angels of the Divine pre- 
Ephes. iii. 1). sence, i. e. the higher angels, who pray for 
The expression * isles of the Gentiles ' the pardon of men*s sins ; in the sixth, the 
(Gen. X. 0), is thought to denote the Greek angels who give answer to these prayers ; in 
islands in Uie Mediterranean Sea, of which the seventh, the Thrones and Powers, who 
the Hebrews knew little but the existence praise God day and night The number 
and name. In Gen. xiv. 1 we find, ' Tidal, varied ; a point on which Origen remarks, 
king of nations ;' where ' nations ' may sig- ' Whether there are seven heavens, or any 
niiy a particular people called Gogeem, * n»- fixed number, the canonical writings say no- 
tions/ thing/ These notions, however, have found 
HEAYEN (T. fit>m heavt, 'up-heaved,' among Christians more or less acceptance. 
Milton). The place of spiritual blessed- Divines have been divided into two classes 
ness and immortal life bears in the Scrip- —one conceiving of heaven chiefly as a cer- 
tures several names which are in part figu- tain definite place, giving h^)piness and es- 
rative, in part literal. It is called, I. Para- sential to happiness ; another, as happiness 
disc (Luke xxiii. 48), since the paradise or itself, of the purest kind, exijoyed in sny 
garden of the first msn is a figure of the place where God might place his chfldren. 
tranquil happiness in which he originally With the first, predominated the idea of lo- 
lived; II. Abraham's bosom (Luke xvi. 22), cality ; with the second, the idea of spiritual 
by which a peaceftil condition is indicated bliss and freedom. The former notion, which 
for the righteous ; since intimate commeree is that of the multitude, is passing into ob- 
vnth Abridiam, <tiie iriend of God' and 'the livion; the latter gains prevalence. The 
father of the faithfbl,' excited in the minds first makes spiritual good dependent on 
of pious Israelites the most soothing and place ; the second mskes spiritual good pa- 
gratifying emotions. Both these names, how- remount, asserting that heaven is rather a 
ever, have reference to the dwelling of the state than a place, and that, so far as place 
good in the lower world before the resuireo- must enter into tiie idea, it is subordinate 
tion, though 'Paradise' is used also of the both in its effects snd its consequences, 
seat of * the third heaven ' (2 Cor. xii. 4). Heaven, therefore, is that state of spiritual 
After the resurrection there is mentioned, and immortal blessedness to which God will 
III. ' the heavenly Jerusalem' (Heb. xii. 22 ; raise his people on their departure from this 
comp. Bev. xxi. 10, teq.), on the ground life, where, in the invisible world of spirits, 
that the earthly Jerusalem was the place is Jesus and those whom God gives him 
where God made special disclosures of his (John xvii. 24). And surely tiie pious 
grace: the words may however denote, not hea- Christian can find nothing more soothing 
▼en, but the Christian church as the temple and or more elevating than the assurance thal^ 
mercy-seat of the God and Father of the Lord after death, he wDl be where the Father dis- 
Jesus Christ The most common expression plays his love (xiv. 28), and where Christ 
is, IV. heaven, for which the many mansions is (xiv. 2) beholding his glory (xvii. 24); 
in God's house, of John xiv. 2, may be a peri- and 'so shall we ever be vntii the Lord' 
phrasis (comp. Luke xvi.O). Referring to the (2 Thess. iv. 17), in the exercise and enjoj- 
artiole Astbolooebs, 1. 101, we remark that ment of that divine love which is eternal (I 
the Hebrews, regarding the skies not astro- Cor. xiii. 18), in ' the glorious liberty of the 
nomically but religiously, and far sujpassing, children of God' (Rem. viii. 21), makings 
even in their esriiest ideas, the Greek con- unceasing progress in knowledge, power, 
oeption of an Olympus, conceived of heaven and goodness (1 Cor. xiii. — 18). 
as a wide-vaulted canopy or firmament, the Sitting or reclining at table in the king- 
special place and residence of God and his dom of God (Matthew viii. 11), is a strong 
angelsy where were Enoch and Elias, and, figure to describe the hsppiness of heoveu 




"pjritiwl h^pbuM ii oftan Ml (brth nndsr »hDB ohildnn of Ihs klDgdon) ue In ontn 

Um ImMi" of ' IwaqDit (It. It. 1, 3. Loka darimeai. 8m Euitb. 

sir. loT IhIL xzil. 1. Apoa.xii.1). The HEAVEN, QUEEN OF, ths Hoon, which, 

MM* Bgnn >• fbond uaaiig (ha Qraaki. In eoniidcrad u the piuiTS uid batring power, 

iIm buuh in HJtMhinr our Seriour ipeaki while the Bon ww the genenliTe, wea woi- 

m diiUnM being admitted, ihipped u pert of the geneial ajnem ef 


MtrolatTj, 01 Btai-wonhlp, praralenl of old aoirapt period, were aMnitomed to train ln< 
in the Eut, of th« eiUlaQue at which amoikt cenu and make offeringa lo the moon aa 
the Hebnm then are clear iudieationt. the Qneen of Hearen. The fMinga wheuM 
To thii idolatiy ia to be referred the term Ihia idolatrooa obKrraniie aiow rnnat hare 
' boat of beareD,' inalading the ami, moon, bad their eonree deeply Mated in human 
aDdaUuv( 19. Oftheee nature, for the worship of ths Qomu of 
■he moOD, fram its intimate eonoection with Hearen, or the Olorifled Virgin, bu not yat 
the eatth, reoeiTed epeBial attention ; and some lo an end, as ia illnslTated in the en- 
bom MTBral piestges (Jer. Tii. IS; xliv. IT gfrarin^ giren aboTe, taken from an Italian 
—19,35) itia elear that lbelaraelilea,in a freaoo of the fonrteenth centoir) and pei- 

. nwliiah 'th« boit of hwTMi'p^ 
the hlj^M hOQonn to the Virgin. It u 


lid i^^ilei-wal of the Dm* 

■nd profenitor of ■ number of Antb t 
(QRwd* z. 91, 20; ooiop. Knmben 
Si) and iBdlTidDab, of whom we 

I Terah, the fethei of Abrehuu, 
who wu aoeoDnled the greet uueMor of 
the IiTMlltee (Oen. zL 3«), U, UMHdin^, 
■ neiue wUah by Ite deriiMiati denotee the 
deeoeDduite of Ebet ; whcnM, probeblj, 
AbrdieiD ie eelled ' tbe Bebrow' (Oea. -- 

IS), I 

to the opt- 

nion of thoee irtio, flndiog bi Oie woid 
Sbtri (Htbrew) the mainiag of one mho 
Act CMH nwr (the Jordic), hold that the 

Aranuean henJitDui that had airitad in lh«ir 
tend from a diBtriol od the east of the liTtr. 
In a nancnrar leiue, the wrm Hebiewe aig- 
Diaed the pm^ of larael aa the olbpriiig 
of Abrahaiii. Thia deaignation at flnt pre- 
Taikd only amoag Ibraigntra (Qen. mix. 
lA) ; oi if (Med of themaelTea 'bj Oie Iirael- 
itee. It wa« in th«ii intereonrae with atran- 
gera (Oen. xL IS), or to mark the eontraat 
between Habrewa and lha*« who were not 
HabrewatGan.xliil.Sa. Exod-Lla. 1 S«in, 
xlii. 8, 7. Jer. xxxiT. 0, 14). Hebrew be- 
eaine flie propei hiitoriflal and ethnt^ra- 
pbioal name of tha people down to the time 
of tbo exOe, when the teim Jew was the 
enalomaTy ^jpellaUon. On the Hparalion 
of the klngdoma mider Behoboam, 'larael- 

Ilea' eame to be naed aa the denomlnaUoo 
of Ifaa ten tribe*, wltile * Jndahitee,' or ■ Jews,' 
deaeribed the reel. ' Hebrew ' then aeqatrttd 
a new meaning, aa denoting, apart from po- 
litieal conoema, the iriiole people of lanel 
in their genealogieal ralationa. It eren em- 
braced the Bamaiitana, who were not with- 
out Hebrew blood (Joeeph. Antiq. iL 8, S). 
The name remained in oie down into the 
timea of the New Teebunent, aa Indioatlre 
of race and ai an hoDotmbla deeignation, 
probably becuue pointing to Abraham and 
tha antiqnlliee of tha nation <2 Cor. xl. 23. 
Phaipp. til. S). Etpeeiallr there came to 
be allied with the word the idea of gpeaklng 
the Qalirew Ungne, or the Weetfrn Ara- 
maie, in opposition to thou Jewa, oi Hrl- 
leniata (sea Qbiboi), that epoke the Oniek 
tongne (Acts tL 1). The ftmner were the 
orthodox Jews, who profeiaed to adhere 
to the tnstitallone of their hlhere, which, 
howETar, they angroanted and oornipled by 
the tradition! of the elders. The latter, 
hiring rcoeiTed mora or lees of a philoso- 
phical and eosmopoliun inflnenee fh>m their 
mtereoorse with foreigners, denaled ftom 
the prevalent forms of opinion, and were 
eomewhit prepared for the reception of 
ChrisUanity. What, however, has been s^, 
shows that the term Hebrew is of a relativa 
kind : henee its import varied wiOi ohrensf 
■taneea. If gireti by sneh aa ware of H^ 

H£B 14 HEB 

brew blood, it would most probably denoto to their religioae poliQr and to a book— -^fae 

men who were either Hebrews by lineage or Bible, the book of books — ^bequeathed as 

of Hebrew orthodoxy in opinion. If given their legacy to the world, whioh it has in- 

by foreigners, it might be assigned to per- stmoted and will oontinne to instruct The 

sons of Hebrew extraction, wherever diey nation is its own sad memorial — the nation 

resided and whatever opinions they held, scattered abroad in the North, the South, 

Hence Egyptian or Grecian wziters might the East, and the West; surviving all its 

term Hebrews the Hellenizing Jews who reverses, always reviviag from its own ashes, 

dwelt in Alexandria ; and the name onee ori- and holding together, under an invisible bond, 

ginated, might in general designate suoh a hope whioh has outlived continual disap- 

persons. pointment. The mission which has been 

The history of the Hebrews (see Dxura- entrusted to it is not of this world, though. 

bohomt), which belongs to the most remark- it often mistook its destiny and dreamed of 

able portions of ancient, though it does not material greatness ; but the splendour with 

offer a view of universal history, can be best, which some of itsmonarohs surrounded tliem- 

if not almost exclusively, learnt firom their selves was of sbort duration, and never did 

own books ; for what Greek and Boman any but its prophets fully rise to the concep- 

writers cursorily mention of the earlier pe- tion of the grand work which it had to pes- 

riods, proceeded from mero hearsay, and is form as the religious instructor of mankind, 

full of ridiculous fables, suoh as were easily Strange that the mistake made of old should 

originated and diffhsed of so despised a peo- still endure, and that Jews should have 

pie. And Josephus himself drow his infor- their hearts turned to a land far too small 

mation down to the times of the Maccabees to give soope to a great nation, and which 

from the Biblical books. He is not free was never more than enough to allow space 

from the effort to adorn the materials sup- for the development of a narrow terrestrial 

plied to his hands. existence while the purposes of Providence 

The history of the Hebrews is by no wera unfolded and accomplished. The mis- 
means without difficulties. But it Las peou- sion of the Bomans was the exaltation of 
liar merits. It is distinguished for its natu- hxmian force ; that of the Groeks was the 
ralness and truth. It is most ancient Un- perfect exhibition of external beauty ; but 
like other ancient nations, the Hebrews did the Hebrews were called and appointed to 
not over-reckon their antiquity, nor min* a nobler work, the highest that man can 
gle mistaken astronomical figures with the achieve, namely, first to know and then to 
earliest times. Bunsen (< ^gypten's Stelle make known the Groator and Governor of 
in der Weltgeschiohte,' i. 48), after plaeing the universe ; and that not by the subtleties 
the historiciJ books of the Hebrews beforo of metaphysics or the rig^id processes of 
those of the Indians and the Egyptians, has logic, wUch at the best can convince only the 
these characterising remarks : * History was few, but by an immediate revelation, by the 
bom in that night when Moses, with the law inspirations of faith, by the brilliant pic- 
of the spirit, the moral law in his heart, led tures of hope, by the courses of a special 
the children of Israel out of Egypt ; its life Providence, by the outward and inward his- 
sank when, under the Judges, die national tory of distinguished men, and by the sub- 
mind was lost in Arab Bedouins and shep- linie creations of patriotic and religious po- 
herd tribes ; it bloomed again with the great etry ; — ^means the most powerful that can be 
historical personages, Samuel, David, and employed, the choice of which displays the 
Solomon, who formed the Hebrew state, operation of the wisdom of God. 
After the separation of the tribes into two The history, thus viewed in its great bear- 
kingdoms, the spirit of the nation turned ings, presents two extreme points. It begins 
itself more to religious things, and thus his- with the patriarch Abraham, 'who, in the 
tory, in its peculiar character, never roached midst of those who adored created nature, 
in the nation its highest perfection.' was the first to proclaim the existence of 

The details of that history may be found the creating God. It ends with the Mes- 
in the Bible. We here supply a brief out- siah, that is, with the triumph of a mono- 
line. The people whom it concerns is the theistio faith over the polytheism of the 
most singular, and perhaps the most im- Gentiles. As soon as tiie nations of the 
portant, on the face of the earth. In points earth had received the germs of that faith, 
of ordinary interest it has, indeed, nothing the Hebrew people finished its political ex- 
to boast No great empire did the Hebrews istence on the soU where the new religion, 
found. They gained little distinction in war. its own offshoot, was to grow and ripen. 
They do not excite our admiration by great But as a religious community the Hebrew 
and noble deeds, nor by grand achievements nation continues to exist, because its mis- 
of art or science. They have left no ruins sion can be terminated only by the univer- 
on the soil which they inhabited for nearly sal triumph of the grand truth of which, 
fifteen centuries. Yet their name will ever more than three thousand years ago, it be- 
remain imperisfaably engraven on the me- came the privileged trustee. When Jew and 
mory of men. This inmiortality they owe Gentile are Christians indeed, the Hebrew 


history will be complete, and the mission of Solomon. All die tribes recei?e with en- 

Abrahsm, Moses, David, and Christ, will be thmiasm the new chief, who was at length 

Ihlly and for erer accomplished. to deliver them fifom their dangerous neigh- 

Oor sketch, however, is restricted within hours. Signal snocesses obtained over the 
fStit space which lies between Abraham, the Philistines distingaish the eaiiy periods of 
originator, and Titns, the destroyer of the his reign. Bat soon the khig excites the 
Hebrew nation. This long period naturally discontent of the aged Samuel, who seeks in 
divides itself into two portions, distinctly the predominating tribe of Jndah a new mo- 
marked by an intoimption of the political narch, after his own heart. Saul, discou- 
existence of the nation, and by an emigr*- raged at this, no longer feels his former 
tion termed the Captivity (see the artide), energy. He fUls in combat, and Uie newly- 
or £xile, which was followed by a partial elected prince, aided by his powerfol tribe, 
restoration. Each of these two divisions takes the sovereign power after a struggle 
has its own character. Even the name of the of many years' duration. Fortunate in all 
people was changed. The evento which pre* his enterprises, David consolidates the He- 
cede the exile form the hittory vfthe Htbmn, brew state, which, being well administered, 
After Ac exile begins (Ac huUry of thiB Jtmu acquirss an imposing extent, and even threat- 
Each of the two histories has ito own sub- ens to invade surrounding nations. Prospe- 
divisions, which we shall indicate as we pass rity brings luxury, luxury occasions despot- 
over ibis rapid survey. ism . Under the reign of Solomon, the building 

I. The origin of th$ Hehnw poopU, from of the temple, and in that the foundation of a 
Abraham to Moses, a period of above 600 national Banctaary,oifersaoentre of union for 
years, presento to us an Aramiean ftmily, all the tribes, and consolidates ihe theocracy 
which, coming from Mesopotamia, esta- as well as the civil institutions ; but the ex- 
blishes itself in Canaan, where it increases cesses of the monarch, his passion for fo- 
by slow degrees while engaged in pastoral reign women, his love of display, his com- 
pursuits. This nomad tribe descends into mereial enterprises with distant peoples, are 
Egypt, in which country, in the coarse of in flagrant opposition with the mission of 
centuries and under the yoke of a hard ser- the Hebrews. The imposing splendour of 
vitude, it becomes a numerous and powerftil the reign of Solomon may for a moment 
people. A man inspired by the Crsator of oonceal the elemente of dissolution which it 
heaven and earth, and filled with patriotic bears ; but at the death of the sovereign^ the 
enthusiasm, Moses, becomes ito deliverer, geims of discord long covered over soon pro- 
He eonducto the ransomed nation through duce appropriate fruit, and the kingdom is 
the desert to the borders of the land whose dissolved, after an existence of 120 years, 
traditioiis had been ito patrimony, and on IV. 7%e Dtvtded Kingdom, from Beho- 
whose hills and vales monotheism was to be boam to the Babyloniah Captivity (from dr. 
established and undergo ito developments. 075 to ctr. 720 A. C). The general discon- 
This period commences by ttie arrival of tent and the senseless tyranny of Behoboam 
Abraham in the midst of the Canaanites, and promptly bring the kingdom of Saul, David, 
teminates at the death of Moses. and Solomon, to an end. Ten tribes seknow- 

n. The neriod (about 400 years) from ledge a n^w diief (Jeroboam) ; those of Ju- 
iko doatk of Motot to th$ aceotsion of Saul, dah and Benjamin remain faithfbl to the 
shows us Joshua, the successor and pupil of dynasty of David. The new kingdom of 
Moses, who geto possession of the greater Israel thus foimed, superior in number but 
part of the land of promise. Courageous deprived of the moral influence of the na- 
ehieft put themselves in suoeession at the tional sanctuary, deviates more and more 
head of the people, and lead them in the from the Mosaic constitution. It adores 
straggle against surrounding enemies. The Ood in images, and even ofl'ers worship to 
institutions of Moses find great obstacles in foreign idols. The ancient kingdom, much 
the wayof gaining peimanent establishment narrowed in ito extent, remains the sole de- 
Berious disorders and a complete anarchy pository of the religious institations, and is 
threaten the new state with total ruin. At alone able to make progress towards the fill- 
length a Levito restores the tottering edifice fihnent of the mission of the Hebrews. The 
of Moses. He causes the doctrine of that two kingdoms weaken each other by conti- 
great man to advance, but cannot bring the nual struggles, but the larger is ftom the 
people over to a pure Aeocraoy. Seeing him- first deprived of the advantage of a dynasty 
self obliged to abdicate his power in frivomr elected of God. Tom by factions, it often 
of a king, he founds an institato (the school ohanges ite master, and, forgetting its high 
of the propbeto) which is fitted to spiritual- destiny, imprudently seeks dances among 
JM the Mosaic worship, and protect ito rdi- foreign nations. During nearly two centuries 
gious influence both against ttie will of roy- and a half it drags on an unhq)py existence, 
alty and the corrupt excesses of the people, without fixed principle, without a definite 
Joshua introduces and Ssnl terminates this «nd. At last, sinking under the reiterated 
period. attacks of the Assyrians, the ten tribes are 

ni. The Uniiod KiRgdam, from Saul to trmsported to a fsNign land. The family 




of DaTid« notwithstanding its nomeioiu er- 
ron, sneeeeds better in retaining its vital 
forces. The two tribes keep the laws and 
institations of Moses. The prophetio ool- 
lege gathers and puts forth strength in pio* 
portion as the better pert of the people, in* 
stracted bj adversity, begin to feel that the 
snpremaoy of the house of David will never 
be aecomplished in mere earthly dominion, 
and that its realisation belongs to a distant 
fbtnre, an age of gold to be looked for in the 
latter days. At the moment when the king- 
dom of Israel falls, that of Jndah is revived 
and invigorated by the pions Hezekiah, un- 
der whom prophecy and the Messianio hopes 
Uike the greatest flight 

v. Kingdom cf Judah, to the final deporta- 
tioh to Babylon, a period of about 180 years, 
on whose commencement the Assyrians fail 
in an attack against Jerusalem. AAer the 
deiUh of Hezekiah, his son and his grand- 
son show &vonr to idolatrous worship. Jo- 
siah at length displays the greatest energy 
for the re-establishment of the national wor- 
ship and the entire destruction of idolatry. 
But the many internal concussions, and the 
attacks fifom without, have enfeebled the lit- 
tle kingdom too mudi for it to be able long 
to maintain ite independence. Instructed 
by misfortune, the people of Judah have at 
length made good progress in learning to 
know and serve the true Qod. Soon, how- 
oyer, oonqueied by the Chaldsans, they are 
eanied captive into the empire of Babylon, 
where, under the chastisemento of exile and 
soRow, they may meditate on their God and 
on his law, and prepare anew for the work 
consigned to them by the God of their tar 

The portion of the history over which we 
have now oast our eye may be called the 
pure Hebraie period. Hereafter, w» shdl 
see the nation under the name of Jews, hav^ 
Ing been re-established in Palestine by the 
Persians, sulqected to the influence of Greek 
power. They re-conquer their national in- 
dependence by the sublime devotion of a 
funOy of priests. After a tenible struggle, 
they fall under the attacks of the Boman 
empire. See Jaws. 

has oeeasioned great diversities of opinion, 
but contains in itself means for fonoing 
satisfaetoiy conclusions respecting several 
important pointo connected with ite history. 
The time of ite being written was a short 
period before the overthrow of Jerusalem 
and the discontinuance of the temple wor- 
flhip. This we infer not only from the fact 
ttiat the writer speaks of the second appear- 
anee of Jesus as not having yet taken place 
(is. 28), and as being dose at hand (z. 87), 
but also from this, that, whfle he speaks of 
the Mosaic ritual as actually in* existence 
(x. 1, 11 ; ziiL 10), he implies that it is on 
flie pofait of disai^pearing (viiL 18 ; x. S5). 

These marks of time seem clearly to fix the 
date somewhere near the end of the Jewish 
polity. The second half of the century must 
have been advanced, since there are indica- 
tions that many years had elapsed since the 
ascension of Jesus ; for the race of men with 
whom the writer was contemporaneous suc- 
ceeded the eye-witnesses of the Lord (ii 8), 
seeing they had received the gospel on the 
preaching of those that heard Jesus. It 
was, moreover, a time of severe persecution 
(xii. 1, ieq.)f which had been preceded by a 
period of similar suiFering (x. 82, 88), which 
tried men*s hearts and fidelity ( ii 18), prompt- 
ing them to apostatise and forsake Christ 
(ill. 12; vL 6, 9), jmd involving all bat the 
last sacrifice, namely, that of life (xii. 4). 
These circumstances agree with what has 
preceded, in placing the composition some 
time before the breaking out of that perse- 
cution, under Nero (A. D. 64), which was 
the first that seriously involved a general 
loss of life on the part of Christians, and 
the way for which was prepared by increas- 
ing rage against them, specially by the con- 
duct of Nero*s predecessor, Claudius, who 
had expelled the Jews from Borne (Acto 
xviii. 2). 

The letter was beyond a doubt written to 
disciples of Christ — to ' holy brethren, par- 
takers of the heavenly calling^ (iii. 1 ; comp. 
6, 12, 14), who, partly fix)m the cause just 
spoken of (xii. 0), and partly from unbelief 
(lii. 12), the deceitfhlness of sin (18), spi- 
ritual dulness (v. 11), and moral pravity 
(xii. 16), were in danger of falling away 
from Christ (2d ; vi. 4--^), and probably of 
passing over to idolatry (' the root that bear- 
eth gall (hemlock) and wormwood,' xii. 15; 
eomp. Deut xxix. 18). A special reason 

Srevailed with the writer: 'divers strange 
octrines ' agitated those to whom he wrote 
(xiii 0), which, from the connection and the 
tenor of large portions of the letter, seem to 
"have had reference to a claimed superiority 
of Judaism over Christianity. 

To meet and reftito this error was the 
main purpose of the writer; in doing which, 
he aimed also to strengdien his readers in 
the fiery trial to which they were exposed, 
and build them up in faith and righteous- 
ness. It is equally clear that the persons 
addressed were familiar with the Mosaic 
laws, books, and institutions; also that their 
danger arose in the midst of Jewish influ- 
ences. So long as the temple-service was 
daUy celebrated with all ite retinue of ofll- 
ciating priests, expiatoiy rites, and solemn 
ceremonial, a powerful argument was hence 
drawn by Judaizers, both within and with- 
out the church, against the cause of the de- 
spised and crucified Galilean, which had no 
outward grandeur to arrest the eye and im- 
press the heart, but was mean and power- 
less, unless so far as it could by ite spiritual 
but unseen realities work on the hidden 

HEB 17 H£B 

man of the heart These facts authorise the mediately of Jeans (Qal. L 1 ). It is eqnallj 

conclusion that the epistle was addzessed to contrary to the ^K>8tle's custom to omit the 

conyerts from Judaism. mention of his name, for he always begins 

But scarcely to such converts in general, with an announcement of himself in the 

though such is the common opinion. For opening words of his acknowledged letters 

the persons to whom the writer speaks ap- (Bom. j. 1. 1 Cor.U. 1. 2 Cor« L 1. Gal. i. 

pear to be some xndiTidnal church* At least, 1. Ephes. L 1, &c}. 

this is the riew which seems to present Whence we may see that there is much 

itself in the following passages : * Bemember force in the declaration of Ozigen, who, after 

them that have the rule over you, who have saying that the epistle, according to the tes- 

spoken unto you the word of God' (ziii. 7) ; timony of the ancients, is referred to Paul, 

* Obey them that have the rule over you and adds, * but as to the person who gave to it its 

submit yourselves, for they watch for your written form, God only knows the truth.' If 

souls' (17). Here we have an organisation such was the opinion of Origen, we have 

implying the exercise of authority. But at so little reason to hope of being able to find 

early a period no general organisation with materials for determining the writer in a 

authority was in existence. Hence we infer satisfactory manner. 

that it was some church or community whom Though, however, history pronounces no 

the writer addressed — a conclusion which is clear opinion as to what name the author 

confirmed by xiii. 19, ' that I may be re- bore, we may gather from the epistle itself 

stored to you the sooner,' and 23, ' I will that its writer lived near the times and events 

see you f terms ef an intimate nature which of which he speaks, and had a most thorough 

imply a church, not a whole class of believ- acquaintance with Judaism and Christianity, 

ers; but what church we have here no It appears, also, that when he wrote it he 

means of determining. It, under the guid- was i^ording the attestation which patient 

ance of the common opinion, we look to Pa- suffering in bonds gives to sincerity of mo- 

lestine, then we should be led to fix on the tive and purity of purpose (x. 34). He 

church at Jerusalem. writes (probably) from Italy (xiii. 24), and 

These considerations tend to prove that acknowledges Timothy as his brother (23, 

Paul was not the author of the letter to the comp. 2 Cor. i. I), if, indeed, this Timothy 

Hebrews, for his history shows us that he is Paul's son in the faith (1 Tim. i. 2) ; for 

had disconnected himself from the special of the imprisonment fix>m which it is here 

ministry to the Hebrews, having given his implied Timothy was * set at liberty,' nothing 

heart and life to the work of converting the is known. 

Gentiles ; and on his last visit to Jerusalem Some have asserted that the early part of 
he had found little oommunity of feeling, this composition is rather an essay than a 
certainly not that sympathy which would letter; but evidence of its epistolary cha- 
justiiy the language just cited. But the rela- racter begins immediately after the introduc- 
tion in which £e writer stands to this Hebrew tion ( ii. 1 ; iii. 1 ), and continues to the end. 
church, wherever found, was not that of Paul It has also been maintained that the epis- 
to the Hebrew Christians. The relation tie is a translation from die Hebrew ; agamst 
disclosed in the epistle defends the gospel in which we might adduce passages showing 
general against Jewish, worldly, and sinful that the writer must have thought as well 
influences. Paul, in all his known writings, as written in Greek. But let it suffice to 
defends his particular view of the gospel remark, that the tone is that of an original, 
against the Jewish exdusiveness which made not a translation. Indeed, the Greek is 
circumcision the necessary precursor of faith perhaps the purest and most elegant of any 
and justification. This was Paul's great con- in the New Testament The writer was more 
troversy with the Hebrew Christians ; and conversant with the Septoagint than the He- 
had he written a letter to such, his grand brew, for the passage in x. 5 agrees with tlie 
doctrine of justification by faith only would, latter, which disagrees with the former. 
as in other epistles, have been propounded. This fact, as well as the tokens of Greek 
argued, defended, illustrated, and enforced, culture and the general manner of thought 
To the same effect is the admission in ii. 8, displayed in the epistle, combines to make it 
that the writer had not seen Jesus ; fbr Paul's probable that the author was a Jewish con- 
position is, that he had < seen the Lord' vert and teacher of tiie Alexandrine schooL 
(1 Cor. XV. 8), and was, in consequence, an Luther, denying that the epistle had either a 
aposde (ix. I) * not a whit behind the very Pauline or an apostolic origin, threw out the 
chiefest of the apostles' (2Cor.xi. 5). Certain- idea that it was written by Apollos, whose 
ly the writer of our epistfe does not speak with origin, opinions, qualities, and position 
the authority of an apostle, least of all in (Acts xriii. 24—28 ; comp. 1 Cor. i. 12 ; iv. 
that tone of authority which is customary 6), were of a nature to fit him for writing 
with Paul. The writer, too, implies (ii. 8 ; such a piece. Indeed, If this letter had not 
iv. 2) that he, as well as those to whom he this or a similar origin, we have in the writ- 
wrote, was taught of men ; whereas Paul in- ings of the New Testament no set expres- 
sists that he was not taught of men, but im- sion of the view taken of the gospel by the 
Vol. IL B 

HEB ^^ H E B 

Al«wiidffa«c<«Terl«pii«r"y'*ocaiDentiij8. S<m of God wm for • time miida lower th«^ 
eiAealWraiW to their sUte of mind. In the angela. As, however, Mosee wss the 
Mezajadrifl. howeTer, the eomplexion of proper mediator of the Old Covenant, the 
Ihoiuriitutd method of interpretation die- aathor ihows the superiority over him, God's 
9la^?in this epistle had gained a firm foot- servant, of Jesns, who was God*8 Son, iii. 
uur under the anspiees of tfie eelebrated 1—^. la Ghristianitj, then, in virtue of 
^So, who had tangfat men ^e allegorieal its mediator, immeasurably before Judaism ? 
mode of eiqxranding the Old Testament so steadfastness in holding it is so much the 
wbiet. in so mailed a manner distinguishes more a saored duty, the observance of which 
this episde. As, then, Paul's epistles, espe- is urged the more strongly because uufaith- 
oiaUy those to the Corinthians, Ephesians, fblness entails the foifDitnre of the offered 
and Coloesisns, were addressed to the Greek salvation, iii. 7 — iv. 13. In dilating on the 
mind in its eonneetion with Christianity, so the suljeet, the writer mentions the word high- 
letter befoie us seems to have contenqplated priest, and is hence led, iv. 14 — ^v. 10, to in- 
the Hebrew mind as under those Greek in- stitnte a comparison between the Levitical 
llnenoes which abounded in Alexandria. The and the Christisn high>priest This com- 
Jews of Palestine were too purely Hebrew in parison is interrupted by a description, v. 11 
their point of view ibr this epistle to repre- — vL 90, of the inaptitude of the Hebrews 
sent them. The Jews in the Isrge cities of for high spiritual truths, which leads to an 
the Boman empire had received too much admonition to increased diligence and care. 
of the Greek culture. It is to Alexandria in This being terminated by ttie resumption 
Egypt, that second Jerusalem, that metropo- (20) of the subject touching the priesthood 
lis dt Hebrew-Greek Jews, that we must look of the Messiah, he is dedaied to be a priest 
for the type of mind which the piece pre- of a superior order, namely, that of Melchi- 
■ents, snd which it is specially fitted to move sedec ; which, introducing tiie chief portion 
and guide. The conclusion which we hence of the epistle, leads to a profound develop' 
deduce, that the letter was intended for the ment of the pontifical oflce of Jesus, exhi- 
church at Alexandria, finds confirmation in biting the superior excellenoe of Christianity 
the fact, that in the Boman catalogues fifom over Judaism, viL*— x. 18. At the condn- 
the end of the second century it is described sion of this contrast, the second chief divi- 
nnder the title of Epistola ad AUsandrino^^ sion of the letter commences, which, run- 
' Letter to the Alexandrines.' And thus we ning to the end, forms the more practical 
find a striking instance of the wisdom of part, the implication of the preceding les- 
God in adapting the ministration of the gos- sons, in various exhortations imd enconrage- 
pel to the wants of his ereatnres. This epis- ments to perseveranoe in Christian fUth, 
tie, which would scarcely have been under- ri^teonsness, and love, 
stood by die church at Borne, is admirably This epistle exhibits Christianity, as in close 
adapted to the views and feelings of those in relationa to Judaism, so in a measure under 
Alexandria who were and who might be con- its influence. Sprung fifom the Hebrew po- 
verted to Christ So true is it of the New lity, the gospel had to d&ow its superiority 
Testament as of the Scriptures generally, and over its parent in matters admitted to be of 
of eveiy part of God's worid, 'there are di- paramount importance. Hence the writer was 
versities of gifts, but the same spirit; there restricted to points of comparison which, 
are diversities of operations, but the same being in their essence partial and temporary, 
God, which worketh all in all' (1 Cor. xiL have long ceased to excite a deep concern in 
4, teq.). human bosoms ; giving place to universal 
The letter divides itself into two chief relations and interests produced by Chris- 
portions, of which the first extends fifom i. tianity, in its adaptation to the fdrtherance 
to X. 18 ; the other, from x. 10 to the end, xiii. of which the gospel now finds its great evi- 
Doetrine and exhortation are so blended to- deuce and its appropriate work. If the en- 
gether, that neither of the parts contains this lightened Christianexpositor directs his mind 
or that exclusively. The contents of the to the Jewish ritual, it is not to receive the 
smaller portions an those, i. — ^ii. 4. In or- yoke of its ideas, but to learn how Provi- 
der to display the superiority of Christianity dence unfolds divine truth, develops the 
over Judaism, the writer begins with a brief universal out of the particular, and esta- 
description of the personal dignity of the Me- blishes the everlasting on the ruins of the 
diator of the New Covenant, and passes to the transitoiy. 

proof diathe,as the Son of God, is more de- HEBBON (H. bend), a district and city, 

vated than the angels, who were accounted the the ancient metropolis of the Abrahamide, 

channels of communication in the giving of lying some seven or eight hours southwards 

the law ; grounding on the pre-eminence of fh>m Jerusalem, and still a place of note 

Christtsnity an exhortation to fidelity in its though in his own day Josephus reports that 

profession. He proceeds, ii. 6—18, to ex- it had been in existence for 2800 years, 
plain the reason why the New Testament Hebron, as a modem province or district, 

was not, as was the Old, given by the hands lies on the south of that of Jerusalem, east 

of angehi, but by Jesus Christ, and why the of that of Gaxa, north of the Great Desert, 



H E 6 19 H £ B 

and mat of the Dead Sea. It is aaljeot to and rings of eoloored glass worn by females 

the province of Jenisalem, and is governed on their anns. The popnlation, aeeordiug to 

by a subordinate officer. The city Hebron, Bobinson, amounts to iO|000 sonls, Moham- 

2700 iiset above the sea, called by the Arabs medans and Jews. When Bobinson was at 

el-Xhalil, lies in the midst of the distiiot of Hebron there was in the place only one Chris- 

whieh it is the metropolis, in a deep, nanow tiao, Elias of Damasens. The articles of its 

▼alley, which, taking its rise in Uie open oommeroe an glass lamps, glass rings, raisins 

eonntry an hoar north of the place, rans in and dibs, made itom grapes. North-west firom 

a direction soath soalh-east. This is the the city is a very large oak (rindjan), which 

▼ale of Hebron of the Old Testament (Gen. is accounted Abraham's tree. The lower part 

xzxvit 14). The environs of Hebron are of the tronk measnres in girth 22} feet, and 

beaatifhl, and abomid in ▼ineyards. The is divided into three, the branches of which 

grapes are the i&nest in Palestine. The city spread out to the distance of 86 feet The 

properly lies on the declivity on both sides tree stsnds alone in a soil covered with 

of the valley, but chiefly on the east It grass, and having a well near at hand, the 

consists of three parts. The houses are of i^ole oifiBring a soitable and pleasant spot 

freestone, high, and well boflt, having win- for refreshment to the wesry traveller. It 

dows and flat roofr. The city is without walls, cannot be Abraham's tree, which was a tere- 

bnt as you enter some streets you pass through binth {Imim) , stood probably more towards 

mean gateways. In the valley towards the Jerusalem, and had disappeared in the days 

south lies the Lower Pod, a quadrangular of Jerome. 

reservoir of hewn stone and good work* At Hebron is 'the cave of Machpelah* 
maaship. On the norA end of the dty is (Gen. zxiiL 0), which Abraham bought of 
another smaller pool. Both are of high an- Ephron for the burial-place of his family, 
tiquity, and one of the two is probably * the A grotto is still shown as this patriarchal 
pool in Hebron' over whi^ David had the sepulchre. Lord Nugent thus speaks of 
slayers of Ishbosheth hung. The most no- Hebron: — 'The sun, as we drew near to 
ticeable building in Hebron is the mosque Hebron, was sinking behind us in great 
which stands over the grave of Abraham. It glory over the hills of the Philistines. The 
is at the sooth-east end of the city. Around level light now kindled in succession that 
it runs a wall in the form of a parallelogram, variety of glowing hues which nowhere 
on each of the four comers of which there shows so deeply bright as against a dis- 
onee stood a tower. Of these one is whoUy, tanee of grey-stone hiHs. But a straight 
another half destroyed; two yet serve as and lurid line of dark purple cloud hung 
minarets. Tradition carries this building heavfly across their tops. And as we wound 
back to Helena, but the aiohitecture gives along the road which skirted their sides, that 
reason to reftr a part at least of the exte- fresh steamy smell arose from the tenraced 
rior to ttie hands of the ancient Jews. What vine-grounds below, which gives warning of 
properly belongs to ttie mosque is thought rain before any instinct but that of vegeta- 
not to be older than the twelfth century, A. D. ble lifSs has note of its approach. The hus- 
Little is known of the interior, for the en- bandmen had already left the fields, and for 
trance is closed against every Frank and more than an hour of our way, till within 
Christian. This is certahi, that ttie Moham* half a mfle of the city, we had not seen a 
medans honour in it the sepuldire of the human ereatore. Here a solitsry old man, 
patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; and a Mussulman, was bowing himself to the 
dkere is no ground to question the tradition, earth in his evening prayer. His garb, the 
since it agrees with the statements of the ancient traditionary gown, girded round his 
Bible (Genesis zxiii xxv. 9 ; xxzv. 27; loins, and head-gear in iriiioh the old men 
1. 18), and is corroborated by Josephus. of the East have been clad through count- 
Jewish tradition places also in Hebron the less generations, his white beard descending 
borisl-plaee of Adam ; and the Ohristiaa the to his girdle, and his posture of adoration, 
graves of Abner, Ishbosheth, and Jesse. A forcibly recalled the picture our minds have 
little north of the Haram stands a castle or so often formed of the great patriarch who, 
citadel, not lofty, but sunounded by strong among these very hills, so often bowed him- 
valls, a part of whieh Bobinson found in self before the presence of God. 
ruins. In its vicinity Schubert mentions an * The weather had been fine till now. The 
oldeistem lying in ruins, which is called 8a- storm which roared among the rocks of He- 
rail's Bath. Of her, fable says that she was bron was grand beyond description. The 
beantiftd in person and a giantess in sta- dauling sheets of lightning that gleamed in 
ture; for when she sat, as she did daily, in quick suceessioa made the whole prospect 
the Itdl cistern, large enough to contain a round asbrightas in the day, showingforth the 
small house, the water reached no higher stem and venerable features of those famous 
than her neck. North of the Haram lies solitudes, and of that ancient city which lay 
the Basaar. Hebron is in repute for a glass before us, spparently so little changed from 
manufactory, the produets of which consist what it was when the abode of David and 
chieflyofsmalllamps that are sent to Egypt, his host And the thunder, coming loud 


20 HEL 

wid nesr upoa etwy flAsh, rofled durongli gvn an answer in the affinnAtive, the reli- 

the Und whew of old the roioe of the Al- gione rites at onoe hegan. 

miRhty wae »o often heard articnlate/ 'When/ says Olin, of Hebron (iL 70), 

Hebron is certainly one of the oldest cities * that ancient city burst on the new, we en- 

in existence. It was bailt seven years be- tered a romantic and well-cultiTated region, 

foi« Zoan, Tanis, in Egypt (Nomb. xiii. 28), the Talleys coTsred with wheat, and the 

and is often mentioned in the history of the mountain -sides terraced and planted with 

patriarchs (Oen. ziii. 18 ; xiT. 18 ; zriii. 1 ; figs, Tines, and olives. The situation of the 

ziiii. 2; zzr. 0). The oldest name of the city in a Talley of no great extent, sur- 

city is Mamre (xxiii. 19), or Kiijath Arba, rounded by slopes all under cultivation and 

that is the city of Arba, the progenitor of well clothed with trees, is pictures^e. Our 

the Anakim who dwelt around Hebron (Jo- road was down a steep declivity. The road 

ahua xiv. 15 ; xv. 18 ; xx. 7 ; xxi. 11. Judg. i. was narrow, precipitous, and full of rocks, 

10). When the Hebrews took possession which the rain of the previous night had 

of the land, Hebron appears as a Canaanitish rendered slippery.' 

royal city (Josh. xii. 10), as far as which HEDGE (T.)f an enclosure of an open 

came Moses' spies (Numb. xiii. 22). Joshua place, especially of a piece of groxmd, with 

captured the place (Josh. x. 87) and gave a view to protection, for agricultural pur- 

the surrounding territory to Caleb, who poses. In Palestine, hedges consisted of 

drove outthe Anakim (Josh. xiv. 8 — 15; xv. bushes (Job i. 10; comp. Judges ix. 49), 

18. Judg. L 20), while the city itself had a thorns (Kieah vlL 4), and waUs (Ecd. x. 8. 

free government under the Levites (Josh. xx. Hosea iL 6. Is. v. 5). Hedges were used 

7; xxL 11 — 18). At a later day, Hebron chiefly for gardens and vineyiLrds (Matt xxi. 

for seven years and a half was the royal 88. Ps. Ixxx. 12) ; corn-fields appear to have 

abode of David (2 Sam. ii. 1-— 4, 11 ; v. 1— been left open equally with pasture-grounds 

8, 5). Here also Absalom fixed the centre (Luke xiL 28. John iv. 85. Mark IL 28). 

of his insurrection (2 Sam. xv. 7, teq,), Un- Hence the necessity of landmarks, and the 

der the Kings it was fortified by Behoboam penalty against removing them (Deut xix. 

(2 Chron. xi. 10). Exiles returning fh>m 14; xxrii. 17. Job xxiv. 2). 

the Assyrian captirity settled in Hebron It is worthy of notice that modem Pa- 

(Nehem. xL 25). Further than this Hebron lestine is destitute of enclosures in the 

is not mentioned in tiie Old Testament agricultural districts. There are neither 

Nor does it appear in the New. From the fences, walls, nor hedges, nor any substi- 

first book of the Maccabees we see that it tnte for them, the whole country being one 

had fallen into the hands of the Edomites, immense common. The only exception is 

from whom it was redeemed by Judas Mac- found in a few enclosed gardens and vine- 

cabesus (1 Mao. v. 65). In the Boman pe- yards close to the walls of some towns. The 

riod it was taken and burnt by Cerealis, an limits of a field are usually marked by a nar- 

officer of Vespasian (J. W., iv. 0, 7, 9). In row strip of unploughed ground — sometimes 

the course of time, the old edifice over the by a rough pillar or heap of stones. The 

tombs of the patriarchs received the name of crops are secured against the cattle only 

' Abraham's Castle,' which afterwards passed by the watchful care of the herdman, who 

to the city itself. This appellation was pre- usually keeps them at a distance on the hills, 

served by the Mohammedans, who, instead Muleteers never hesitate to ride into a field 

of Abraham, used the prevalent surname of of wheat, and graze their animals on the 

the patriarch, ,that is, el-Khalil, /rt«yui <f growing or ripening harvest; snd so uni- 

God. In the crusades, Hebron seems to versal is this abuse, that the peasants look 

have fallen into the hands of the Christians on in silence. At Jennin (0«nia), the en- 

shortly after Jerusalem. In ^e year 1167 closures, in which grow pomegranates, fig, 

it was raised into the see of a Latin bishop, palm, and other trees, are made of the 

After the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin, prickly pear, which flourishes well and at- 

in 1187, Hebron returned into the hands of tains to an unusual size, 

the Moslems, who have continued its mas- HELBON, known under the names of 

ters. Haleb, Chalybon, AUppo, a state in the north- 

From ancient Hebron there is, towards western comer of Syria, on the Orontes. 

the north-west, a view of Jerusalem between Esek. xxvii. 18. 

the hills. Hebron was also from the metro- HELL (T.), from the German hblUf which 

polls a point of special interest Before the Is connected with our hoCloWt and perhaps 

morning sacrifice could be offered, a priest the old English Aeflyer, one who forms a 

was under the obligation of ascending the roof or thatch, that is, a cavity as well as a 

temple, there, with his eyes towards Hebron, covering. 

to await the break of day. As soon as the The most anoient Hebrews do not seem 

dawn appeared he cried, * Light, light!' *Can to have possessed the notion which makes 

you see Hebron?' was the reply of his fellow man consist of two distinct principles, the 

priests, who, in the body of the temple, were soul and the body ; but, eonceiving of man as 

preparing for the sacrifice. If the watcher a whole, spoke of him as dying and descend- 

H E L 21 H £ L 

ing into the tomb, where no vital power but- rived fifom the Pythagorean and Platonie 

Tived for eigoyment or for the serriee of philosophy, there begin to appear germs of 

God (Ps. yi. 5 ; xzz. 9 ; Izzzriii. 11. Isaiah the conception whi«^y dividing man into 

zxzviii. 11). Bat the mind does not easily sool and body, represented the former as 

part with the idea of deceased friends, and ascending to Ood, the latter as mingling 

pleases itself with investing them with some with the dust (Wisdom of Sol. iii. 1 — 6 ; v. 

qualities at least bearing resemblance to those 14—16). Similar views are found in Philo 

whieh made ns love imd value them while and Josephos. The popular idea entertained 

on earth ; so that even among a people who. in Judea in the time of our Lord may be ga- 

possessed no definite conception, no assur- thered from what the Jewish historian reports 

ance of another life, the heart would create of the doctrine of the Pharisees, who held that 

and oling to fonoies whieh peopled the grave men's souls, by nature imperishable, de- 

with shadowy but still actual existences, and seended after death to the lower world, 

that the more readily when the custom pre- where there was a reeompence ; the souls of 

vailed of interring the dead in natural or ar- the wicked remaining for ever in this steie, 

tifioial eaves, holding several corpses of per- underwent punishment, but the souls of the 

sons who, united when alive by kindred good acquiried the power of returning to the 

and affection, were after death deposited by upper world {anattarii, resurreetion), and 

the side one of another, each in his own entered into new human bodies, and so Arom 

narrow resting-place, which, formed of solid time to time began a new career of exi8^ 

rock, remained the same in successive gene- ence. Comp. Acta zziii. 8. 

rations. Hence the phrase * he was g»- No evidence appears in Josephns to show 

thered to his people' (Oen. xxv. 8), was that the Jews believed in the resurrection of 

more than a figure of speech. And as sire the body. The notions of which we have 

and son in long succession were ranged in spoken may be traced in the New Testament: 

niches in the family vault, so by degrees in Matt zvL 18, 14, that the good re>appeared 

there was formed a vague but influential idea on earth in other bodies, comp. John i. 2) ; 

ot a state of the dead, a realm of shades, that all souls were in the lower world, the 

which among the Hebrews received the name good in Paradise, the bad in Gehenna, in 

of Scheol (meaning, probably, a cavern, and Luke zvi. 19, $eq,, where the original is more 

translated * grave/ Gen. zzxvii. 86, Hos. xiii. forcible than the translation in showing that 

14, and * hell,' Deut zzzii. 22, Job xL 8. both Lazarus and the rich man were on tht 

Psalms ix. 17 ; xvL 10), and in Greek was $ame Uvel, in the same part of the universe, 

termed Hades (probably the dark place Peter also, in Acta ii. 29 — 84, represento 

where is no sight ; translated * hell,' Matt David's soul as * not ascended into the he*- 

xi. 23. Bev. i. 18, and * grave,' 1 Cor. xv. vens ' (84), but as being in Hades. Comp. 

M), In this dark and shadowy state were Heb. xiii. 20. 1 Pet iv. 6. Different terms 

gadiered the bad (Ps. ix. 17. Luke xvi. 23) are employed to represent Hades ; as in 

and the good (Ps. cxxxix. 8; xvL 10. Acta Luke riii. 81, 'the deep,' Bom.x. 7; 'prison' 

ii. 27, 81), separated, however, from each (1 Pet iii. 19), 'the lower parte of the earth,' 

other by a great gulf, so that ttie denizens Ephes. iv. 9 ; comp. Philipp. ii. 10. The 

of the one place could not pass to the other, representation made in Ps. cxv. 16 — 18, that 

though at least those who were in the place heaven is the residence of God and his an- 

of the wicked could see and contemplate the gels, the earth of men, and Hades the place 

happiness of the good (Luke xvi 23). It of the dead, is reproduced in Matt xviii. 10. 

was, however, only by degrees that this full Luke ii. 13, 16. Acta iL 31 — 34. A later view 

view of Hades was taken. At first. Hades placed the demons in the lower world, and 

was merely a family vault ; then a manso- Satan, their lord, and the lord of the lower 

leum peopled by the imagination with shades regions as weU as of the souls then enduring 

of the departed, a cold, dark, oomfortless pxmishment (Matt xri. 18. Heb. ii. 14, 

land of unearthly forms. Such forms re- 16). The specific name of the place of 

ceived from poetry a kind of animation ; as punishment in the New Testament is Ge- 

when Isaiah, with great boldness and force, henna (Mark ix. 46, 47), sometimes termed 

makes all the kings of the earth rise from * Gehenna of fire ;* in our translation, ' hell 

their stony couches to salute with derision fire* (Matt v. 22), ' Gehenna, the fire, the 

the fallen monarch of the onee invincible unquenchable' (Mark ix. 43), 'the everlast- 

Babylon (Is. xiv. 4, mq.), retaining at the ing fire' (Matt xviii 8), 'furnace of fire' 

same time the ordinary opinion, which made (xiii 42). The term is derived firom 2 Kings 

Hades in reality a mere repository of insen- xxiii. 10, ' the valley of Hinnom,' near Jeru- 

sible and perishing frames (xxxriii. 18). salem, where the Israelites of old burned in 

Even in the later Hebrew Scriptures we find honour of Molooh not only animals, but even 

the idea that the grave is the common re- their children (1 Kings xi 7. 2 Kings xvi. 

ceptaele for every living thing (Eccl. iii. 19 8, 4). This practice was abolished by Jo- 

— 22; Ps. civ. 29). In apocryphal writings siah, who caused the bones of evil-doers and 

which were written under an influence de- dead •"*"**>■ to be cast there ; and, accord* 


ing to tnMlitioa, a constant fire wm kept whieh propeily eigniflee'tree' (Gen. i. 11), 

up to oonsnme the reftise and all the on- or *wood' (zxiL 8). 

dean things. Henee the tenn oame to be HEHAN (H. their tr<mbU), the ton of 

applied to the place of pnniahment, in the Joel, was a singer appointed bjr the Le- 

deseription of whieh refeienoe was had to ^tes out of their own body, with Asaph and 

the destmetioa of Sodom and Gomorrah Ethan, to assist in oonducting the mnsical 

(Matt iJCT. 41. 9 Peter iL 4, m^.)* This part of pnblio worhip onder David (1 Chron. 

nlBienoe, and the burnings in Hinnom, were xr. 17, 19). In 1 Kings ir. 8 J , Heman and 

the ehief oaoses why fire was set forth as * Ethan the Esrahite,' Chalool and Darda, 

the instrument of punishment; the undying an termed * sons of MahoL' The apparent 

wonn was bonowed from the swanns which inoonsisteney is done away by righdy oon- 

crawled amid the nnbumt eorruption of struing the words ' sons of song,' or ' musi- 

Gehenna (Mark iz. 44 — 4 8) ; while Hades cians.' But in tiie tiae to Ps. IxxxviiL we 

lent its thick repulsive darimess to deepen read of ' Heman the Esrahite.' It is un- 

the shadows of the feaifcl picture (Matthew certain whether another Heman is hers 

szv. 80). If we attempt, by putting the meant Perhaps Heman's genealogy was 

several metaphors together, to form this pie- rarionsly stated (oomp. 1 Cluon. ii 6), or 

tare in our minds, we at once become aware one alliance may have been that of master 

id their inoongrui^, and so are led to learn and pupils (3 Ohron. zziz. 14). Consult 

that the reality they represent is hsre set d Chron. v. 11, teq. 

forth in popular fignres of speech. And HEMLOCK represents, in Hos. z. 4, the 

while we must see that the mere material Hebrew rohth, which is also rendered * gall ' 

element of fire can have no relation to, and (Deut zxiz. 18, in the marg. * ro$k, or a poi- 

no eflfeet upon, the immaterial soul — the sonftd herb'), * venom' (xziciL 88), ' poi- 

thonght, the inner feeling, the conscience, son' (Job zz. 16). The passages in which 

the will, all of which, as contaminated by it is used seem to show that some bitter 

sin, require puriiying — so, on the other and deadly herb was intended, but we have 

hand, we are impressed with a sense of the no definite evidence to prove that it was 

terrific nature of fkitore punishment, in find- hemlock. The word may have denoted more 

ing that the most painful objects, the most than one narcotic plant, and been in general 

terrible and shocking events within the his- i^iplied to bitter decoctions of such herbs, 

torical and personal knowledge of the Jew, Comp. Ps. Ixiz. 21. Matt zzvii. 84. Maik 

were brought together and concentrated in zv. 28. John ziz. 29. Hemlock (* gall ' in 

order to describe the sufferings whieh un- oar version) is united with wormwood in 

forgiven guilt has to endure in the world of Deut zziz. 18, to signify idolatry, the cause 

spirits. These material images were the of bitter feeling and intense suffering among 

popular language of the day, and, as such, the Hebrews. 

the most impressive snd the most proper. HEBE SY, from the Greek ^tmu, which, 

Jewish in their origin and in the associa- coming from a root denoting * to take,' pri- 

tions which gave them power, they have now manly signifies a taking; thus in Joseph us 

the indirect application to our times and (Antiq. viL 7, 0) it is used of the capture 

interests which we have just made. Even of a city. Secondly, it means choice, eleo- 

while employing them of old, the writers tion, or determination, as in the Septusgint 

use other terms which disclose their essen- translatiou of Lev. zzii. 18. Comp. Joseph, 

tially figurative character. Thus, * in the Antiq. vil. 13, 2 ; thence, in the third place, 

outer darkness' (a merely physicid notion) a chosen manner of life or form of doctrine, 

* there shall be weeping and gnashing of and is used of * the met of the Badducees ' 

teeth' (Matthew zzv.80) ; terms that imply (Acts v. 17), of *tiie ««c» of the Pharisees' 

anguish of mind, for mere bodily privations (zv. &; zzvL 5), of ' the sect of the Naza> 

and pain can be and often are borne with a renes ' (zziv. 6), of Christianity in Paul's 

hard insensibility like that of Prometheus; noble words—' This I confess unto thee, 

but real suffering, wailing, and irrepressible that after the way which they call heresy, so 

distress, have their seat in the mind ; — from worship I the God of my fathers' (14 ; zzviiL 

which awful inliiction may God preserve 22). The word is obviously taken in a good 

both him who writes and those who read, or bad sense, according to the ftelings of 

See Dbmon and Hbavbh. him who employs it In its purely pbysicsl 

HELMET (T. hslm in German), a piece meaning, e. g. 'capture of a city,' it involves 

of defensive armour worn on the head, made neither praise nor blame. The same may 

of brass (1 Sam. zviL 6), iron, or leather, be the case when it is used of the Jewish 

It is used figuratively to denote the protect- sects. Bu^ boirowing an import from a 

ing efficacy of holiness (Is. lii. 17. Ephes. Hebrew use of the term way to denote an of- 

vi. 7). fensive (idolatrous) mode of worship (comp. 

HELYE (T. connected with <hilt'), the Acts zziv. 14; iz. 2. Amos viii. 14. 2 Pet 

handle of a hatchet It is so used in Deut ii. 2), heresy came to be taken in a bad 

ziz. 5, as the rendering of a word, gehtt, sense, as descriptive of a deviation from the 


established and onstomaiy fonn of religion, tber was mueh lestrioted. By inheritance the 

In this sense, in order to raise odium against land was equally divided among the sons. 

Pan], is it employed by Tertiillas in his but the eldest had a double portion, whether 

pleading before Felix (Acts xxiy. 0). Not or not offspring of the fayonrite wife (Dent 

dissimilar is the use made of the term by zzi. 16—17), bat children of harlots were 

Paul in relation to the diiteruUmt which ex- excluded ( Judg. si. 1, teq.). Females pro- 

isted in the church at Corinth (1 Cor. xL 19 ; perly had no right in the land, since by £eir 

comp. Gal. t. 20). In its greatest diyexgenoe maxriage out of their tribe they might cause 

firom its original acceptation it is employed, the family portion to be alienated. But if a 

in 2 Peter ii. 1, to denote false doctrines, person on dying leftno male heir, his daugh- 

Accordingly, a heretic, in Tit iiL 10, is one ters might hold the heritage, provided they 

who, by introducing foolish questions and married in the branch of the tribe to which 

genealogies, and contentions and strivings their father belonged (Numbers xxvii. 8; 

about ttie law, cansed disagreements and xxxvi. 6, 7 ; oomp. Joseph. Antiq. iv. 7, 5). 

parties in the church ; who, after two admo- Directions for the passing of land to more 

nitions, was to be excommunicated, inas- distant relations may be found in Numb, 

much as he was condemned of himself. xxviL — IJ. In consequence of these laws. 

Heresy, then, according to the Scriptural it became neeessary to keep genealogical 
use of the term, may be a good or a bad registers, and wills were not required. Ac- 
thing. Its character depends on adjuncts, cordingly, wills are not mention^ and could 
In Paul and the early Christians, it was a refer only to moveable or personal property 
noble assertion of their rights as men and of which a division may have been made 
the claims of truth. In the heretic eon- during life (Luke xv. 12). See Cotbhant. 
demned by the same apostle, it was a self- HEBMON, termed by the Sidonians Si- 
oonvioted love of debate and strife. Hence a rion, by the Amorites Shenir (Dent iii. 9), 
conscientious disagreement from established and at present Jhchebel eM-Sheik, or Heitch, 
opinions is heresy in the good sense, which * snow-mountain/ stands on the northern 
is not only right, but sometimes highly laud- border of Palestine (8; iv. 48, here called 
able. And a maintenance of novelties of opin- Sion), beyond which were heathen (Judg. 
ion, or amoving of misunderstandings among iii. 3). It is properly the southern extremity 
brethren which is not rendered compulsory of Antilibanus, which here rises to its high- 
by an enlightened sense of duty, whether pro- est point (10,000 feet), is covered with per- 
ceeding from a restless, a meddling, or a petual snow, and, while another arm runs 
vainglorious disposition, is heresy in the from Libanus westward, proceeds in a soutli- 
bad sense, and deserves reprobation as being eriy direction to the commencement of the 
adverse to the will of Grod and the good of vale of the Jordan. Shenir and Hermon 
man. may have been names for particular parts 

HERITAGE and INHEBITANCE are in of this mountain range, which in time were 

Hebrew denoted by terms signifying ' pos- applied to the whole mass (Canticles iv. 8. 

session,* 'to take possession' (Jo^. xxiL 1 Chron. v. 28). 

19. Judg. xL 2. Ps. xxxvii 9, 11, 22, 29, Another lower mountainous chain, lying 
34. 1 Cor. XV. 50. Gal. v. 21), the idea in the plain Esdraelon, two hours south of 
being derived firom the fact that Palestine Thabor, now called I)9ch«bel Duky, has re- 
was given to the Hebrews, first in the case ceived die name of the Iiesier Hermon, and 
of Abraham, and afterwards under Joshua ; is without reason thought by some to be in- 
so that Uie acquiring of the land was the tended in Ps. Ixxxix. 12 ; oxxxiii. 3. Woody 
foundation of all ideas, rights, and usages, Lebanon and lofty Hermon were the gather- 
connected with property (Leviticus xx. 24. ing places of vapour. Hence, and from the 
Numb. xzvL 53. Dent x. 9. Ps. ii. 8). As sea, came rain and moisture on the dry land 
the land was divided among the children of of Judah, so that the dew of Hermon might 
Israel by tribes and families, so a strictly be said to descend on the mountains of 
individual property hardly existed, for an Zion (Ps. cxxxiii. 3). 
individual held his rights only so fer as he Beautiful views may be had in the vicinity 
was a member of his tribe. Hence a por- of Hermon. We cite the words of the mis- 
tion, as it had on it a family lien, could not sionary Thomson : — * As the sun rose this 
be alienated by an individual ; and what is morning, I ascended one of the eastern towns 
termed a sale of land was rather a mortgag- (of the castle of Huuin) to take bearings and 
ing of it, since he who parted with it re- enjoy another view of this magnificent pros- 
tained the right of redemption ; and in the peet The N. E. comer of the lake (of 
year of jnbUee, without any redemption- Huleh) bore SS. E. ; and in the extreme cUs- 
money, the land came back to the family to tance south, a little west, the mountains be- 
which it originaUy belonged. Hence a per- yond the Dead Sea are visible. Tell el-Kady 
manent property in the land could be pro- is east, a little north, and Banias in the same 
cured only by heritage ; and the passing, even line. The summit of Mount Hermon bears 
for a time, of proper^ firom one hand to ano- N. £ ., and the highest peak of Lebanon north. 

HER 3 

■ little eaA whila llw Tsrduil »rp«l of 
Ciala-8 jiii liu ipraul oat bttVBBa the two. 
I BDTj not th* mtn irho eta giat on inch 
K tiMa* unnoTsd. WhUaier J loTsljr in 
D, mush, md Uks, i> batore 
with Borpriiiitg ditlinetQeu. 
Old Jcbel H-Shsikb, like > TcnariUs Tart, 
with hii liMd wrqipcd in > raowr toibui, 
■in joDdar on hii ihrouB in the sky. nurer- 
Ing Willi iiDp«rtarb>bla dipiitf the t*ii landi 
ImIow ; and ill anond, cut, weal, noitb, 

md fue upon the laielj' Ttla ot th« Holeh. 
What a eaualallalioD ot veoerable iiainii I 
Lebanon and Hennon, Baahan and Qilead, 
Maab and Jodah, Samaria and Qalilae I 
There, too, ia the lut plain of Coile-Sjiia, 
Upper and Loirer, studded with treaa, clothed 
with flacks, and dotted with Arab Isnii ; and 
then the charming Holeh with It* hundred 
■treami, glittering like lilTer laae on robea 
of gnen, and its thoiuaod pool* aparUiug 
in the morning ton.' 

HEBOD, the name ot eeveral Jewieli 
prineea who Vere of Idnmaan eitraoldon, 
and ttom 40 A. C. goTamed Jndea undat 
Roman infloence. Of Ihaaa ii, I. Herod the 
Great, vho ma the aon ot Antipaa, or Anti- 
pater, whoae father bad, under the Haooa- 
basan prinoe, Alexander Janneiu, been gorer- 
nor of the proiinn of Idomea, and whom 
Juliiu Cbmt nnited aa proooralar of Judea 
vitb the Jewish prinoe Hjroanna the Beooud. 

When onlj fifteen years ot age, Herod was 
tj his father entmsled with the administra- 
tion of Oalitee. A higher eleTation awaited 
him,for Mark AQlonjhaTiDBcome into Syria, 
made him and his brother Fhasael letrarchB. 
Militaiy defeats compelled Herod to repair 
to Rome, where ha (acceeded in inducing 
the Senate lo declare him king of the Jews 
(40 A.C.)< Three years passed before he 
came hito peaceable possession of his dig- 
nity, in which he was confirmed by Ootari- 
anus Ceeaar (Augustus), to whose side he 
passed after the battle of Acllum. In order 
to make his throne secure, Serod pat to 
death not only his own wife, Maiiamne, 
with the remaining members of the AsmO' 
Dean dynaaly, bat also Alexander and Aris- 
tobolos, hit tona by the saroe prinraat, as 

i II EB 

mil as a erowd of other Jews disinclined 
to his gorarnment This cruelty tended to 
alienate the hearts of his subjects. The 
alienation was increased by his addictednesa 
to heathen ouetoms and pleaanres ; for he 
built theatres and gymnasia, inlrodaced the 
Olympio games, and celebrated in honour of 
the Roman emperor the ludi qulnqaenaales 
(Hve years' games). Nor could his adom- 
menl of the temple of Zerubbabel, his splen- 
did and useful edifices, the care be look of 
the people in a famine, gain for him the 
good-will ot the nation. He died, after hav- 
ing ssTern] times escaped aseassinalion, an- 
bewailed, a* be himself had foreseen, in the 
8Tth year ot bis kingly office, in the TOth of 
his age, that is, in the year of Rome TOO, 
and four years before the oommeocement of 
the Christian era, a short time prerioua to 
the PassoTer. His character, whose impulse 
was ambition and whose qualities were sel- 
Sshoess, ostentation, and relentless and nn- 
natural cruelly, is well drawn by Josephns 
(Antiq. XTi. a, 4). Herod had nil his lite 
laboored to gain the name of a great saie- 
reign, and he earned that ot an execrable 
lyranL To a Tain external pomp he lacri- 
fioed the liberty of his eoDulry aa well aa 
hia own independence, and was only the 
alaTe of the emperor of Rome. Unable to 
throw off the foreign yoke, he look rcTenge 
for bis bard bondage on his own eubjeets, 
serrilely imitating foreign tiaagea, and pal- 
ting himself aboie the old aocial and reli- 
gions institutions. He trampled under foot 
the national authorities i the Sanhedrim was 
only a shadow ; the pontificate depended on 
his caprice. Knowing that there could be 
no reconciliation between himself, the slare 
of foreign influences, and the zealous par- 
tisans of the law of Jehovah, he saw enemies 
on erery side. Hia base confidauta made 
him beticTB that Ihoae who should hare been 
dearest were hoBlile and dangeroos to him; 
and he perseeuted and massacred even the 
fhiit of his own body in aseklng the repose 
which be knew not how to find. His pro- 
digality, which Bometimes assumed the shape 
of beneficence, had its origin in his un- 
bounded amblliou ; he oppressed his people 
In order lo perpetuate his name by magni- 
fluent boildings which he had erected even 
among foreigners ; and the brilliant restora- 
tion of the national sanctttary was itself only 
an ambidons calculation and an effort to 
cause bis tyranny and crimes to be orer- 
looked. The epithet Great, which he has 
reiteiTed from history, is a bitter derision. 
His greatness consisted in being a magni- 
fioent sUtc, wearing cbsins ot gold. It 
ended in a death oT despair and the entire 
destruction ot the independence of his pea* 
pie. before whom he opened the gulf in which 
the nation was to perish. The circnmstaneaa 
attending his death aie of a frightful ehft- 




raeter. Being aiBioted with • terrible malady 
wlftioh filled his attendants with horror and 
disgnst, his physloiana advised him to go to 
CaUirrhoe, a place on the Dead Sea cele- 
brated for its hot bathe. Its waters produced 
no effect, and the king eansed himself to be 
transported to his palace at Jericho, there to 
await his last hoar. His horrible physical suf- 
ferings and the terrors of his conscience pro- 
duced fits of madness that rendered him terri- 
ble. Foreseeing that his death would be an oc- 
casion of joy for the nation, he caused the 
most distinguished men to be assembled and 
held in custody near him, and ga^e orders 
that at the moment of his decease they should 
be slain, in order to give the nation a suffi- 
cient cause for mourning. 

In this time of terror pious men directed 
their hopes to the Aiture, and sought conso- 
lation in speaking of him who was to come 
for the redemption of IsraeL Herod, in- 
formed that Magi had come to Jerusalem 
announcing the birth of the long-expected 
Messiah, and that the deliverer was to be 
bom at Bedilehem, ordered all the male chil- 
dren under two years of age in and around 
that ancient ci^ to be ruthlessly massacred. 
The truth of this event has been caUed in 
question, on the insufficient ground that it 
is not mentioned by Josephus. Even such 
a cruelty was a small matter in the long se- 
ries of crimes committed by this detestable 
tyrant In the inconsiderable town of Beth- 
lehem the number of such children could 
not have been great; and had they been nu- 
merous, neither pi^ nor fear would have 
restrained Herod from removing them if 
they excited his political jealousy. And 
whHe the atrocity is accordant with Herod's 
character and the social condition of the times, 
Macrobius (eir, 4d0 A. D.) supplies a trace 
of the fact in Uiese words : * When Augustas 
heard that among the boys under two years 
of age whom the king of the Jews in Syria 
had ordered to be killed, his own son (iUiti- 
pater, Herod's son, was slain by him five days 
beforo his decease) was put to death, he said 
it is better to be Herod's hog than his son' 


Availing himself of his last moments, he 
made a definitive disposal of his kingdom. 
He nominated Arohelaus (see the article), 
his son by the Samaritan Malthaoe, to sue- 
ee<id him on the throne, giving him Judea, 
Idomea, and Samaiia. Herod Antipas, his 

son by the same mother, he made tetrareh 
of Perea and Galilee; and Philip, bom of 
Cleopatra of Jerusalem, was appointed te- 
trardi of Batanea, Gaulonitis, Trachonitis, 
and Paneas. Salome, his sister, received the 
eities of Janmia, Ashdod (Azotus), and 

II. Another Herod mentioned in the Scrip- 
tures (Luke xxiii. 7), who bore the surname 
of Antipas, was a son of Herod the Great 
by Malthace. From his paternal kingdom 
he received only Galilee and Perea as tetrareh 
(an inferior title to that of ethnarch, given 
to his brother Arohelaus), with an annual 
income of 200 talents. Jesus, as a Galilean, 
was subject to his jurisdiction. At first, 
H. Antipas married die daughter of the Ara- 
bian king, Aretas ; but after some time being 
smitten with Herodias, the wife of his half- 
brother, Herod's son by Mariamne (Joseph. 
Antiq. xviii. 5, 4; named, in Matt. xiv. 8, Phi- 
lip), he formed with her a secret union, 
which induced the Arabian princess to re- 
turn to her father. Under the influence of 
his new wife, Herod beheaded John the Bap- 
tist (Matt xiv. 4, seq,). The insult put upon 
his daughter led Aretas to seek revenge in 
war. He defeated Herod, but was compelled 
by Bome to desist Though fond of ease, 
Herod, urged by Herodias, travelled to Bome 
in the reign of Caligula, with a view to pro- 
cure the title of king (given him by antici- 
pation in Mark vi. 14) which his nephew, 
Herod Agrippa, had obtained. But in con- 
sequence of the complaints of the latter, An< 
tipas was deprived of his power, and, with 
Herodias, who would not leave him in mis- 
fortune, banished to Lyons ih France (Jo- 
seph. Antiq. xviiL 7, 2), and died in Spain, 
whither he was afterwards removed. Antipas 
was a light-minded, luxurious, unprincipled 
(Luke xxiii. 11), cunning (xiiL 82), fearfdl 
(ix. 7, seq.) prince, to whom Luke (iii. 19) 
attributes many misdeeds. He is very dis- 
advantageously characterised by Jewish tra- 
dition. A steward of this Herod is men- 
tioned in Luke viii. 8, namely, Chusa, hus- 
band of Joanna, one of the many women 
who ministered of their substance to our 

Herod, fearing that the people, who wero 
irritated with him on account of his murder 
of the Baptist, might be pushed to revolt 
under influences caused by the success of 
Jesus Christ, and not daring to persecute 
him openly, employed artifice to get him 
out of his dominion. 'Get thee out and 
depart hence,' say his emissaries, ' for He- 
rod wishes to kill thee.' The Pharisees wil- 
lingly undertook the message ; for on their 
side they desired nothing more than that 
our Lord should be drawn into Judea, whero 
he had more enemies and fewer friends than 
in Galilee. But Jesus was not to be deceived 
or frightened. He sent back the messengers 

M QmIt aomiiDg mtaltr with wordi which 
tuw Bi^n, M th*f ibia debated, ibe Is- 
trueb'* «il7 'up- 

Cbri*l neommmdtA hia ditei^ei to ba 
on thur fuanl •gkinM ' th* IcBTeD of Ha- 
lod.' AnHpu i* Dmnt Tba Image, taken 
boa laaTeoed blaad, ma maant to giTC a 
■aoliea ilBinat the inloenca and bid exam- 
ple of that piiBM and hii eoaHian — nnlaaa 
^ lafcreDoa ii to Iba Saddneaau dnetrina 
■nd frineiplea beld bj Hetod ; a view which 
flnda enppon in the faet that tha ' leaTan of 

Ihe leana of Harod' (Maih TiiL 10; e«Bip. 

UL AdiiidartbinanMliHaiod Afrippa 
L, (nndaoci of Herod die Great, and aaa at 
AriatobnlDa and Berate*, king af tba Jew* 
from S8 to M A. S. AtUi manj adrena 
btM in Jadea and Roma, he obtained tmm 
th* amparOT CalignU, aooa alter hie iuxaat- 
mant *ilh the pniple, the pofaeaalon* to*- 
merljhald bjl^ilip <uami1j,BataiuBa, T»- 
diooitia, utd Auranitli), and the tetrarehy 
of Lfuuiu, with tha title of king, and toon 
after gained tlie dominlooa of the baoiahed 
Antipaa (Oalilee and Fema), and at laai waa 
nwacdad for hia aerriaaa to CUodiD* by Iha 
addition of Samaria and Jndea ; ao dial Uiia 
ptiuee teigned OTer the whole of PaleaCiDe, 
whanoe he drew great raTennea. He dili- 
geatlj, and not withoot Baoeeea, eoltiTatad 
Ih* good-will of Ihe people. In the jear 
U A- D. he caneed Jamee, Ihe brolber of 
John, to be beheaded, threw Peter into pri* 
aon (Acta ziL !,■■;.)> uid ■hartlr after died at 
Caeaiea, in che Mth ^eat of hie age, wliite 
preiidmg at gamea gimi in honour of the 
Soman emperor, and while reeeiring divine 
honoQia bom the people, of a diaoider whieb 
la deaoribed aa a miraooloiu inflieticai, and 
to which, in eonwqoence, we mn*t not sipeot 
to find a paraUel in ordinarr diaeaaee. A 
oon^»r«on of the aecooni giren bj Lake 
(An. lii. ao. ^.) „d that of Joamhoe 
(Annq. xii. S, 3) ahowi a .Biking and „!- 

f "" ^'w'' ""?'' " ""-S'r ""Obora- 
liTeofthe3er,ploralnarr,li«. Th.foUow- 
ing «m eihibiU the h.«i of Agrippa 1„ 
al«> Fortim. with her auribnte.. 

5 HER 

eon of the preceding, waa whan hii father 
died onlj sereulseu jean of age, in oonw- 
qaence of which ha was conaidered bjClau- 
dine unequal to the talk of guTaming Jndea, 
but waa made king of Chalcif, with the ena- 
tody of the temple and it. Ireaeure, and Iha 
right of ohooaing (he hig^-prieat (Joaeph. 
Antii). D. 1, S>. Foot Tear* aflei, he ei- 
ebanged thla piineipalitjr for the former te- 
tcanhie. of Philip and Ljsaniaa, with the 
tideof king (Joaaph.ix.T}. At a later time, 
Nero gaie him Tiberiaa, Tariohae, and Ja- 
liaa, with fourteen naighbonring Tillages. 
Snljoined i* a coin of hi. teigu. See the 
utiola AsBiFfA. 

V. Herod Philip, hoaband of Rerodiaa, 
and aon of Herod Ihe Great bj Uariamne, 
the high-prieifa danghler, liTed in a privaU 
eondition of life (Hatl. lii. 3. Joseph. An- 
liq. xiiii. a, i). He hu been oonfoouied 
with Herod Philip, aon of Hetod the Great 
bj Claopalia. 

The relatioaa of the family of Herod the 
Great an namerana and eomplioaled. Je- 
rome has remarked, ' Hanf en on account 
(^ignorance of tha hietory, OiiDking the eama 
Herods to be meant' In truth, error on Ih* 
point is Tar; eaij. Tct Itie writing* of til* 
New Testament are bee from error. A com- 
parison of tbem with the writii^^ of Joeephn* 
ahowa that Ihe sacsed penmen wrote from ac- 
tnal knowledge, and near du time when the 
baHmied; fbr nothing •las oonld hare 

like Iheira, in whiob pi 

ioned and alluded to while 
ihe writer ii pnrsning his great Iheme. The 
foiM of the remark ia augmented bj ibe fact 
that Josapbas himsell eontuisno genealogi- 
cal table of the Heroda,bnlnieieljiiiciden[al 
nolioes i so that a fabricator would hsTe gnat 
difficulij in keeping hia own narratiTe in ac- 
cordance with the Jewish historian. The 
difficultj i.jnnch sugmanted when there ar- 


larod Agrippa U. (Aoia i 

ling table will afford the reader 





The Idumeaik 


Htrod tk4 Great 

had 10 wiTW, of 

vhom wore 



4. Halthaoe 

5, deopatm 

1. Doria S. Mariamne, daughter 8. Matiaxniie. daughter 
of H jreanua II. of the hlgh-pneat, Simon 

Antipater Alexander Axlitohaliaa HerodPhlLI. Herod Areheltnu Herod AnUpoe HerodFhU'JI. 

IEthnaxchofJudeaTetrarohofuaU- Tetnochof 
and Samaria. lee and Pema. Traehonitis 

Herod Agrippm I, 

Herod( Prinee 

Herodlaa, wife 
of Herod Philip I., 
carried off l^jr 
Herod Antlpiia. 

r » 

Herod A$rippa 11. Betenioe Dmailla, 


HEBODIANS, the, were a party ettaehed 
Id the ceiue of king Herod Antipae, who, as 
a Yiaaal of Borne, would promote Boman in- 
(ereat, and whoae partiaane would in oonse- 
qaenee labour for the advantage of Borne. 
This explains why they oonspired with the 
Pharisees, who represented the national 
party, to ask oar Lord the ensnaring ques- 
tion, ' Is it lawful to give tribnte to Cesar, 
or not?* If he gave an afflmiative, he com- 
promised himself with the patriots of the 
day, and would lose Caroor with the people. 
If he answered in the negative, he laid him- 
self open to the Boman faction, who woold 
straightway have acoosed him of treason. 
He turned the question against themselves 
by showing them that the current coin bore 
the image and superscription of the Boman 
emperor; intimating that those who had 
allowed themselves to be enslaved, as proved 
by the coin, must expound the import and 
bear the consequences of their own set 
(Mark iii 6 ; xU. 18. Matt zxiL 16). 

HEBODIAS, daughter of Aristobulus, 
married Philip, her half uncle, and left him 
to marry Herod Antipas, who stood in the 
same relation to her. As wife of the latter, 
she occasioned the death of John the Bap- 
tist (Matt xiv. 8, teq,) , and is reported to have 
misused his corpse. Her daughter (by her 
first husband) was named Salome (Joseph. 
Antiq. xviii. 5, 4). 

HBBON, an undesn bird (Lev. zi. 19). 
Bee Eaolb. 

HESHBON, a city on the east of Jordan, 
opposite Jericho, twenty Boman miles from 
the Jordan, the capital of Sihon, king of the 
Amorites (Numb. xxi. 26 — 80). Under the 
name of Huban there remain ruins of this 
place, which lie on a hill, are nearly a mile 
in circumference, -and present a large pool, 
' the fish poor in Cant vU. 4. 

HETHLON, a city in Western Syria, form- 
ing the northern limit of the land of Israel, 
near the Mediterranean Sea (Esek. xlvii. 15). 

HEZKKTAH (H. itrmifth rf J^^nmh; 

A. M. 4825, A. 0. 728, V. 726), thirteenth 
king of Judah, son and follower of Abas, 
distinguished for his piety, and the care 
which he in oonsequenoe took for restoring 
and supporting the religion of his fathers 
and the worship of the true Qod. No sooner 
had he taken ike throne than, under his pa- 
tronage, a great religious reform was effected. 
The temple-worship was again performed 
in its purity and grandeur. A great na- 
tional expiation was made ; seal was on all 
sides kindled ; the victims offered for sacri- 
fice occasioned embarrassment by their num- 
ber, and once more Israel appeared the child 
of Qod. Need was there for this joyous 
change, fi>r the most sacred observances 
had fallen into neglect A special effort was 
made, and the Passover, siter a long inter- 
val, was again duly observed under most im- 
posing circumstances. The example of the 
metropolis spread over the country, where 
idol-worship and its accompaniments were 
uprooted in a religious enthusiasm which 
seemed to be the more vivid and strong the 
greater had been the prevalence of idolatry 
(1 Chron. iii IS. 2 Chron. zxviiL $eq,). 

In his political relations Hezekiah was 
less happy. He succeeded, indeed, in de- 
feating the Philistines (2 Kings xviiL 7), 
and used the advantage tiins gained in order 
to firee himself from the tribute which his 
father had paid to the king of Assyria. He 
had, however, but a choice of masters ; and 
having revolted from Shalmanezer, he turned 
to Egypt in hope of support (2 Kings xviii. 
21, 24. Isaiah XX. xxx. 1 — 8; xxxi. 1--4; 
xzxvL). But the peril was great and immi- 
nent Sennacherib invaded and subdued 
the land, whose capital was on the point of 
yielding to his arms, when the enemy was 
driven oif by a divine hand, and, return- 
ing home, fell under blows inflicted 1^ his 
own sons (2 Kings xix. Is. xxxvii. Nshum). 
The efforts he had made threw Hezekiah 
into a dangerous illness, in which Isaiah 
aoted as a physician for the body as well 

HID 28 H I N 

ma the mind. The king recovered, and was early culture and great Idngdoms which 

favoQied with a promiee that fiiteen years flourished along its hanks. It rises in seve- 

shoold he added to his life (Isaiah xxxviiL ral streams, having a common origin in the 

2 Kings zx. See Dial). On this recovery Armenian mountains. These tributaries, 

he received congratulations from Berodach- after they leave the higher lands, unite to 

baladan, who, a short time before destroying form the Tigris. It runs through Assyria 

the Assyrian empire in Babylon, had made to Mesopotamia, whose northern boundary 

himself sovereign of that country (2 Kings it forms, and after uniting with the £u- 

xz. 12). Elated by this compliment, which phrates (see the article), faUs at last into 

was probably an intended snare, Hezekiah the Persian Gulf, On the eastern bank of 

unwisely displayed to the king's messengers the Tigris lay the famous Nineveh, now 

his ample resources, and so gave the Bidiy- Mosul. It is a very rapid stream, at least 

lonlans the idea of making themselves mas- in its upper portions. Lower down, it be- 

teis of Jerusalem and the treasures of the comes navigable for large vessels. At the 

temple. In this aet of imprudence, if not melting of the snow in &e higher country, 

vainglory, the Babylonish captivity had its and after heavy rains, the river swells and 

origin (2 Kings zx. 18, uq, Isaiah zzziz.). causes a considerable inundation in the flat 

Hezekiah consoled himself, however, witti lands of Mesopotamia. In ancient times it 

the hope that the evil might be postponed was united with the Euphrates by canals, 

so as to aUow him to be at peace for the re- which served also to irrigate intervening 

mainder of his days. His wish would ap- spaces, spreading around luxuriance, beauty 

pear to have been granted. Busying him- and wealth. 

self with works of public utility, he took HIERAPOLIS (G. sacred city), mentioned 

measures for supplying Jerusalem with wa- in Col. iv. 18, a city of Phrygia, in Asia Minor, 

ter, so needftd to enable it to endure a siege, on the borders of Lydia, lying not far south 

and amassed treasures of gold, silver, com, from Laodicea, on Uie opposite side of the 

oil, and wine. In the midst of these enter- vale of the river Lycus, which flows between 

prises he found himself at the end of the the two places. Mineralwatersofoldgavethe 

promised period of fifteen years ; and after place celebrity, of which there still remain 

a reign of twenty-nine years he fell asleep, tokens in its name and in many beautiful 

and received the highest tokens of funereal ruins. It is now caUed Pambuk^kulasL 

honour (2 Kings zviii. 2. 2 Chron. xzxiL The volcanic character of the district, its 

33). grottos and healing waters, caused Hiera- 

Three separate accounts of Hezekiah'a polis to be favourable to the worship of 

reign are extant in the Bible. That con- Cybele, a personification of the formative 

tained in 2 Kings xviiL — xx. has the ap- power of the earth. The idol-worship was 

pearance of being the original. In Is. xxxvi. not, however, able to withstand the incom- 
•09. is another account, which concerns the ing tide of Christiani^. 
events only in which the prophet was en- HINNOM (H. their tiehet), or more 
gaged. So far as it goes, it agrees with the fully, 'Valley of the Son of Hinnom' (Josh, 
former. The third account is found in 2 zv. 8. Jer. ziz. 2, 6), by the Arabs called 
Chron. xxix. — xxxii., which gives in part an Wady Dschehennam, is a vale or water- 
abridged, in part an expanded, view of the course which has its origin in the broad 
narrative supplied in the Book of Kings. The basin that lies on the west of Jerulasem and 
substantial agreement of these three nam- on the south side of the road to Jaffa. The 
tives confirms the credibility of the recorded central point of this basin is found in the 
events. upper pool of Gihon, from which the land 

Hezekiah is undoubtedly one of the most sinks eastward towards the Jaffa gate, and 

virtuous of the princes of Judah. In piety runs out into a broad depression. Opposite 

the excellencies of his character found their the gate, where the vale has a breadth of 

source and their exemplification. Great in from 100 to 300 feet, and lies 44 feet be- 

the seivice of religion, and when under the neath the gate, it turns to the south, retain- 

oontrol of great ideas proceeding from with- ing nearly the same breadth for 2107 feet 

out, he was little able to guide himself or in length. Over against the south-western 

the commonwealth in the perilous days comer of the city wall begins the lower pool 

in which his lot was cast ; and while of Gihon, which is 592 feet long. Here the 

his religious zeal caused the Mosaic polity vale becomes deeper, and is planted with 

to bloom anew, his personal weakness and olive and other fruit trees, and in some parts 

want of political foresight occasioned its is under the plough. At the south-west- 

downfal and the captivity of his people, em comer of the hUl of Sion, the vale bends 

His excellence, however, deserved reward : so as to run parallel with the hill, whence 

he died in honour, and his name was long it keeps on, in an easterly direction, till it 

held in high respect (Jer. zxvi. 19). meets the valley of Jehoshaphat, or Cedron. 

HIDBEKEL (H.), the Hebrew name of At the point of meeting, gardens are found 

the Tigris, one of the greatest rivers of Asia, lying partly within the mouth of Hinnom, and 

and celebrated even in ancient times for the partly in the valley of Jehoshaphat, and are 


irrigated by the waters of Siloexn. This spot 9, 10), the tabeznacle itself (Numb, ir, 4), 

is assigned by Jerome as the place Tophet^ the annual atonement (Ezod. zzx. 10), the 

where the Jews practised the horrid rites of saored nngaent (86), the offerings (Levit ii. 

Baal and Molooh, burning ' their sons and 8), devoted things (zztiL 28). The in- 

their daughters in the fire' (Jer. vii. 31. most apartment of the tabemade, or tern- 

Matt z. 28). It was probably in allasion pie, was also called * the most holy place ' 

to this detested and abominable fire that the (Exod. 'zsvi. 88. 1 Kings rL 10) ; in He* 

later Jews applied the Greek name of this brews (is. 8, 5), ' the holiest of all,' which 

▼alley (Gebenna) to denote the place of fa- the high-priest entered only once a year, on 

tore pnnishment the great day of atonement. Comp. z. 19. 

HIRAM, or HURAM, son and successor See Camp. 
of Abibal, king of Tyre, reigned thirty-four HOMER. See Wbiohts and Meabubis. 
years, as Josephus relates, and came to the HONEY (T. fumig), a half-fluid substance 
throne about fourteen years before David's produced by the bee, honey-bee, firom the 
decease. With that monarch and Solomon, nectar of flowers, and deposited in a recepta- 
his son, he stood in friendly relations. The cle made by bees themselves, termed honey- 
former he supplied with wood and men for comb. Honey may be considered in two 
building his pidaoe (2 Sam. ▼. 11 ). A simi- states ; I. when fresh it is very sweet, aro- 
lar service he rendered to Solomon, at whose matic, of a white colour inclining to yeUow, 
request Hebrews and Tyrians were, at the and liquid in form; by sge it acquires a 
expense of the latter, employed in felling deeper hue, greater consistence, and more 
cedars and firs on Lebanon, which were con- acrid taste. Honey from young bees, virgin 
veyed on rafts for the erection of the splen- honey, undeigoes less change. In all cases 
did edifices of Solomon, who paid for the it partakes greatly of the qualities of the 
wood and work in wheat and oil (1 Kings plant whence it is derived. These facts may 
▼.1 — 11). Fonning an alliance, the two kings throw light on the words of the Psalmist 
traded together to the land of Ophir, whence (xix. 11), ' Sweeter also than the honey and 
the fleets brought gold (1 Kings x. 11. 2 ihe honey-comb,' where by honey-comb pro- 
Chron. viiL 18). As Hiram had given gold bably new virgin honey is meant, though it is 
to Solomon (1 Kings ix. 11, 14), the latter not dear whether the reference is to the sense 
returned the compliment in a present of of smell or that of taste ; probably to both, 
some dties, which appear not to have come Some prefer rendering * honey-cake;* Oeddes 
up to the expectations of the Tyrian mo- forcibly trandates thus: *And sweeter than 
narch (12, 18). honey distilling from the comb. 

Another person of the same name, by his Honey was, and still is, a favourite article 

mother's side an Israelite, by his father's a of food with Easterns (1 Sam. xiv. 27), but 

PhcBnician, was a skilftal worker in metals, eaten to excess is ixynzious (Prov. xxv. 27). 

whom Solomon brought from Tyre for his It was made into cakes (Ezod. xvi. 81), and 

grand architectural purposes (1 Kings viL was eaten, espedally by children (Is. vii. 15). 

18, teq.). It was, therefore, toge&er with milk, spoken 

HITTITES (H.), descendants of Heth, of as the best among the natural products of 

Canaan's second son (Gen. x. 15), who were Palestine, which is eulogistically, but truly, 

powerful as early as the days of Abraham, described as a land that ' flowed with milk 

dnee the patriarch purchased from them a and honey' (Exod. iii. 8), a figure which 

burid-plaee for his family (xxiiL 8, M}.). was well supported by fact; for honey was 

Their abode lay in the south of Canaao, on found in fields and woods (1 Samuel xiv. 

the high lands from Hebron to Beersheba 25, 26), clefts of the rocks (Ps. Ixxxi. 16), 

(Numb. ziiL 29), being one of the nations as wild bees settled in these places, and 

whom the laradites were to destroy (Exod. soon took possession of spots suitable for de- 

iii. 17. Deut vii. 1—8), but whom they did pouting their treasure (Judg. xiv. 18). Near 

not wholly exterminate (Judg. iii. 5). They Acbda, in Galilee, Olin found the atmo- 

were, however, vanquished by David, to whose sphere vocd, and dmost darkened, by an 

successor they paid tribute (1 Kings ix. 20, incredible number of bees. Their hives are 

21). cylinders made of earth, having the entrance 

BIYITES, descendants of Canaan (Gen. at one end. The honey here obtained is to 

X. 17), a prince of whom is mentioned in be ascribed to the naturd richness of the 

tiie history of Jacob (xxxiv. 2), and whose soil, which produces olives, figs, pomegra- 

land was promised to the diildren of Israd nates, cherries, and pears. Rank grass, in- 

(Exod. iii. 8). They are found near Her- termin^ed with a profrisionof sweet-scented 

mon (Joshua xL 8), and in Lebanon (Judg. flowers, covers the face of the eountry. He 

iii. 3). They were not fully reduced tUl the who withdrew from the concourse of men 

time of Solomon (1 Kings ix. 20, 21). into solitude, and lived on the spontaneous 

HOLY OF HOLIES, * most holy,' or, hi products of the earth, was directed, among 

the origind, *holmess of holinesses,' is a other means of subsistence, to wild honey 

name applied to the dtar and its appurte- (Mark i. 6). When, therefore, the child 

nances in the Mosde tabernacle (Exod. xl. spoken of in Is. vii. 14, seg., is repiesented 


Lftt Of suppose that on our right htnd lay woild was swprised, nnleamed Christians 
the ancient doenments of which we have were alarmed, and unbelievers uttered a 
spoken ; on oor left, the modem : would it shout of triumph. Better and moie widely 
not be irrational to take the latter for our spread information has shown that there 
text, and the former only as a source of was little reason for any of these undue 
corrections ? Tet this is what has hitherto emotions. The more the matter is rightly 
been done. apprehended, the more will it appear, to use 
To the established text some support has the words of the learned and eloquent Go- 
in appearance been given by the discovery querel, that ' there exists not a single Greek 
of a kind of fsmilies in manuscripts. By author the text of which is as certain as that 
the observed prevalence of certain peculia- of the New Testament' In by f!» the great- 
rities in each, classes of these precious est number of cases, the diversities regard 
remains of Christian antiquity have been purelypointsof grammar or style. In some, 
formed. Of these classes, one was used in matters of lisct and history are affected. In 
one and another in another part of the world, a few instances, passages bearing on re* 
Hence critics speak of an Oriental or Alex- ceived opinions undergo alteration. In re- 
andrine (from Alexandria, in Egypt) text, gard to the last, we translate the words of 
and a Western or Constantinopolitan (Con- Tischendorf himself^ who belongs to the 
stantinople, in Turkey) text To the Alex- Catholic church: — ' In the first epistle of the 
andrine, it may in general be said, belong Apostle Paul to Timothy, iii. 16, there stand 
the more ancient, to the Constantinopolitan in the common Greek text words of which 
the more modem witnesses. The origin of these are ihe equivalents, ' God was manifest 
each class is traced to some learned hand in the flesh ;' for which the oldest anUiorities 
of the third century, while both are affirmed among the manuscripts, among the Chris- 
to be f^ from falsification. By good for- tisn fathers, among the versions, have the 
tune, it is added, the purer text was taken reading *who' or 'which was manifest in the 
for the edition of the sixteenth century. But flesh.' The passage is especially important, 
what does impartial inquiry say to this hy- since in the common reading it affords the 
pothesis f The most leamed men of anti- best proof that Christ was named God by 
quity, as the Biblical critic Jerome, in the PauL The other reading, however, by no 
fourth century, knew nothing of this Isbour means disturbs the doctrine of the Deity of 
in the formation of classes of manuscripts. Christ, as unlearned persons have dreamed 
The 80-oalled Alexandrine text was followed and weak persons feared ; for whether the 
in their citations by the greater number and apostle named the Sariour God or not, the 
the oldest of the ChristiUm fathers in Asia, doctrine with him remains as firm as the 
and by the Africans. The manuscripts of fact of his conversion. We pass to the fa- 
the Alexandrine transcribers were at a yery mous passage on the Trinity in 1 John v. 
early period most Tslued. Among modern 7, 8, * For Uiere are three that bear record 
documents there is a great agreement, but [in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the 
only a much less accordance among the an- Holy Ghost, and these three are one. And 
oient ones, though their number is compa- there are three that bear witness in earth], 
ratively very small. Finally, the more mo- the spirit, and the water, and the blood ; and 
dem, in many instances, bear the appearance these three agree In one.' Here, according 
of having been arbitrarily derived from a to the testimony of all the ancient Greek 
few ancient manuscripts. From these facts manuscripts, all the Greek and the oldest 
it follows that the theory of Recensions, or Latin fathers, and all the ancient Tcrsions, 
classes, can in no way be considered as a the words placed within brackets, namely, 
primary principle in the work of textual cri- firom * in heaven' to 'that bear witness in 
ticism, especially as the most leamed theo- earth,* ought to be strockoutof the text The 
logians cUfiSer in ihe views which they seve- words stand, however, in the Vulgate autho- 
rally take on the subject The most natural rised by the (Catholic) church, and in our 
proceeding, on the contrary, is, to g^ve the common German yersions, although Luther 
preference to the ancient over the modem did not receive them into his Translation, 
documents. The ordinary reader will at This passage is frill of importance for the 
once see the bearing of this question on his Trinity. Yet, without heeding the passage, 
own interests when he is informed that the Luther had the firmest belief in the doo- 
English version, in common with others of trine. There also belongs to the question 
a recent date, owes all its authority to the under consideration the paragraph, in the 
Beceived Text Trae, the points of diver- gospel of John, touching the woman taken 
sity in the manuscripts are for the most part in adultery (vii. 53— vlli. 11). The strong- 
inconsiderable. Tet the smallest matter in est critical evidence denies its genuine- 
reg^ard to a book which is the Magna Charta ness, or at least the place it holds in the 
of Christianity, rises into consequence. When gospel. The question is of ancient date, for 
the Biblical critic Mill aflirmed, as one re- it was treated by Augustine, who declared 
4ult of his labours, the existence of various that only persons weSk in ihe faith could 
readings to the number of 80,000, the leamed reject it But this opinion serves to illus- 

^cd the melodious loDg at tha Orient. 
tlirostls, linging In Ifae tnuehM of tha 
EdomiM cjpnH. Bcm of t Hniue (bna 

mora ibont, baiEmg on oiorUatnu plaiiU. 
On that tHa of (how haighti tonlh-cut of 
Pgtra Ir; Bni (probablj the pnwnt Bom), 
Elihu'i ofttiTs place ; than, near Shini, la; 
Snah (at a Utar time Sijah), from wfaish 
earns Bildad ; Job hinuaU dvsit fir any in 
the nonh, in the preaant Oabaleoa. But 
hen, near the foot of the monnlain, trhere 
the freah intat of the brook eonld aopplj ■ 
vhota thin^ pao^ with drink, and the 
herbage of ttia paatun land* fked thali Bat- 
tle, lanel tot fortjt iiijt bemoaned the loaa 
otdieir flrathilfrptiaat. The proapeel llnnn 
Hot otct JoVb ouanlrj down failo Aa Tala 
of lloM* Mid Fetia, die d^ of •epnlabnn, 
and into the i^anni and goTRai of the maim- 
laia itaeli^ md then, tcnraid* the diatant 
wa8l,lha ""llaillni liew orer the vide plain 
<rf Ota Aiabab, wtat of tadi ft daaeriptlon 
that I oDnld vtninglj bar* ipani days in 
anrrajing the aerer*! objwta of Inleieat' 

HOBBB (H. a <l«rt). S«i Siwu. 

HORMAH aeemi to hne lain abont eight 
geogr a^ eal milea aoath of Habnin, in the 
Tieinil* of the aleep paaa tiSafik, on the 
bOI Uadanh (Nnmb. ziT. M, ib. DanL L 
U. J<»h.zii.U; IT.80. 1 Kingazxi.80). 

HOBMBT (T. htm), Rpreaancing a He- 
brew word vhloh mean* ' to piaroa,' ' to 
wound,' ia a apeeiaa of wasp, mantioned in 
Eiod. iziiL 28. DeaLTiiSO. Joah. zziT. IS, 
whiah Ood Bant before Itaa Iitaalilaa to aaaifl 

them in tipeUing the <dd Inhabitants of 
Oanaan. It has bean donbled whether the 
huaet eonld really hare been Mrrioe&bla in 
this way ; bnt the animal intended was an- 
nojlng and baoefnl. Ancient writeia apeak 
of whole tribea being obliged to quit their 
abode* by insaota □( ma kind. Aeoording to 
jEUan, a people that dwelt near Jeraaalem 
ware driien by waapa from their Mttlamenl. 
The word may denote other ipeciea of the 
Teapida; some of which are in theEulTery 
nomarooa and infliet KTero and painfdl 
wound*. The leTerity of the eting of Iho 
hornet may ba learnt from the tut, that the 
appearanoa of a awann of Ihem drirea from 
their heiba^te a herd of kine whieh hnny 
hither and thither till they alnk with ex- 

H0BN8 (T. ham, L. cvnw, H. Iitm) ware 
need by the Hebrewa tor balding Snids ( 1 Bam. 
ZTl. I. 1 Kinga L SO). From the name of 
Job'a Udrd daagblar, Jtanm-JfappwA, that ia 
' bom of bean^,' it haa been iofarred that 
hone were employed aa eoamatio raaea. 
Horn* were naad *a wind fnatnmwnti, and 
the name waa retained, a« with na, when 
theae InatmmantB ware made of metal (Josh. 
TLB. Namb.z.3). For 'homiof the altar,' 
aee L U. Horn ia ■ aymbal of power, of 
oonrage and eonsidarabon (Daak niiii. IT. 
IKii^zziLll. Pa.bsT. 10); bans* 'hwn 
of ealralion' 'Pa. xriiL 8) denotes a 'pro- 

HOR i 

tMtiilB pawn' (Ldk* f- 89). Rdtds, in 
DHU<d(TiLT; Tiii. 30,21,24), denaW king, 
doni. That the honi wm ■ £ga of power 
tod dignJtf ippean Awn Ihii eat, exhibiting 
Ihe bead of Jupiter AmmoD. 

i HOR 

needed in the oonituil mm with Sjria (ii. 
1). ThsTwan also kept brpiirate perwrne 
(Anioi iT. 10. la. lu, 10), and employed 
in part in treading out oom (la. iiriiL 28). 
The Eaatera aoemiea of Iha Isnelitea 
mads war on them with atrong, wrll-ona- 
niaad earalij (la. t. 26. Jflt. ri. 23; viii. 
16), which made Uieir kinga look to Egjpl 
lot hired troopa of hone, which waa eon- 
demned ae leading to dependenee on an 
idolatroni people {It, mi. 1 ; uiri. 8). 
The war-horse is forcibly described by Job 
iiiii.l9.«9. Wense IheTePBionofNoye*! 
'Hatt Ihon glTen tl. hone iti 

m Louetat LhD 


The mimed women In Syria wear an 

iiating of a bom trom one to two feel in 
length, projecting trom the nppet part of ihe 
forehead. Thli ornament, cooBQei) atrictly 
to the matrons, is made of tin or silter, ac- 
cording to the wealth of the wearer. Tt itnu 
on a pad, and la nerer taken off, even U 
night At a little diatance, itgiTesam^eBtie 
charavler to the flgnre, A reil hang! grace- 
folly ^m it, whidi ean be gathered ronnd 
Ihe shoulden, and enabrines the wearer as 
in a tent 

HORSE (T.), U the rendering of the Re- 
brew locu, or nu. which has been Ihonghl to 
be ooanecied with Soaa, indicating that Ihe 
Hebrews had their knowledge of hoiKB trom 
Persia, la the text of the Bible, however, 
it ii Egypt which flnl presenta the hone 
to OUT notice ; tor in Oen. iItiL 17, we find 
the horae a part of the mbstanee of the peo- 
ple- The Egyptian horae, aa fonnd on the 
monitments. is diatiugnlahed for lie beanti- 
ful proportions, Ughcnese, and strength. In- 
deed, the low lands of Egypt were mora 
suitable for horaes than the hills and roeka 
of Palestine. Yet the Canaanites bad their 
oaTalry, which they led against ±t Israelites 
(Josh. ri. <). It waa not till the time of 
DsTid that eayalry tbnned a part of the He- 
brew annj (8 Sam, Tiii. 4), when horses, 
together with ssses and moles, came to be 
nsed tot riding by persons of distinction 
'— " With the increase of riches and 

He pawelh la the ralloyj ha 
Aod'^hS^'lDto th. mlitil of .1 

eiulisU. tahta 

He laugbetli at (tar : he tremble 


And tumetb not back frim Ihe 

Again.! him rsttlElh the qulnr 

Tbe guttering .«.r, and The l«i 
With r^e Mid ftuT te derourett 


JUtnpet loutld- 


H« ulih lamg the trampeti, A 
And innftlh the biltle du off 

h.1 ataal 

The thmidei of Ihe captain., an 

the .houHng.* 

In Canticles i, 9, the bride 

compares her 

Itmry the use of horses, ^uiu.,, u 
Hoaalo Uw (Dent aril 18), beeame 
^eralent, ud Solomon traded in them wiA 
3,2fl), and held them 

;ompany of horaea in Pharaoh's 
chariots'— a figa™ which, to those that are 
□nacqaainlcd wlih the East, has aoniething 
™™i.;.. nu, ^g„ ^j jjo,^ ig , highly- 
I. The Arabs lore their horsea 
tenderness, and Idss them aa 
they kiss their children, Arvionx relates a 
striking instance: 'An Arab, by name Ibra- 
him, had sold a mare of Ihe noblest breed 
to a merchant of Harseillea who had settled 
at Ramah. Ibrahim often resorted to that 
town in order to liait this horse, which be 
lored extremely. 1 hail the pleasore to see 
him often, bom tenderness, break into tears 
when he kissed and atroked the animal. 
On hie departnre he threw his arms aroimd 
its neck, kissed its eyes, and, retiring back- 
wards, took his leaie with lbs most tender 
expressions. The Egyptian horaes, in con- 
sequence of their aUleliness and beauty, are 
BO priMd that thsy ars sent as prosenis of great 
value to the Sultan. Slender and delicate 
limbs, wall-proportiooBd and graceful form, 
pnrily of blood, are by the Arabs aooght for 
and Talnod alike in women and hones. It 
may be remarked that Theooritas, speaking 
of Helen's marriage with Menelaus, oaes a 
comparison similar to that in Canticlea: 

Egypt (1 1 

in^at number, (w. a8),'hi, stalls bein, 

* J A ■■ f^i^ ^ ,''°P' ^'^ their stDds 
■nd theiraqnipages SKingsitfta-ri in 

K.nniiiL4. a««C«,),,hi,b,eremnJi 

An Oriental mounted on a fleet Arabian 
horse is always a piotnresqne and even no- 
ble otrjeot The mane of their animals ia left 
nnpmned and flowing. Their long, bnahy 
lads often sweep the ground ; and when, in 
ieir rapid flight, the yast, loose robe^ of 
7 . ;u T"^' f°^'">^ «"d gay. rise and 
float on lbs hresu behind him, they really 


38 HOS 

appear to be winged, end to fly duoogii Hm 
air ratlier thaa to move upon the earth. 

The Arab horse poeeeeses qnaJitiea whieh 
are found nnited in no other. If in tolera- 
ble oondition, he mi^be tnuted on the worst 
roade, on mountain steeps^ mountain passes, 
and along perilons preoipioes. His gentle 
and gallant spirit, hardiness, and inteDigenee, 
endear him to his owner. Indeed, the Arab 
horse is a part of the Cunily. He will trarel 
for many hoars in soeoession without food, 
and be oontent at the end of his work with 

yfhite hovsea were used on great oceasions, 
soeh a* by generals in their trhimphs (Ber. 
^ d). Biding on a royal horse of stats 
(Estlu vi 9) was a part of Hainan's instal- 
lation as gnnd Tisier. Among other aets 
of idolatry, horses and ehaiiots, after the 
manner of the Persians, were offered by the 
Israelites to the sua (d Kings n«i. 11). 

Isaiah (▼. 26, «ej.), in a fine deseiiptioa 
of the Assyrian horses, says that * their 
hools shall be oonnted like flint.' The pre- 
sent oQstom of shoeing horses with iron was 
nnknown to the ancients. Hence strength 
and firmness of hoof were of great eonee* 
qnenee, partienlailyin a coontiylike Jodah, 
when rocks aboond, "»Amg the use of 
horses difflcnlt and rare. Hence Amos (vi. 
12) asks, ' Shall horses ran apon the rock r 
—a thing as improbsUe and nugatory as <to 
plow there with oxen.' * About Jerusalem,' 
aajB Olin (iL 331), <a horse cannot often be 
put to a speed beyond a grave walk without 
aome peril to the neek.' 

In Ecolesiastes z. 7, we read, 

* I have Been Mrvanta upon hcnec. 

And princes walking ae eexraBts on the earth.' 

To ride on horseback is in the East ac- 
counted an honour. The Orientals ride in 
a very stately manner. Grandeur and dig- 
nity are involved in this mode of transport 
The great are commonly attended by slaves 
on foot ; hence the incengmity to which the 
writer refers, namely, that slaves hold the 
place of their master, and the master is 
thrust down into the conation of his slaves. 
Comp. 6; what is here complained of is 
threatened by our Lord as retributory (Matt, 
xiz. 80). 

The horses supplied to travellers in Pa- 
lestine are generally slender, active, and ex 
eeedingly hardy. They are nsaaUy fed only 
at night ; commonly on barley or other grain, 
with straw ; snd occasionally, when there is 
a scanty herbage around the tent, they are suf- 
fered tocrop it. Theirgaiti8afastwalk,never 
a trot, for on the mountains the state of the 
roads renders thisfor the mo&t part Impossible. 
They are sure-footed and exceedingly saga- 
cious in picking their way among the rocks. 
There is little diiftrence in regard to this 
between horses and mules, which are also 
employed by travellers. These remarks ap- 
ply only to horses kept for hire, and not to 
the sleek and well -fed animals (usually 
mares) of the skeikhs and wealthy persons, 
which, with equsl haidiuesa, exhibit a won- 
derftil degree of activity and fleetnesf. 

Av mtfmuM 

HOSANMA (H.,meaning hdp er tav$ now,) 
an invocation to God for aid, of a Joyous 
nature, which accordingly became an acclaim 
of welcome and a about of triumph. It is 
taken ftom Ps. cxviii. 35, 36, which was 
aoag at the feast of tahcraaeles, while the 



people canfed verdant branehMk Hanaa H 
was borrowed, with the accompanying woada^ 
as a triumphal salutation to Jesus, Ibr a 
moment recognised as the Messiah (Matt 
xxi. 9, 15). 
HOSE A (H. dcltMrtr ) stuid^in tfie En- 



gUah Bible lint of what an toimed the minor mgard to tnifii, and a deep, nn^pieiielialde 

piopheli. Of hie hieloij nothing ia known desire to resoae their eonntry from ita im* 

aave ihat he waa the eon of Beeri (L 1). pending fate. 

The time, however, when he ezecated hia HOSEN, an obsolete plnral (comp. oz, 

pffophetio eommissiou is defined with some lOfn) of the Saxon word * hose,' aignifjring 

ezaetness, namely, in the days of Uaziah, atoeking, represents a Chaldee tern whieh 

Jotham, Ahaa, and Heiekiah, kings of Jndah, probably means the nnder garment, or spe- 

and of Jeroboam 11., king of Israel. As this eiee of shirt (Dan. iii. 21). See Cloth. 

Jeroboam died eir, 784 A.G., and Heaekiah HOSHEA (H. Saeiofir ; A.M. 4823, A.O. 

aseended the throne eir, 725 A.G., we have 726, V. 789), the laat mler of the separate 

the intenral, 09 years, for the period of his kingdom of Israel, who, forming a oonspi* 

pablic ministry. Hosea was, therefore, eon- raoy, slew Pekah, the reigning aorereign, and 

temporaiy with Isaiah, Mlcah, and Amos, usurped the throne which he disgraoed leea 

like the last of whom, he directed his admo- than his prsdeoessor. Being tributary to 

nitoiy words chiefly to the ten tribes. It was Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, he endeaToored 

a period of great religions, moral, and poll- to throw off the yoke by putting himself 

tiMl eorraption, in which the faithAil per- nnder the shield of So, Ung of Egypt, but 

formanoe of his duty must have exposed a his hope failed him. The last hour of Israel 

prophet to great distress of mind and many was come. Shslmaneser imprisoned HosheSy 

outward oerila. Thia duty, however, Hosea and carried hia anbjeets into captivity. The 

eontinuea for an unusual length of time unhappy monareh died in ehaina. lliua feu 

religiously to perform, warning (but in vain) the throne of Jeroboam, after having stood 

the Israelites of their folly, danger, and about two centuries and a half. And thua 

coming ruin. The book may be divided ended the kingdom of Israel, 181 years 

into two unequal parte : I. 1 — 8, Hosea*s before that of Judah, which ought to have 

aymbolieal connection with two females ; taken warning by its disaster. The sacred 

n. 4 — 14, discourses of an admonitory cha- historian, on mentioning this overthrow, 

racter. Of this second division, we may apeaks of the causes by which it was brought 

notice, iv. — ^vL, aocuaations against Israel ; about^ the chief of which was apostaoy from 

vii. — ix., his punishment; X. — ^xiv., retrospect God. The example of the iniquities which 

of earlier days, warnings, threatenings, and entailed ruin on Israel was set hy its mo- 

eonsolation. The instructive acts which the narohs, for few, if any, nations ever had 

prophet performs at the beginning of the such a succession of wicked kings. The 

book, have more force than delicacy; but, on false and selfish policy of Jeroboam, who 

pointa of this kind, the modem taste is more founded a system of worship rival to that 

fastidious, without perhaps being more pure, at Jerusalem, and which led to the eetting 

The relation which the prophet bears to the up of golden calves, and therein to groea 

two women, represents that in which Jeho- idolatry, was followed by his successors, 

vah stands to his idolatrous people in their under whose influence the people became 

two divisions of Judah and Israel. The more and more corrupt, until they were 

names of the ohildrenbom of this union are overtaken by divine vengeance, and blotted 

symbolical and predietive of the punishments out from the list of nations (2 Kings xv. 

which Ood was about to inflict on Lo-asimt, 80 ; xvii.). 

the Israelitee, who were thus declared no HOSPITALTTT (L. hotptt, 'a guest'), 

longer to be his people, inasmuch as they the entertainment of strangers with shelter 

had yielded to the seductions of idolatry, and food, is a virtue ealled into play by hu- 

The figures here employed, and the com- man wanta, by which the evils of a rude state 

plexion of the whole book, avoudi its He- of society were mitigated, and strong Issting 

brew character, aasure us we are with it in fbelings of a friendly nature were aroused 

the circle of Hebrew literature, declare in and sustained. Among the pleasing and 

general the time of the composition, and so even poetic traits of the early ages was this, 

afford guarantees against our being mialed that he who had eaten in your tent or house 

by a fabricated work. And the dark picture became your friend, and as such was sacred 

drawn of the moral and religioua degrade- in your eyes, being exempt from even the 

tion of the people convinces the reader of the daims of revenge, and possessed of a right 

reality of the events spoken of, and the which he could transmit as an inheritance 

simple and truthftal honesty of the writer, to his descendants. It was chiefly the feet 

An enemy might argue from details such as that population in andent timee was oongie- 

are here found, that the Mosaio religion gated in certain great centres, being but 

proved powerleea for good : a groas exagge- thinly scattered over the fece of the earth, 

ration, but the materials for which are sup- while inns or places of public entertainment 

plied by Hebrew propheta, who would not at first did not exist, and were afterwards 

have drawn the character of their fellow- rare, which made hospitality into a social 

religionists in colours so dark, and dins virtue whose infhu^tion was accounted a 

supplied adversaries with arms, had they crime. The hospitality of Abraham offers a 

not been impelled solely by a predominant beautiful picture of patriarchal bounty and 


Bimpkoity (Genesis XYiiL 1 — 8 ; ziz. 1 — 3). Robinson thus deseribes the reoeption he 

That of Nfthor merits attention (xxiv. 24, met with at Ramleh, in the house of an up- 

\eq,). Other instaaees may be found in rights wealthy Arab of the Oreek church, 

£zod. ii. 20. Joshua ii 1. Judg. xiz. 8, 0, named Abud Murkus. As himself and his 

16 — ^21. 1 Kings xriL 10 — 17. Hospitality eldest son were from home, ' the second son, 

remained in honoured obserrance even when a young man of eighteen or twenty years, 

population became more numerous and bet- did the honours of the house, and con- 

ter spread on the face of the earth, and is ducted us to an ' upper room,' a large aiiy 

accordingly found exemplified in Uie writ- haU, forming a sort of third story upon the 

ings of the New Testament, as in the case flat roof of the house. As we entered, the 

of Martha (Luke x. 88), Zacchens (ziz. 5, mistress of the family came out of her apart- 

6), and friends of the apostles, who, together ment and welcomed us, but we saw no more 

with their master, mainly depended for their of her afterwards. Sherbet was brought, 

means of subsistence on the gratuitous sup- which in this instance was lemonade, and 

plies of attached disciples (Matthew z. 11. thencoflTee. Our youthfUl host now proposed, 

Luke It. 88. Acts z. 6 ; zvi. 15; xriii. 3). in the genuine style of ancient hospitality. 

Among the gentler ordinances of the Mo- that a serrant should wash our feet This 

eaic law were those requiring kindness to took me by surprise, for I was not aware 

strangers (Ezodns zzii. 21. Lev. ziz. 84). that the custom still existed here. Nor does 

Love for strangers was ezpressly enjoined it indeed towards foreigners, though it is 

(Deut z. 19), but in corrupt times strangers quite common among the natives. We 

were nevertheless ill treated (Jer. viL 0. gladly accepted the proposal, both for the 

Mai. iii. 0). Hospitality is enjoined imme- sake of the refreshment and the Scriptural 

diately of God (Is. IviiL 7} in the New Tes- illustration. A femsle Nubian slave acoord- 

tament (Bomans ziL 18. Heb. ziii. 2), not ingly brought water, which she poured upon 

merely towards strangers, bat between friends our feet over a large shallow basin of tinned 

(1 Pet iv. 9. I Tim. v. 10. Gsl. vi. 10). It oopper, kneeling before us and rubbing our 

finds a place among the qualities required feet with her hands, and wiping them with 

in bishops (1 Tim. iii. 2), and is set among a napkin. Several neighbours came in to 

die highest virtues (Matt z. 40—42 ; zzv. learn the news, and carpets and mats were 

80» 46). spread for the company in the open air, on 

The laws of hospitality are still religiously the flat roof a4jacent to the room we occu- 

observed. In Syria at the present day, if you pied. Here we revelled in the deli^tful 

have no tent, and are not near a khan, enter coolness of the evening, after the sultry heat 

a village, choose out the best house you see, of the day.' Bobinson, whose words we 

and you will hardly fail to meet with an hos- have just cited, had intended to leave the 

pitable reception. Every man you meet, per^ house at Bamleh without disturbing the 

ticularly in the oountiyof the Druses, greets family, as he rose for his journey so early 

you in a friendly manner. Often, as travel- as two in the morning ; but as he descended 

lers pass before a garden, the children run the stairs, he found his host and his two 

out to them with baskets of figs or grapes, sons waiting to see him off. ' Cofibe was 

pressing them to eat of the contents, but un- brought, and we at length bade farewell to 

willing to accept any remuneration. When our friends, not without respect and grati- 

you enter a house you will be treated, per- tude for their unaffected kindness and hos- 

haps, with ezcellent wine of a rich flavour, pitality.' 

and a scent that verifies the justice of the HOST (L.&oirtj, 'anenemy'),is the ren- 

prophefs simile (Hos. ziv. 7). At any rate, dering, in Ezod. xiv. 4, of a Hebrew word 

they will set before you such frure as they which in 9 is translated * army,' and so in 

have, and season it idth a hearty welcome, many other instances. Another term, mah- 

They will assist you to prepare your coffee ghatuh, is Englished by ' host ' (Gen. xxxii. 

and to drink it, and will assign you a place 2, moAAiiatm, tfiat is two hosts), and * bands' 

where yon may spread your earpet for r»- (7), also 'company' (8), as well as 'camp' 

pose. The evening is spent in pleasant dis- (Ex. xiv. 20). A third word, ttakvah, ren- 

course, introduced by the never-failing ques- dered ' host' (Gen. ii. 1), and * armies' (Ex. 

tion— Shoo iMMd andael * What is new vL 26), is used of the Divine Being, * Jeho- 

with your But this is never propounded vah of Hosts' (Ps. xxiv. 10; comp. Ixviii. 

till after the usual polite inquiries respecting 12), and of 'the host of heaven,' or stars 

your heslth, and whether your kief, your (Neh. ix. 6. Dan. viii. 10). 

humour, is good. Even religions diversities HOSTAGES (L. hotjfn, 'a guest'), per- 

only partially interfere with and qualify the sons received and detained as security for 

aUentions of hospitality. The preeept is the performance of certain eondidons, is the 

well observed : * The first law of hospitality rendering, in 2 Kings xiv. 14. 2 Chron. xzv. 

is to relhun from aaking a stranger lh)m what 24, of Hebrew words which llteraUy mean 

region he eomes, or in what faith he has * children of pledges,' and thus explain 

been reared ; but he must be asked, is he themselves. 

hungiy r is he thirsty? is he clothed r HOUGH (T. Saxon ho/., Eng. hoof) is 



tbe thigh of Che hind leg of a beast, and entered by a gate or door formed hiflw 

' to hoogh ' ie to cat or divide the mascle by die of the front of the ijaadrangle. Beyond the 

which the hind leg is moyed, * to hamstring ' eoort, and on the oppoaite aide, waa the harem 

(Josh. xi. 9). or women's apartmenta,whioh were Bometimea 

HOUR (G.). In the earlieat periods, the mneh deeorated, and alwaya guarded againat 
Hebrews as well aa the Greeks divided the atrangera and every male ezeept the master 
day into three portions, according to the three of the family. The eoart itaelf thus formed 
visible diversities of the aon— 4t8 riaing, ite the middle of Hie hooae, and is intended, in 
mid-day altitude, its setting ; henee morning, Lake v. 19, by tiM words * nito the midat' 
noon, and evening, whieh generaUy included Over tfaia open eonrt, in order to aheiler It 
night This is the sole division of the day from the burning aon, a curtain or awning 
found in the Old Testament Afterwards, waa extended whieh oonM eaaily be with- 
the Jews and the Romans divided the day, drawn, ao aa to allow any thing to be low* 
that la, the interval between the rising and ered fh>m the roof into the yai^d, whieh ex- 
the setting of die sun, into four parte, each plains ttie proceeding in ttie paaaage last 
oonaiating of three houra. These hours, how- referred to. Comp. Mark ii. 4. The tope or 
ever, were not, aa are oura, of equal length, roofs of these aidea of the qnadranf^e were 
sixty minutes; since they varied with the time flat, having a low breaat>work for proteetion. 
that elapsed between sunrise and sunset : ao- The roofe aerved for social and religioaa pur- 
ooidingly, an hour with them waa the twelfth posea. Here the family met Id eqfoy the 
part of tibe time during whieh the sun is cool of the day. Here membera of it alept 
above the horiaon. As this time is greater Here worship waa paid. With the roof and 
in summer than in winter, their hours with the eonrt yard were eonneeted rooma 
were in the former longer than in tfie of varioua sixea and for variona pnrpoaes, 
latter. The first hour began at the rising of made in the aidea or winga of the qnadran- 
the sun, mid-day waa the aixth, and the gnlar building. Of theaeapartmenta we men- 
twelfth ended with the setting of the son. tion ' the upper room,' a private i^artment 
The third hour divided the interval between or doset (1 Kinga xvii. 19. Aota ix. 87, 89), 
aunrise and mid-day, the ninth between mid- uaed eapeeiaUy for prayer (9 Kinga xxiii. 13. 
day and sunset It was in reference to this Acta i. 18 ; xx. 8^ and for sidknesa ( Joaeph. 
division that Jeans aaked, < Are there not Antiq. xviii. 6, 3). From this 'upper room' 
twelve hours in the dayf (John xL 9). were often two means of egreaa, one leadhig 
See Day. into the houae, the otfier immediately into Ifaa 

HOUSES (T). Hnman beinga dwelt at street Manalona and palaeea had an outer 
firat in eaves, huta, and tents, which in warm court or poreh ( Jndg. iiL 38. Jer. xxxiL 3« 
climes afford a leaa inauAeient ahelter than Mark xiv. 68. John xviit 18), which was 
they would do in cold and moist regions, used as an anta-room, and from iHiidi, by 
At an early period honaea were erected of meana of ataira, aometimea ' winding atairay' 
aneh materials, whether of day, brick, wood, (1 Kinga vi 8), often made of eostly wood 
or stone, as ihe country most readily sup- (3 Chron. ix. 11), they went to Hm galle- 
plied (Gen. iv. 17 ; xiii. 0). The hooaes of ries and root A doorway led ftnm the outer 
the Israelites were in all probability aimilar into the inner eourt Into It looked the win- 
to those which are now seen in Palestine, and dowa of the apartments, for on the oataide 
of course they varied in siae and detaOs ao- there were in general <mly a fow openings, 
cording to men's condition in life and the The exterior was negleeted for the interior, 
progress of luxuiy (1 Kings vii. 3—4. Jer. on whieh much care was sometimes be- 
xxiL 14). They were either detached or atowed (1 Kinga vi. 15 ; xxii. 89. Jer. xxli. 
joined together, and sometimes had aa many 14. Amoa iiL 15). The doora moved on 
as three stories (AcU xx. 9). In all their pins (Prov. xxvi. 14. 1 Kings vii. 50), and 
varieties, regard was paid to the peeuliaritiea by haodlea, wfaidi, as a mark of love, were 
of climate, which in Judea allowa men to oeeaaionally aprinkled with aromatic watara 
live much out of doors, and makes an open (Cant v. 5), being futeued by a bolt within 
space or eonrt within the house pleaaantand (Jndg. iii. 35. Luke xi. 7). 
deairable. Hence, for the houses of persona In honaea of eminent 'penoDM were male 
of substance, preference was given to the or female door-keepera (Jdm xviii 18. Acta 
quadrangle which enclosed a eourt yard, xii. 18), and on the door-poata and gate- 
having often in the midst a fountain, or re- ways were written portions of the law. Emi- 
ceptaele of water (3 Sam. xviL 18. Matthew nent Hebrewa possessed summer and winter 
xxvi. 69, for ' in the palace,' read, probably, houses (Amos iii. 15). The latter were 
* in the court yard'), and the interior of wanned by brasiera (Jer. xxxvi. 38). What 
which was ftimished with eolonnadea or in primitive timea waa jodged indispensable 
cloisters, galleries, baths (3 Samuel xi. 3), aa frunitore, may be seen in 3 Kinga iv. 10. 
trees, and planta. In this large paved and Job xvi]L6. Beaides, this Inxnry demanded 
decorated court atrangera were received and aofiu and couehea richly adorned (Esekiel 
•ntertainmeiUs giTsn. Comp. Estiliar 1 5, xtm. 41. Amos vi 4. Prov. vii 16). 
snd see Goistohambib. This oonrt waa For cement in building wen used lime 




'(It. sodM. 1st), gypsmn (Beat zxrii. 4), 
flnd tometimes asphaltAm (Geneflis zi. 8). 
BmMmgs nere often whitewashed (Esek. 
xiii. 10. Matthew zxiiL 27). Palaeee were, 
painted ▼cnmlion (Jer. xzii. U). The 
beans wen of sycamon (Is. iz. 10), less 
freqnentij of olWe, sandal, or cedar wood 
(1 Kings wiL 2, Jer. xsU. U). For outer 
deeoratioBs, piUarsy sometimes of marble 
(Oant T. 10), and ootonnades (1 Sings Tii. 
0) wen erected. 

In the aocompanying gronnd-plaii of a 
boon in the East, BB represents the onter 
walls, and H the pofoh; hating two en- 
trances into the street, T. the huge door, 
and r a small door, leading np the private 
stainase, h, to the prirate apartments above. 
K K are the principal rooms of Ibe house, 
Arranged in qnadrangalar form on each side 
of a large oowt yard, C, and opening into it 
by fow doors. Along the sides of this court 
yard nms a colonnade, D D, vnder which is 
the piaxaa, E E, which in houses of two sto- 
ries is soimoanted bj a gsUery of similar 
torn. Next to the porch, and opening into 
it, is the staircase, O. 

K ^ 

As houses and waUs of the common sort 
were made of clay, We see the force of those 
passages which speak of digging through 
them (Esekiel xii 5, 7. Matt ti. 20), and 
imply their want of durability (Job ir. 19. 
Matt Tii. 35). In the case of houses that 
were united together, it was easy for a person 
to pass froBk one roof to another, and so 
make an esespe withont descending into his 
house (M«lt zxiT. 17). 

At Hebron the houses ue usfua&y not 
above two stories hi|^, covered with flat 
rood or 4omes, formed of stone and coated 
with plaster or cement The streets are very 
narrow, seldom mote than two or three 
yards in width. The houses of Jerusalem 
are substantially built of the limestone of 
which the neighbourfaeod is composed, not 
usually hewn, but bnAen into regidar forms, 
and making a solid wait For the most part 
there are no windows neort to tiie street, and 

the tew which exist for the purpose of light 
or ventilation are marked by casements and 
lattice-work. The apartments receive their 
light from the open courts within. The 
ground-plot is usually surrounded by a high 
enclosure, commonly forming the walls of 
the house only, but s<mietimeB embracing a 
smaU garden and some vacant ground. The 
lower story, which consists of arches, serv- 
ing as a foundation Ibr the superstructure, 
is occupied ibr lumber-rooms, Idtohens, cis- 
terns, stables, or servants' rooms. None but 
the poor would consent to live in these low, 
dark cells, which the filthy, narrow streets 
must render very disagreeable and unhealOiy. 
The princq>al apartments are upon the se- 
cond story. They are built against the wall 
of the quadrangle, and front upon the 
open paved courts which usuaDy occupy the 
greater part of the enclosure. In the larger 
houses these courts form cool, agreeable 
premenades, quite secluded from public 
view. These edifices are not covered, with 
the exception of the suites of rooms, which 
have vaulted or flat roofiB, while Uie en- 
closed area in the centre is open to all the 
vicissitudes of the elements. Stone is em- 
ployed for nearly all building purposes. 
Doore and sashes are in general all that can 
be afforded of so expensive a material as 
wood. The little timber that is used is 
mostly bioui^t from Lebanon, as in the days 
of Solomon. A large number of houses in 
Jerusalem are in a ruinous state. One passes 
firom court to court, looks into a succession 
of uninhabitable rooms fall of rubbish and 
filth, damben over ruins and up broken 
staireases, and at length finds the only hu- 
man inhabitants of an ancient and ample 
mansion, filthy and reeking, in some foul 
angle, neariy without shelter or light 

The house inhabited by tiie Bev. Mr. Laa- 
neau, American missionary in Jerusalem, is 
described as large, with marble floon, and 
having on one side an extensive and plea- 
sant garden, miA. orange and other finit 
trees and many flowers. It is one of the 
most desirable residences in the city. 

Houses in modern Palestine are often con- 
structed BO as to afford a poor ahelter from 
the storm. The inferior class are for the 
most part built of bricks dried in the sun, 
with rooDn composed of mud laid on brandies 
of trees. Such structures cannot stand 
against ndns and floods which sometimes 
damage, if not destroy, dwellings of more solid 
construction. So badly are the former built, 
that it is not uncommon for a rainy season 
to destroy half a village. Such hovels the 
snow by its weight, or, when melted, by its 
current, often lays in ruin. And when these 
slender edifices are raised on the alluvial 
soil employed in terraces on the hill-side, 
they are, with all that they contain, easily 
borne down by the rush of a mountain tor- 
rent swelled by rain : whence arises an illus 


tnition of oar Lord's striking imagery in in the Book of Aets. Hence we learn thai 

Matt vii. 30. See OYBBFLOWiira. the Septaagint yersion, and not the Hebrew 

In a mosque, formeilj an anoient choroh, original, was in eommon use in the times of 

on Mount Zion, Olin was ahown, in the se- the apostles. Humility, denoting a meek 

cond stoiy, a waste-looking hall, believed to and lowly mind, leading men ' not to think 

be * the upper room' where our blessed 8a- of themselyes more hi^^y than they oun^ 

Tiour celebrated the Passover with his disci- to think, but to think soberly' (Bom. xii. 

pl^g^ 8), and to take on them the yoke of a suffer- 

Many of the houses of Howara, near Wady ing and patient Messiah (Matt xi. 29), ia a 

Sahl, are built of stone, and for such a place peculiar]^ Christian Tirtue as to its origin, 

have a solid and respectable appearance, import, and tendency (Acts zz. 19. 1 Pet t. 

Many are merely huts, rounded firom the 5), which did not arise from the crushing 

foundation to the top in the form of a high spirit of Eastern despotism, for Moeaism 

dome, or more exactly of a straw bee-hive. was a democracy, and the kings of Israel 

< The Englishwoman in Egypt* thus gives had only limited power; but from the spirit 

an idea of the better houses of Cairo:— 'On of the New Dispensation, one of whose 

the ground-floor is a court, open to the sky, great aims was to sabatitnte the law of en- 

zound which the apartments extend, gallery durance for that of revenge, and the law of 

above gallery. Bomid the court are five gentleneas, love, and goodness, for the law 

rooms : one large room, intended for the re- of force and fear. Its motto is, * Be not 

ception of male guests, with a fountain in overcome of evil, bat overcome evil with 

the centre ; a winter room ; a small sleeping, good ' (Bom. xiL 2). 

room for any male guest; a kitchen and a HUNDBEBFOLD (T.), an instance of a 

coflee-room for servants. On the right hand, definite used for an indefinite number, sig- 

immediately on entering the street door, is niiying a very large degree, abundandy (2 

the door of the harem, or the entrance to Sam. xxiv. 8 ; comp. Matt xix. 29) ; said of 

the stairs leading to the ladies' apartments; the fruits of the earUi. It may, in oonse- 

the whole of the house except the ground- quenoe of the fertility of Palestine, be taken 

floor being considered as the harem. On literally (Gen. xxvi 12. Matt xiii. 8). It 

the first floor is a marble-paved chamber was customary to spread the com over a 

with a roof open towards the north and broad surfSMse of land (Is. xxviiL 20), so as 

sloping upwards, conveying into the cham- to aiford fdll scope to the germinating and 

ber a delightftJ breeze. There are also five reproductive principle, which was greatly 

other rooms on the first-floor, and in each stimulated by soil, water, and heat Great 

of the two principal apartments the greater productiveness is therefore not surprising. 

portion of the floor is raised from five to six Herodotus (L 193) relates that froitfrd spots 

inches, the depressed portion being paved near the Euphrates produced in general two 

with marble. Besides these are three small hundred, and in the best yean three hundred, 

marble-paved apartments, forming one after for one. Strsbo (xv.) says that in Mesopo- 

another an ante-chamber, a reclining cham- tamia and Persia, barley returned from one to 

ber, and a bath. Above are four rooms, the three hundredfold. In no country more than 

principal one opening to a delightful terrace, in Palestine, where there was the best and 

on which we esjoy our breakfast and sup- the worst of land, did the produce depend on 

per under the dearest sky in the world, and the quality of the soil ; so that we learn with 

with a sweet air.' what strict propriety our Lord spoke in 

HUMILIATION (L. humilit, 'humble') Matt xiii. 9. 

signifies to make lowly, or to be in a lowly HUNGEB (T.) is a feeling with which 

and depressed, or didionourable and even the ancient inhabitants of Palestine, so long 


humiliation.' As suffering was considered the time of our Lord hunger was by no means 
a mark of the Divine displeasure as well as onknown, may be inferred from the merit 
a disreputable state (John ix. 2), so those ascribed to the act of supplying the hungry 
who suffered were said to be in humiliation, with food (Matthew xxv. 35. Bom. xiL 20). 
This is the application made of the term in As during his pablic ministiy our Lord de- 
Acts viii. 88, where it is applied to the pas- pended on the bounty of friends, which of 
sion of the Bedeemer. PhUip, the speidcer, necessity must at times have been insufll- 
borrows his language from Is. liii. 8, in which cient for his wants, hanger was among the 
the corresponding Hebrew term denotes ' op- privations which Jesos endured for us and 
pr?ssion,' of which depression or humiliation for our sslvation. See Bkabth. 
is the consequence. Philip, it appean, read If iravellen find themselves hungry, and 
to the eunuch a passage from Isaiah. He are unprovided with needfdl food, custom 
read, not the original, but the Greek trans- allows them to gather from the fields snfil- 
lation ; or, at any rate, the venion of the cient for their actual wants. Dr. Bobinson 
Seventy is that in which the passage stands speaks on the point thus:— 'The wheat was 


now ripening, and we had a beandftd illiu- poda reaembling a hom) denotaa <he fhout 

tmdou of Soriptiiie. Our Araba < were an of a tree of the legnmkioaa order, eaUed hf 

hungered,' and, going into the fielda, ' they the Araba khamoob, written also kkaroob^ 

platted the ears of oom and did eat, rub' whence our earob tret. This tree grows in 

bing them with their hands.' On being the Levant and Sonihem Europe, where it 

questioned, they said this was an old ens- stiil supplies food for swine and eattle^ 

torn, and no one would speak against it; though of an inferior kind, which is eaten 

they were supposed to be hungry, and it was by human beings only when in great nee^. 

allowed as a eharity. We saw this after* The Ibod is found in the pode, about a 

wards in repeated instances ' (Luke vi 1 t$q), Anger long, an inch broad, and curved some- 

At the present day the rights of proper^ what like a sickle, not unlike beans, but 

are, in regard to the productions of the earth, with a harder and darker shell ; which the 

by no means so rigidly guarded as with us. carob tree produces in great abundance, and 

There is an entire want of enclosures in sgri- which contain hard seeds, bitter at first, but 

cultural districts. The only exception is after being kept, somewhat sweet The seeds 

A>und in a Ibw gardens and vineyards close are said to be commonly thrown away, while 

to the walls of some towns. The limits of the pods are eaten. Hasselquist found the 

a field are usually marked by a narrow strip tree abundant on the hiHs around Jerusa- 

ofunploughed ground, sometimes by a rough lem. It is also called 8t John's Bread, 

pillar or heap of stones. The crops are se- firom a notion that John used its pods for 

cured against cattle only by the watchfhl care nutriment 

of the herdsmsn, who usually keeps them at HYMENiEUS, a disciple at Ephesus, who 
a distance upon the hills. Hence travellers deviated fh>m the essential doctrines of the 
do not hesitate to enter fields of com, or to Christian fkith, in maintaining that the re- 
take of their crops.' ' Our muleteers,' says surrection was already past (1 Tim. L 20 
Clin (iL 480), 'never hesitated to ride into 3 Tim. ii. 17). 

a field of wheat, and grase their animals HYPOCBISY is a Greek word in English 

upon tile growing or ripening harvest' letters, which, taken from the stage, signifies 

HUNTING, the capture of wild animals the acting of an assumed part The Hebrew 
with a view to food, or for the preservation term ghokneph means to conceal, and so to 
of flocks and herds, must have occupied be false or hypocritioaL It is character- 
men at a very early period, though we may istic of the simplicity and truthfulness of 
doubt if even human society passed through the primitive manners set forth in the earlier 
<Uio hunting period' any more than other Biblical records, that it is in only the later 
sharply-defined conditions successively aris- books that hypocrisy and hypocrites make 
ing from the modes in which subsistence their appearance (Job vilL 13. Is. xzziii. 14). 
was obtained. The wide, open plains and As might be expected, the realities of religion 
uplandsof Western Asia afforded good hunt- long preceded its counterfeits and shows, 
ing grounds, and there first we find Nimrod, It is in the degenerate times of the New Tea- 
the mighty hunter (Gen. x. 9). The prao- tament that hypocrisy chiefly comes before 
tice was pursued by the patriarchs, for it is the reader of die Bible ; and firom the lips 
mentioned as a matter of course that Ish- of him who was ' the truth ' as well as ' the 
mael and Esau procured sustenance by hunt- life,' this detestable vice received awful re- 
ing (xxL 20; xxv. 27). Palesthie was rich buke. Hypocrisy is of two kinds — simula- 
in wild beasts, affording temptations to the tion, or affecting to be better than you are ; 
chase (Exod. xxiiL 29). But hunting, as which involves dissimulation, or the con- 
i^pears in the case of Ishmael and Esau, cealment of your bad qualities. These bad 
tended to produce a rude, wandering life, qualities are often accompanied by malice 
and finds, dierefore, no sanction in the Mo- against others, as was exemplified in the 
saic law, which was founded on agriculture case of the Scribes and Pharisees on whom 
as a far better source of social and indiridual our Lord pronounced his woe (Mark xiL 10. 
improvement As weapons of the chase are Matt xxiii. 28, M}.). Sometimes the term 
mentioned the bow, arrow, and spears (Gen. hypocrite seems to imply a less heinous of- 
zxvii. 8. Ps. Ivii. 4, 6). Nets were also set even fence, and may mean little more than what 
for large beasts (Esek. xix. 8), and pits were we term inconsistency (Matt vii. 0). 
dug (Ps. exix 80. Proverbs xxvL 27), which HYSSOP (H. egob), according to Dr 
were covered over (2 Sam. xxiii. 20). Ac- Royle (' Journal of the Boyal Asiatic Sod- 
eording to Shaw, pits were used especially ety,' xv. Nov. 1844), the caper plant (cap- 
for taking lions. As the dog was an unclean parti gpinota of Linnaeus), which has in 
animal, hounds were not kept for hunting. Arabic a name, atuf, similar to its Hebrew 
Instances that strong men, without anns, appellation, is found in Lower Egypt (as re- 
eould take and destroy wOd animals, are quired by Exod. xii. 22), in the deserts of 
fbund in Judg. xiv. 6. .1 Sam. xvii. 80. Sinai, and in Palestine. Compare Lev. xiv. 
HUSKS is, in Luke xv. 16, the English 4. Numb. .xix. 6, 18. Heb. ix. 19. Ps. li. 
translation of a Greek word, fceration (L. 2, 7. Its habit is to grow on the most bar- 
st^lgiw^, which (from fcsrai, ' a hom,' the rcn soil, rocky precipice, or the side of a 




wtU. Oomp. 1 Kings It. 88. IthMslwayB 
been held to poneM ele>nring propeztiee. 
Henoe, probably, ita aeleotUm in the oere- 
moniea of porifloation. It ie also ci^eble 
of yielding a atiek fit for the poipoae men- 
tioned in John sz. 30; oomp. ifatt zzriL 
48. Mark XT. 86. 

The oaper plant haa by aome been anp- 
poaed to bis the abigonah, tranalated in £e- 
clea. xiL 6, ' deaire/ bat in die Beptoagint 
uid Yalgate, etipparii. On thia point ]>r. 
Boyle remarka, * Thia plant may have bad 
two namea in the Hebrew langnage, aa in- 
deed it liaa in the Anble, and we nuiy an^ 
poae it to bepartioalarly addnoed aa growing 
on dd walU and tombs. Further, 

if we suppose, aa ia natural, that the flg«f»- 
tire language employed by Solomon is car- 
ried on thronghost the aantenoe, it appeava 
to me appvopflate. For the oaper plant, 
l£be moat of its tribe, is eonspionons for its 
long fiower-stalka, whu^ are erect when the 
plant is in flower and the frait yoong, but 
whieh bend and hang down as the fruit 
ripens. As the flowering of the almood->tiiae 
haa been tbooght to niu to the whitening 
of the hair, ao the drooping of die rigpe froit 
of a plant whieh ia eonapkmona on the walls 
of boildings and on ton^ may be held to 
^ify the hanging down the head befom 
man goeth to his long home.' 


lOHABQD (H. ti^ glory if diportseE), son sentatiTe. Snch a transfeienee, iHien oom- 
ofPhinehas, and grandson of the high-priest pleted, was idolatry. The esaenoe of ido- 
Eli (see the article), who was prematnrely laby, then* is the transference to a creature 
bom in oonseqaence of the grief felt by his of that worship which belongs to the Ore- 
mother on hearing the tidings that the ark ator (Bom. i. 26). Bat tranaference is a 
of God was taken, and that her frUher-in-law secondary act Hence the worship of Qod, 
and her husband were dead. in point of time, pieceded the wonhip of 

ICONIUM, the modem Konla» was the idols. Such is certainly the view giyen in 

capital of Lyoaonia, in the south-east of the Scriptures, which imply that the worship 

Asia Ifinor, lying at the foot of Mount and serrice of God, who made heafon and 

Taurus, in a fruitfol plain (Acts zi?. 1, sf;.; earth, was prior to idolatry. The scantiip 

zri. 3. 2 Tim. iii. 11). nes8» howeyer^ 9f the Scripture narrative 

IDDO (H. hit hand), the name of the prerents us Aom exhibiting the steps by 

grandfiither (Zeoh. i 1), who in other pas- which men deoUnad from the one to the 

sages (Ezra t. 1. Neh. zii. 10), as is not other. In the absence of historical frets, 

uncommon among the Hebrews, i^pears as we may reasonably supipose that the idea of 

the father of Zeohariah. He is found among God, die isrisible GrMtor and Gonremor of 

the priests who, after the exile, laboured for the uniTerse, was too purely spiritual to be 

the restoration of the temple^worship, and retained in its primitive sin^pUoi^ by rude 

may therefore be presumed to have been dis- and sinful races of men (28), who, not suc- 

tinguished for his seal in divine things ; on ceeding to obliterate all sense of the divine 

which account, probably, he received the from &eir souls, aided their faint conoep* 

name of seer. He wrote a long-lost book, or tions by material images, and could wonhip 

history, on the acts of Behoboam (2 Chrosi. only when some oljeot of sight wss before 

ziL 15 ; ziiL 22). them. Thus sin debased men's souls, and 

IDOLATBT (G. eidolon, 'an image,' and gave rise to spiritual blindness snd idolatry. 

latr«iu, * worship ' ) is the worship and service As its causes were general, so idolatry spread 

of images as divine, or as representatives of itself over the whole earth; and it is as a 

divinity (for the mere stock or stone ( Jer. iii revival of an old troth that monotheism sp- 

9) could not originally have been held wor- pears in the practice of Ahrshsm, who wss 

thy of divine worship), as 'the egression of called to this great trust firom the midst of 

a thought and emotion recogmses the divi- idolatrous nations. The universal preva- 

nity of the object worshipped; which object, lence of idolatry implied in the Book of 

remaining impalpable to senscj may be con- Genesis and the Old Scriptures at large, is 

ceived of in the mind, or be set forth by ezhibited as a f^t in profane history, and 

some visible representation. By degrees, has come down to the present hour in evi- 

however, the feelings which at first regarded denoe afforded by aculptnre and painting; 

the Divini^ were transferred to the repre fSor though we are not without historical in- 




timiticau that lh« iMogiutiOD of aa» Ood that Om mnU ooaM be mtdc Mtd . 
prarulgd in the Onl agai, j>t bo enlj ■■ b; out Baing, anitad in Ihs work 
the «paeh of tha moM aacisnl monuchlei wboae exiiicnee ind opention were ■>: 
UoUtij ■ppem oniTaiMllr pranlanL bj ■cnlpturai Mt np in Icmplai, or, 

Tha euliaat ibqw vhich idoluiy Hoina India, hewn in eolaml dimsluionB 
ta hiTB Itken, wia the dsificitlDn of tha hn- 
min form { foi Ood wei ooDcaiTed of ncdsr 
that form m baing tha noblest known to 
man. Tbit deification of self which is foond 
in primiliTe agea eonititDlas the eiauioa of 
idtdadj, for ain ia nothing elae than >t]l- 
wonhjp, and ma; be trued throngb diflki^ 
ent muiifealationB down io the modern pan- 
lliei«n, in vhieh man's ideal is the bigkeit 
power, and hnman gsnini tbe cole divini^. 

In tome othoi o^ect than man binu«l( 
homrar, waa the fanman toaa adoMd. Vbat 
• that o^aet waa, depended on aimuuataneaa. 
If, with dM aid of the imagination, the form 
KM ftintUI in natnnl otgeota, thoaa olgeeM 
TBosiTed men'a homage. Tboa (he original 
image of Diana of Ihe Epbesiana wai a log 
of wood, hbled to haie fallen from heaTan. 
If (reea and Mooka did not preaent the looked- 
tar laaamblanea, ' men'a hands' gaie them 
(henqoindahape (Ia^ihil.20). Out en- 
graving leprvienla In Thor of tbe Ffnlanden 
■n imi^ of Oie kind (eomp. Jei. i. 3). 

Uring roek. In man; parti of the hnthen 
world tbeie ideaa ran into a triple fam, ex- 
emplified In thii cot of Diana Triformia, a* 

With tbe piogreis of buman skill, the re- 
aanrcea of ait were let in aecion (or Ibe for- 
. . d otjeoti of woT- 
ahipi wUeh proceeded alep by etep with 
men'a adTanoement In tha arte, tiU it reaohed 
it* taeiglit in the anbUmitf. loTelioeia, and 

flgtuM ttie lenae of beaa^ finds full eipres- eombination in one form of eeieral mem- 

■ion and Ihe higheit homage. ben of Ihe hmnan bodj, as In the ensuing 

In oonntriec wfaeta the madilatin heal- pietora of Yiabnoo, In which man; bands 

tief pradoninated, poljtheialio thaoiies of denote efflnieno; of operation. Tbe god ia 

oraatioii and Pnnidenoe obtained prera- Inscribed on a sqaare so aa to ocetipjr four 

inu*, lAiah, praanmlng the impoeaibiUtj niuglea, a derioe wbidi, in tUoaioii to fBt». 

of Iha Tsmolai Eut. HeniM hlhw, molhar, ofworahiplD ooantricBTerjdiiUntfniDi Moh 

■od child, ■!• frsqnanllj ixhjbited m otyaoM other both inplice and enlton. TbQBUDons 

of wonfaip Dodar Tkrioni tartat and nunes. thi Oreeki ws find Cjbele BiltiDB in lUtB 

Widiklooehof ihuhnmuiiiBtiireirhicbcTni uoning the iiifuit Jnpiler, ud Hindoo 

MoUlrj ooDld not oblitante, spvcial ngud mjrthDlogr prassnti ni Cri^na, the «ighlh 

and (iMDtion ware paid lo Ihe young, and aritu or incanution o( Vuhnoo, angled 

' Iha molheraod child ' aMtoand la objacM ij liii moihei, DenkL 


la <a 'dig TIrgIn 

Thli vonhip of imngiDuj licingi andel 
bnmui forma wm carried to ■ great eiti^nt, 
■nd may be found •■ >ome era in moal, if 
nut lU, conalrics. Sometimai it appeutd 
in the shape of hero worship, *■ in the caa* 
of Heronlea among the Greeks, and Bel 
(Nimrod) of the Sab;loniins. At others, 
ttie dirinitj incorporMei himaeU in royal 
pereoiugeB, at did Hylicta in the Auyiian 
Seminmis. The qaalities, homTer, whinh 
ooneiliUad wonhip far men an foimd also 
in anhnals; in some instances, in a mors 
maileddegmthan inhuman beings. Hence 
brutes cams to be worshipped, not fbr Ihem- 
aalTes, hat the attribntes which they poa- 
■eeied or symboliBSd. Egypt, 

orerpoweiing itrengtli, to ,. 

(4 the mental and the debaaament of the 
moral, readily gained and eauly kept awij 
OTer the homaa heart Acoordingly, the 
world itself, aa well aa each ot it* elements, 
waa deified. From lome, fire, aa the qnkik- 
ening power, receiTcd dlTine homaga ; others 
aioendad to the great vieible aonree of hes^ 
light, and life, and gaTe their hearla to 
the smi and ita obTtDoa dependent, the 
moon; olben, again, adored the stars, which 
they coneeiTcd exerted a great and imme- 
diate influence on human alWrs (Dent, ir, 
19. Jobmi.2fl. Eiek.Tiii.lfl). This ape- 
dei of idolatry, oailed by the genenJ cams 
of Sabaiam, seems to hare paased from In- 
dia, throng Persia and Mesopotamia, to 
Oaaaan and Egypt Oomp. S Kinga xxili. 
0, in which passage (T) allasion is made to 
the wicked abomlnafions which were prao- 
tised tinder the shelter of most tbrmi of ido- 

lal might pas* (tor valI4aaned leather,' 
was (ha fknltfii] mother of this species of 
idolatry; on which account it is that bcr 
gods so often appear with beads ot ammals, 
aa denoting the qnality for wiiich Ihey were 
in each case held in honour. 

A leas degraded but more sadncti«e ido- 
latry was the worship of the power* of 
natore, whioh, in eoontries where the phj- 
deal Ibroea of the miild exist in thU and 

either tolerated or fostered, idolatry is justly 
denonneed in the Soriptoiea, iriios* main 
and noble purpose is the proclamation of 
'Ood that mads ths world' aa the sole mo- 
nsnb and olject of worship in the imiTnse 
(Acta iriL 34, ae^.). Henee, in the Bibli- 
eal Tlaw, the rsUgiaQa wrrio* of anj thins 

IDO 114 IDO 

Mve the one only Ood is idolatxy, which, in d5, mq.). Kotwithsttnding the atriet prohi- 

aoourdanoe with the Aindamental idea of hition iftsoc^ by Mosee to worship none sere 

Mosaism, namely, that Jehovah was the sole Jehovah, and to worship him apart from any 

king in Israel, was regarded and treated as Tisible likeness or image (Exodus zx. 8, 4. 

a capital olTenoe, inTolring rebellion, trea- Dent iy. 16; t. 8 ; zzriL 16), yet degenerate 

son, and apostai^ (Deut ziii 6 — ]1 ; xvii. Hebrews set op a golden calf to reeeiye dieir 

3 — 5; xxriL 16). The whole system was homage; and on the division of the king- 

jastly regarded as a componnd of fislsehood, dom, tfie northern state, in imitation of 

deception, and vice, and was forcibly oharac- Egypt* created as symbols of the God of 

terised as a vanity and a lie (Ps. cxv. 4 — their fsthers images of two calves, the one 

8. Is. xL 18 — 20; xliv. 9, seg.; xlvi 6, 7. probably Apis, a representative of Osiris in 

Jer. X. 8 — 6, 9, 16) ; while, in opposition to Memphis ; the other may have been Mnevis, 

its nothingness, the Maker of heaven and representative of the sun-god of Heliopolis. 

earth is strikingly described as * the living This bovine idolatry, thus forced on Mosa- 

Ood' (Dent v. 26). ism, being set np in Bethel and Dan, the 

In relation to merely intellectaal and ma- two extremities of the new kingdom, and 

terial civilisation, the Hebrews were sor- sustained by a numerous class of priests, 

passed by other nations of antiquity. Tet continued even under such princes as were 

are they alone found in possession of the hostile to other forms of idolatry (2 Kings 

grand truth that the Maker of the universe z. 26, fs;. Amosviii. 14). Hence the severe 

is the only God and the only proper object of rebukes uttered by the prophets against 

worship. This truth they possessed in the Bethel, the rather, probably, as it lay near 

earliest periods of their history. It was held Judah, and was the place where the larael- 

byAbrahamin a purer form and with a more iUsh kings olTered their adoradon (Amoi 

operative faith than by Solomon. Having iii 14 ; v. 6 ; vii. 10, 18. Hos. x. 16 ; xU. 4. 

been honoured with the chaige of preserving Jer. xlviii. 18). Other fidse divinities wers 

monotheism and conveying it to the worid served by the Hebrews, either instead of 

at large, the Hebrews never proved wholly or conjointly with Jehovah, and the mere 

unfaithfol to the sacred trust; and after un- images of them were substituted for or con- 

dergoing the discipline of sorrow, they at founded with the gods themselves (Dent iv. 

length became worthy of their high oiBce, 28. Ps. cxv. 4, teq, ; cxxxv. 16, ffj.). 
learned to serve God with purity and into- In each of the earlier periods of the He- 

grity of heart, and have now for more thsn brew history, we find tokens of the exist- 

two dionsand years held aloft this divine ence of idolatrous worship ; and thou^ Sa- 

torch, as a li|^t to fmlighten the Gentiles muel and David, as well as Solomon in the 

end the gloiy of Israel. How these things sarly part of his reign, were sealous for 

aould have been, had not the Hebrews at JehoviJx, yet the last-named monarch ang- 

Ihe first possessed Q>ecial means of illumi- mented the already existing proneness to 

nation, we are unable to imi^^e. We see idolatry (1 Kings xL), so that we need not 

here tokens of ihe special presence and ope- wonder i under his successors it struck its 

xmtion of God. Inspiration only could have roots more deeply. Asa, indeed, attempted to 

made Abraham and his race fit to reoeivi^ extirpate it ; but Jehoram, by martying into 

and able to retain, Ihe grand idea of one the &mily of Ahab, encouraged the Canaan- 

Ood, the Maker and Governor of all worlds, itish idolatry (2 Kings viii. 18, 27), to which 

The tenor of the artiok points to a primi- was added that of the Ammonites (xvi. 8), 

4ive levelalion as the original source of the and of the Phcanicians snd Syrians (xxi. 8, 

gnat religious truths whose existence and teq.) ; so that the reformatory measures of 

operation may be traoed in the earliest ages, Josiah had only a transient effect, as may 

and which Abmharn brought forth under be learnt from the denunciations of prophets 

new light tnd with fresh foroe, Moses sane- who lived towards the close of the kingdom 

.tioned and perpetuaited* the prophets pro- of Judsih (Zeph. i. 4. Jer. iL 20, teq, ; iH. 6, 

claimed and developed, and the Lord Jesus teq, Ezek. xvi. 16, teq.). In Israel there spe- 

Ohrist eanried out to Ihe friUeBt length, and cially flouriahed the service of Baal, intro- 

the widest and most engaging applications. dnoed by Jezebel, which continued in vigour 

The work which had to he accomplished for many generations. Even during the exile 
in "^«"g the Hebrew nation purely mono- Jeremiah reproves some for their idolatrous 
tbeistic was of no small difficulty. Thouf^ propensities (xliv. 8) ; but after that event 
Abraham worahipjped the true God, traces of idolatry disappeared, and only under Antio- 
idolatry are foimd in his family (Genesis chus Epiphanes, in the time of the Macea- 
xxxL 19, 80; xzxv. 2, teq. Josh. xxiv. 2, 14). bees, does there appear a trace of the abo- 
In Egypt, the Israelites were surrounded by mination (Mace. i. 12, 46). The service 
ofageots of idolatrons worship ; and that they which was rendered to strange gods con- 
were thereby detdmentaUy afibcted is evident sisted in vows accompanied with criminal 
from what happened in the desert (Exod. pleasures (Hos* ix. 10), burning incense 
Lev. xvii. 7. Numb. xxv. Amos w, (1 Kings xi. 8), in bloody and Uoadless 

I D O 45 I D O 

olferiiigi, and e^en in famnaa Mwiiflees, m tlia Met dMaity ot the FboBoieiia noet 
well M tokens of reYennee» eiieli ae bowing aeeovding to some^ die ran, as the great 
the knee to and kissing the imagee (1 Kings frnotiiying power; others h<dd that Baal^ 
xiz. 18. Hos. ziiL 3). the Bel d the Bahylouans, was the planet 
Oblations and inocnse were ehiefly oflTered Jnpiter, whose worah^ was oonneeted with 
<m eminenees^ wbeaeB the tntpuaat mention that of the son. E^en in the era of the Judges 
in Seriptoie of *hi|^ plaees' and their de- wasBaal hoooved among the Israelites^ still 
s^rootion. On these heights wen eithev more under the Kings (1 Kings zriti). This 
altars or ehi^s with sites. The worship falsi^ appears in several modifications, as 
<m eleratsd spots beeaae so preralent, that Baal-Bmmitb (trmiy-god, Judges viii. 88; ix. 
the term ' high plaees' came to aigniiy ido- 4L, 46), a Hieniioian Idol ; Baal-Zbbub (pro- 
laliy, wherever die sendee was perfonned bably^fy-gMl, 3 Kings i. 2, 8, 16), changed 
(Jer. Til. 81; S3cnl*86. 3 Kings xviL 9. derisively into BiAL-ZanvL ( dung 'god J; 
Eaek. xtL 34). That the Syrians speak of Biui-Paon, or merely Pnon, a Moabite di- 
'their (the Hebnws') gods as gods of the vinity whose worship was connected with hu^ 
biUs,' whose power was spesiaDy displayed man diahenour (Nnmb.zxT. Iftfj.; xxxL 16. 
diere, finds an ei^hmation in this ensto- Joshua iztL 17). Another abomination, 
mary wotship on 'high idaees;* and Ae oii- Cbbmosr, identified by some with Baal- 
gin of that fonn of idolaiiy may be found in Peor, was served by die Moabltes and Amo- 
the eoneeptioa that the hills and mountains, rites (Numb. zzL 39. Judg. zL 24. 3 Kings 
vninhabited by men, were the special abode xziiL 18 ; eomp. Jer. zlvifi. 7), and by So- 
of the divinities who ruled the earth. Simi* lomon intsodueed among the Hebrews (1 
Isr notions ars Ibond in Indiot and Grecian Kings zL 7). Mni (Is. Ixv. 11, ' nnm- 
mythology. Idolatrons wordiip was slso of* ber') may have been Venos, which the Ara- 
fered by die Hebrews undkur trees, in groves, bians call ' the star of good fortune,' and 
and in gardens, where sometimes images which was honoorsd by die Persians under 
were set up, sites erected, and oflbrings the name of Nana, or Nanaia (3 Mace. 
made (Isaiah hcv. 8; L 30. 1 Kings xiv. 28. i. 18, mqX Nbbo (Is. zv. 2), a Chaldean 
Hoeea iv. 18. Jer. ii. 30; lii 18). Often, divinity, die planet Mercury, who, acooiding 
however, the word rendexed ' grove' denotes to the astrological view of the Easterns, as 
sn image of Astvts. Whfle the prophets scribe of heaven, chronicles die events of 
rebuked the Israslites^ they also reproved eaith. Probably die Moabite town Nebo, 
the heathen for yielding to idolatry, the folly and Mount Nebo, where this idol was spe- 
and wickedness of wldeh thiy ezpose in num- cially served, took their name from the god. 
beriess passages (Is. iL 8, 30 ; zliv. 9, ttq,; Cbiuv (Amos v. 36 ; in Heb. Kiiov) is by 
zlviii. 5. Jer. z. 8, stf . Has. ^ 3. Ps. czv. some held to be Saturn, which in Eastern 
4). The imagea were partly hewn, pardy aetrology is socounted a planet that brings 
molten; they were made fMt with chaina, evil fortune. BBXVHJur (Acta viL 48) has 
lest they should foil or be oaxricd off (la. been identified with Chiun. Molboh, or 
zlL 7. Jer. z. 4) ; they were overiaid with Mbloox (1 Kings zL 7 ; eomp. Jer. zliz. 1, 
gold or silver, and adoned with oosdy at- 8, ' their Ung/ see mszgin), signifying ruler, 
tire (Is. iL 30 ; zzz. 33 ; zzzL 7. Jer. z. waa a god of the Ammonitea, who was ho- 
ld. Hosea viiL 4). Images were carried to noured by human victims, especially chil- 
batde to protect the wairiora. Victors car- dren (Lev. zviii. 31 ; zz. 3 — 5). His ser- 
ried away with them the divinities of those vice, bronc^t into Judsh by Solomon, was 
whom diey had subdued, in order to ensure long afterwards shsmefolly tolerated in the 
the fidelity of the latter. In the temples, valley of Hinnom (Jer. zzziL 85) tffl Josiah 
the anM of conquered nations were ras- put sn end to the abomination (2 Kings 
ponded as trophies (1 Sam. zzzL 10). The zziiL 10, 18). According to Jewish sntho- 
fSelse divinities and idols mentioned in Scrip- rity, the image, made of braes, had the head 
tnre mqr be here briefly enumerated. Bbx. of an oz, widi outetretchcd human anna, in 
(Is. zM. 1. Jer. L 2), or Bbi.vs, a divinity vdiich the children were laid, and then dowly 
worehipped at Babylon, iriioee image stood consumed by the fire kindled in the inside 
in the fiunous tower of Bdns, represented of the statue. Among the Phoenicians and 
probahly the planet Jupiter, which was also Carthaginians this worship was very ancient. 
honoured aa • star of ^sod omen by the Some find in Moloch the planet Saturn, 
Peraiana and Arabians. Others consider Bel others die Sun ; eomp. Acts viL 48. An- 
as denoting the sun. Qaa (' troop ' in Is. bamxblboh, a god of the colonists brou^t 
Izv. 11), a god of good fortune, honoured to Samaria flmn Sepharvaim (2 Kings zvxi 
by idclatroua IsraeUtee; according to the 81), may have been the asms aa Moloch 
Babbina, the planet Jupiter was also wor^ and one with Saturn, the Gre^ Chronos. 
shiped bk Syria as Baal<^ad. Bail aeems, Avam xblbob, a divinity of the aame oolo- 
with the Phondciana and Carthaginians, to nists, to whom, as to Moloch, children were 
have been a general denomination for a aacrificed. Many understand by thia idol 
god; with die article (habamlj, it denoted the eonatellation Cepheus, which the East* 

I D O 46 I D O 

enu o«]l ' the herdsmui and cattle/ Nibhas Sun among the Phcmioians. In December, 
(3 Kings xviL 81), an idol of the Avites, females bewailed the lost god in the most 
whose name, from a root meaning to bark, extraTagant manner ; they tore their hair 
BOggests that the image bore the liu^e of a and offered their virginitj, and ended by in- 
dog. Tabtak, a divinity of the same people, terring with all dae observances an image 
was, according to the Rabbins, represented of the departed divinity. Immediately en* 
by a statae shaped like an ass, and may have sued days of rqoioing and revelry, in oele- 
been symbolical of an evil star, either Satom bration of the god restored to life. The ori- 
or Mars. (2 Kings zvii. 81 ). Bdccoth-Bb- ginal significance of these rites is to be found 
BOTH, an idol iutrodnoed by Babylonians into in a symbolioal representation of the course 
Samaria (2 Kings xvii. 80), may have been of the sun and ito inflnenoe on Quo earth, 
the Pleiades. As the tenn, if it is not a proper Adonis, therelbre, is essentially the same 
name, may be lendered ' daughters of the with Osiris. Asbixa was god of the people 
tents,' others have thought of the tabemades of Hamath (2 Kings zviL 80). Astabtb 
la which, among the Babylonians, virgins (Ashtoreth), a femiJe divinity of the Sido- 
surrendered their honour to the goddess nians, was worshipped also by the Tyrisns, 
Milytta, Venus. Nbboai. (2 Kings xvii. 80), Philistines, and idolatrous Israelites (1 Kings 
an idol of the Cndiites, is thou^t to be the xL 6, 88. 2 Kings xxiiL 4. Mioah v. 18) ; 
planet Mars. Thb Sub was at the earliest comp. Jer. vii. 18 j xliv. 17, tsj., and see the 
period worshipped among the heavenly bo- artide. Atbbgatis (Derceto), a Philistine 
dies, either with or without a symbol. Among flsh'goddess, who had a temple in Ashtoreth 
the Egyptians, On, or Heliopolis, in Lower Kamaim (2 Maoc. xiL 26 ; comp. 1 Mace. v. 
Egypt, an ancient sacred city, was the chief 43). The form of a fish in which this di- 
seat of the worship of the Sun. Here was a vinity appears carries the mind to the sea- 
splendid temple to the Sun, with a numerous coast, where the worship of Atergatis may 
and learned caste of priests, to which Jo- have been mingled with the worship of Ve- 
seph's father-in-law belonged (Gen. xli. 4d. bus coming from the East Dagoh was the 
Ezek. XXX. 17, * Aveu'). To this place Jere- national god of the Philistines at Ashdod 

miah (xliii. 18) refers under the name of and Gaza (Judges xvi. 23, mq. 1 Sam. v. 2, 

Bethshemesh (* Sun's house'). Osiris was <eg. ; comp. 1 Mace. x. 84). NisBOCHwasan 

the symbol of the Sun and of the solar year, idol of Nineveh (2 Kings xiz. 87. Is. xxxvlL 

The ancient Persians also adored the Sun. 38), of which nothing more is knowm. Tb- 

Among the Israelites, traces of sun-worship baphem (* images,' Genesis xxxL 19, 80,84) 

were found in the horses snd chariote men- resembled the Penates, or household gods of 

tioned in 2 Kings xxiii. 11. Among the an- the Romans, and i^pear to have been con« 

oient Persians were found four white horses suited as a kind of private oracle, which 

drawing a white chariot, in honour of ' the pious men have regarded as a species of 

god of day.' In Jer. xix. 18. Zeph. L 5. idolatry (2 Kings xxiiL 24. Zech. z. 2. Hos. 

2 Kings xxiii 5, allusion is made to the iiL 4). 

practice of worshipping the Sun and other With Pagan idolatry were connected va- 
heavenly bodies with incense on the flat rious idolatrous practices, of which a sum- 
roofs of houses ; and Ezek. viii. 16 may be mary is here given. Astrology, or divination 
explained by the custom of greeting with by tiie stars, was Intimately connected with 
songs the murning sun, when the worship- the worship of the heavenly bodies. The 
pers held in their hands branches of pome- andent Egyptians, the Chaldeans, and espe- 
granate, tamarisk, and palm trees. Refbr- daily the magi among the latter, practised 
ence dso has been found to the worship of this pretended art (Is. zlviL 18. Matt. iL 2. 
the Sun in Lev. zxvL 81 and Isaiah xvii. 8. Daniel ii. 27; v. 11). Similar in character 
No, or Amub No, as in the Hebrew (Jer. was the observation of times, that is, the 
xlvL 25), was an Egyptian divinity whose determination of lucky and unlucky days 
name signifies production of light, on which and seasons. It is mentioned and forbidden 
account he was by the Greeks compared with in DeuL xviiL 10, 14. Is. ii. 6. Jer. xxvii. 0. 
their Zeus. No was the symbol of the sun Notions associated with it lie at the bottom 
in spring, in the sign of the Bam, whence of Job iii. 3, uq. Gd. iv. 10. Rom. xiv. 4, 6. 
the ram's horns seen on the head of Jupiter Soothsaying and foretelling, arising from 
Ammon. The chief place of his worship man's great desire to know what is hidden, 
was Thebes, in the temple at which was a fa- were much in use in very ancient days. As 
mous orade of the god which was consulted the Hebrews were favourod with instructions 
by Alexander the Great Thammuz (Ezek. from the high-priestfs Urim and Thummim, 
viii. 14) was probably the Phoenician Ado- and the voice of tihe prophets, they were 
nis, the head-quarters of whose worship was strictly forbidden to employ means in use 
Byblos, a very old Phoenidan city near the among idolaters for unveiUng the future 
Mediterranean. The festivd of Thammuz (Lev. xix. 26, 81 ; xx. 5, 6. Deut xviiL 10^ 
was of two characters, paray sorrowful, partly 11). Yet were pretenders to skill therein 
joyful, having reference to the worship of the found among them, though to a less extent 

IGN 4 

ttun vHh Um Itiatheii (1 aam. kxtUJ. S, 9. 
9 KingH xzL 6. Ii. tuX. 10. Uie>li liL II. 
J«r. IXU.6. Zvcb.i.3). Sm Ditiutioi. 
The intfrpreutian of dntma WM unong 
tba KDcianU, mi ipeeiillj tba Jewi, htgb^ 
thought of, aJncc dnwiiii wcr« Bommtcd 
a kind of dirina ravcUtioD. Conaolt tha 
hiitoi; of JoMph, and Jndgaa tu. IS. 
Jobuxiii. lb. Numb.zu.9. TitteftofbxXm 

(Jer. xxiiL 2S, tq. ; <wmp. Dtau ziiL I, 8, 
ft). The Chaldean iDlnpratara of dreams 
wen Tei7 eelebnlad (Dati. 11. 2, Mf.j i*. S, 
Mf. ; T, 13). Hegio, or the prelaoded an 
of exerting inBuenoe b; meana of lacnt and 
atiperhuman powers, *ai ilrorglj pmhibitad 
bj the Uv (Eiod. uii. 18. Lantinia xz. 9. 
Dant. XTiii 10, kj. I Sam. it. 29). Of a 
aimilar lutiiTS was the akitl of ohaimlug 
■arpenta (Jei.iiU. IT. £m1.i.11); aleoero- 
aatioDof lh« daad,oraudaeeptioii praotued 
in appaaiiag to bring the maiiaa. or ghoa^ 

■ ' ■ 'la (I Bam. inUL), lor which 

a to hare giTen 

ra folly and paintollj ihow 
tba ahocklugl; degrading tandencsj ot falaa 
and idolatiniu reUgion than Iha tact that the 
worahi)) of tba male organ of geuerMion, 
mider the panoniflcatinn of PxiiPDa, pra- 
Tailad among Iha moit anlCiTaled naliima of 
anliqnitj, Iha olbnain ftudnaaa of whiiih ia 
(till atteitedbyraniiitaorartind Uleratuia. 
rhare ia reaaon to beliera that Ihii dia- 
gnating fonn of idolatry waa not unknown 
among the Iiraelttea. Traoaa of it an pro- 
bably found in Iha events leecided in Nunb, 
1X1. 1, nq., and in Eings it. IS. Comp. 
3 Chron. IT. IB, where the tarm ' Idol ' (in 
the margin of the latter pawage, ' honor,' 
from Jwrm, ' I tm stiff') rapreunts a He- 
brew word which not onaptly desuribal 

Connected also wlih idolatry was the 
practioe — a species of tallooing — of mark- 
ing in colonn OQ the back, forehead, aims, 
or neck, the nama of the dlrinity under 
whoaa protection ■ penon waa (Isaiah iIIt. 
6. Berelationa liii. IS i compare il>. I), 
whence tba Hebrawg ware forbidden to make 
any inoisions in their flesh, eren in token of 
(ijef (Lev. xii. 26. DeaL iIt. I). Further 
Infbrmation (nl aaveral ot these sutjacta will 
be foimd under ihe appropriate heads. 

IDUttSA, die sonthanmiosi part ot Ja- 
des, which borders on Arabia Felnes, and 
the toulhem point of Ihe Dead Sea. It was 
originally th« aame with Edom, of which it 
formed Ihe western district. Its inhabitants 
being snbdoed by Ihe Macosbees, and haT- 
ing rM«iied Iha religion of their conquerors, 
IduilMt waa reckoned a parlotJndea (Hark 
iii.e). OflhiaeountiywasHarodlheartal, 
who waa Iheralora termed < a half lew.' 

IQNOUINY (L. tfiwsriaia, is, 'not,' and 
■mm, ' name,' reaembting our -iU-name'), 

r IHA 

bad i^nta, or diagnuie, atanda Id Piot. 
irilL 8 fcr a Hehrsw term in olhar places 
rendered 'shame' (ProT. iii. S6), ■ dieho- 
nonr' (iL 33), 'reproach' (xxiL 10). 

ILLUUIKATE (L. m, ' into,' an^ liaua, 
'light'), reprsaanu (Heb. x. 88) a Greek 
word aignifying to enh^tan (iifU, Kphca. 
i. le ; comp. Luke ii. 88. John i. 0. Bar. 

JMAQE (L. iHge, O. ,iiM, • a likenees-) 
ia used in Halt xiii. IT, Mf . in Ihe qnestiatl 
by which the bypoeritioal Phaiiseea tried to 
inTtdie oar Lord in diflenl^ either wilh d>« 
Boman or the palriotie Jewish party, by lead- 
ing him to declare whether or not ha jndged 
it lawfol 10 psy tribute to Cnaai, then maa- 
■'■'i t>y right of oonquast, of the Hebrew peo- 
ple. Most adroitly did the gnat Teacher 
aak ' whose imsga' waa on Iha cumnt eoin[ 

for if they, by eirenlating Boman money, 
acknowledged Cnsar's rule, they had Ihem- 
selTfls praclioally answered their ensnaring 
qnestioD. The coin above desotibed exhi- 
bJM Ihe head of Tiberius, the then reigning 
emperor. The reply to tba question, Cctor'i, 
ia presented on this smsU braaa coin, cirea- 
la^g in Jndea at the period in qoaHioD. 

The ohTcrsa haa^ie ^pe of a palm-trea with 
fruit, and the data S9, that is, ttcm the bat- 
tie of Acllom. The ear of com on Iha re- 
Tcrse may be taken aa a specimen of Ihe fins 
prodacis of Faleatina. 

IMAGERY. Bee CnuBkaa or. 

IMAOES, aa objects of worship, the la- 
rsalilaa were forbidden to make (^od. xx. 
4, fi); a prohibition which (btmad aa asaanlial 
part o( that ^lem of wise preeantion hj 
whlob Hoeea endeavoured to keep his peo- 
ple free from the oontanunationa of a nni- 
TerasUy pnTalent idolatry. The nssessity 
ot the itrioteet measnrea of prerenlion la 
illastrated by the fset, that image-worship 
prcrailed in those eoantries with which Ihe 
Habrewa wen mora or leas closely allied. 
How rank was ita growth in Egypt is msde 
manifest In eereral parla of thia woik. Ba- 
bylon waa Ihongfat to have bean leaa eormpl, 
* Its addiction la die wor- 

The Inugw aba (tcrqhlm) ithUh BmIwI 

rtoU from I^btu (Qi 

F.«k. ui. 3]), uid which mi* pMtabI; 
imdl flgur«i in hnmui BhKp«, > ipacin of 
household gods, long tsmdned a (ouns of 
Iniqnicj uid hum to Itrael (Jodg. xrt. 0, 
Mf. 1 Smmud XT. 23 ; zlz. 13, IS. 9 Kinfa 
zxiii. 24.) 8m Idoutbt. 

aUGIMATION' (L. imago, ' ■ UknuM,' 
or ' nprcMntition') Mtndi in Oan. tL 0| 
Tiii. 31, for > Bebnw word ligniQing 'to 
form,' and lo denolei the omticn]* or 
Ihongbta of tha mind; bat fai Dent Tiis. 
19. Jer. ill. 17, inothcT lerai, AtmMh (' to 
bind,' ■ htrden,' ■ be hud'), U bettBr icn- 
deMd in the margin bj ' itabbomnMi ( 
while In ofiiw Instuieee (ProT. tL IB. bm. 
liL 60) '■ third wold (meuiinf 'to nnits'), 
nndend ' iaugiiMaans,' neme to hare ra- 
ftenee to the powar of auooiation, Mtting 
foith flion^t* uid pmposM m eomtevtsd 
with md uiiing from eaeh othv. 

IHMOBTALITT (L. fn, 'not,' uid «sr^ 
'death*), deuhleunen, which ie ui exMt 
tiering of die Oreek originil hi 1 Cor. it. 
68, 51; but in Bomuu ii. 7, ■ Immoittlll; ' 
etuide for • Oieek taim that propertr meuii 
'incomiption' (1 Cor. it. CK), 08, M) ; dial 
ii, tha Blate irtiich ii tnt from the iiabiUtf 
to eontiplioii, under irtileh om' 'mortal bo- 
dice' ebange and die. Both ' tmmortalitj ' 
(1 Tim. tL IB) and 'Incoimption' (Bom. L 
3S) oan b« auertedahM>lntBlTorao one hnt 
Qai; who, howeTu, through bli Son, faai 

INC 4 

glTen ■ etcmil lite' (John z. SS. Rom. ri. 
23) in hit own bliutQl preseoM. irtiere, oon- 
Mqneutlj, thsrs will be ' no more de*lh ' 
(Bev. 111. i). Tba new tel forth speciiUj 
by John se«m( In b«, Ihat Christiuu narer 
properlTdie (John vi.OO; viil Si. Camp. it. 
U; Ti. 30 ; liii. 8), bnl pua from Ihia imper- 
teet and shadoirj la that perfect, tnu, and 
eudleia eiialcnce, ao thai thej ma; eren in 
thia aUIe ' In hold on alsnial life ' (1 Tim. 
vt 12, 10). 

IMPABT ( L. in, 'Into,' and pan, ' a put '), 
to giTc a part, or oommimiBata, is in Lnke 
iij. 11, Bom. i. 11, the meaning assigned to 
a Orwk word which signifies to share with 
anolher. Comp. 'giTedi' in Bom. xii. 8. 

IBfPERIOUS (L. imptro, • I oommsnd,' 
Bomp. Eng. 'empire'), in Ezekiel iTi. 30, 
denotes a commanding; temper, the prodiul 
of indulgenoe and self-will. The original 
Ngnifles ' (o bear rule ' (Neh. t. 19). 

IMPOSE (L. in, ' upon,' and pme, • I 
place') is < to put upon ' another as a tax or 
loll; so in Ezra vii. 24. Comp. 'cast' in 
Dan. ill. 20. 

IMPOTENT (L. in, ' not,' and potmj, 
'powerful') aigniSes ' powerless,' being a 
literal translation of the Oreek arjunotu in 
AeCs li*. 8, but is rendered ' impoaaible ' in 
Matt xix. 26, ' oould not do ' in Bom. Tiii. 
8, and ' weak' in xt. 1. 'Impotent' is also 
the translation of a word, atthina, properl; 
signi^ing 'without strength' (Aola iv. S. 
Bom. V. 0), which is Eoglished by ' sick ' 
(MalL xir. 39), 'weak' (ixtL U), and 
'fbebla' (ICor. liL 22). 

IMPOVEBISH (L. in, 'into,' and pauper, 
•poor") is 'to make poor' {Is. xl, 20), 

IMPUTE (L. in, ' into/ and pulo, ' I 
reckon'), acoording to its derivation and 
ordinary use, means, ' to place to the ao- 
count (or credit) of a person;' hence to 
ascribe any thing or qaality, whether good 
or bad. Spencer faaa these lines ;. 

' KatUesic be ihortlr >ha]l again be tiTds. 

And ttinlj i]Di[a him (rfth' iM^mltil Maiiii 
Smb bi n lure, ha itmzlj ihall abMe, 
Or make you (nd amendment fin tbe ume.' 

The Hebrew original, ghekihat, is rendered 
'Ihonght' (Qen. 1. 30), 'devise' (S Bamuel 
IJT. U), 'count' (Genesis iv. fl), 'impnta' 
(2 Sam. lii. 19), ' reokOB ' (Ley. ict. 00). 
With a similar mercantile reference, corre- 
sponding worda are used in the New Testa- 
ment (Rom. T. 13 ; comp, Philem. 18 ; and 
James iL 83 ; comp. Heb. li. IB, Bom. ii. 3). 
INCEN3B (L. in. inteniiTe, and ratuioa, 
I am in a glow'), a bumt-oflering com- 
posed of odoriferous herbs (Eiodns or. B i 
III. 1). Bee FRutmcmssi. The spioery 
of a mammy opened some years ago at 
Leedi, baring been minutely examined, was 
found to ooniist of a mixture of cassia, 
myirti, ladanon (an Oriental gam), and aome 
other nnknown aromatic herb*. T^qnantin 
ToL n. » / 

) INC 

need weighed in its dry state twelie poan4s. 
None of the ingredienta were the produce of 
Egypt ; but they are all obtained, at thii day, 
from trees and shmbs indigenons to those 
districts oC Arabia and Canaan which lie to 
the east of the desert of Sinai and the riier 
Jordan. So large a demand for these articles 
in ancient I^gypt created an exlensiTC IrafBo 
aoroaa the desert The Isbmaelitea to whom 
Joseph wu aold by his brethren were en- 
gaged in it (Qen. iiiTJi. 20; oomp. xliii. 
11). The art of compounding spices, there- 
fore, If unknown to the patriaicbs, must 
have been praelised in Egypt, where the 
Hebrews would, if needful, acquire the skill 
reqoisite for preparing incense. Indeed, tba 
recipe tor the holy anointing oil (Eiod. iii. 
3S— 36) is curiaaaly illustrated by the >n- 
■criptions on the beauuful obeliaki at Kar- 
nae, where are seen figuree of the members 
of the family of Tbobnosia Ul. (whose reign, 
OsbumsayB, began 1T38 A.C.] offering va- 
riooa ingredients to Amoun. The upper- 
most figure offers a rase of ' oil ;' the next, 
'myrrhi' the third, *iQceuee' compounded 
of three parts of one unknown apice and 
file of another. The offering of the fourth 
is also a compoand, containing frankincense 
minglsd with fite parts of another unknown 

Incense was offered to all the gods and 
introduced on every grand oecaaion, when 
ever a oompleie offering was tatde, Tlii, 




iseeuM tamt in fhe temptos befoM the whioh were thrown bj the h«nd into Am 
altar wae made into email balls, or paetilea, oenaert m aeen in thia oat 

In modem Egypt perftimee, thongh lees 
freqnently than fcnn^y, an stiM offered to 
departing gaeats; for whioh purpose burn- 
ing ofaarooal is need in the perfuming fesael, 
or mibkhanth, whieh is of metal ; the reeep- 
tade fort ihe ehareoal is lined or half-filled 
with gypsum plaster, and its oorer is pieieed 
with apertures for the emission of the smoke. 
The odoriferous snbstanee most eommonly 
used is aloes wood, or benioln, or oasesrilla 
baik. The wood is moistened befors it is 
plaeed on the boming ooals^ 

nrcsvsn to thb bacud bitll. 

INCONTINENCT (L. in, 'not,' snd eon- 
tiMo, * I hold in '), not holding or keeping 
withhi due bounds, went of self-control; 
according to the Greek original, * powerless- 
ness' (1 Cor. tiL 6; comp. 'excess,' Matt 
zxiu. 25, and 3 Tim. iii. 8). 

INGBEDIBLE (L. in, * not,' and credo, 
' I beliere), ' not to be belieyed ' (Acts zzvi. 
8) ; also rendered ' faithless* (Matt xvii 17), 
' unbelisTer ' (1 Cor. Ti. 6), ' infidel' (2 Cor. 

Ti. 15). 

INDIA, a country in Eastern Asia, bounded 
by the sea on the south, the Taurus range 
of mountains on the north, Ihe Ganges on 
the east, and the Indus on the west The 
name does not occur in the Hebrew litera- 
ture till the times of the Book of Esther (i. 
1 ; Tiii. 9), where it is given as one extreme 
of the Persian empire, Ethiopia being the 
other. But that India in the proper sense 
is meant oannot be affirmed. Nor does it 

appear that the Hebrews wen aoquiinted 
with that country, at least sny more flian 
Taguely. Probably, India to them repre- 
sented the furthest east, towsrds which trade 
was osmed on, and from which merchandise 
was brought westwsid by the Arabian Golf. 
The countiy whence these goods came may 
have been called Ophir, but Ophir to the 
Hebrews may have been in soutti-east Ara- 
bia, or, comprising these parts, it may hafe 
indefinitely extended eastwsrd so as to reach 
Ceylon snd India. The existence of the 
word in the Book of Esttier seems to show 
that when it was written a knowledge of In- 
dia^ properly so oslled, had spread itsdf in 
Western Asia; for the Hebrew Bodu, with 
the Syrians Hendu, the ancient Persians 
Heando (En^^sh Hindoo), the Arabs Hind 
(comp. Scinde), or Hend, is only a fonn of 
the natiTC name of India. 

India is by some regarded as the cradle 
of the human race and the first nursery of 
civilisation, whence knowledge and the arts 
flowed towards the West, &iding beds in 
Mesopotamia, Egypt, Palestine, Asia Minor, 
Greece, and Italy. Certainly, many points 
of resemblance may be traced between opi- 
nions prevalent In India and in Egypt. 
There is found in both a style of architec- 
tural sculpture, consisting of temples snd 
figures of gods huge in sixe, hewn in the 
living lock. And so remadcaUe an affi- 
nity is there between the ancient sacred 
tongue of India and the Teatonie of Ger- 
many and England, fixat hence has been 
formed a class of languages termed the 

INFALLIBLE (L. in, 'not,' and faUo, 'I 
deceive'), that which cannot deceive or be 
deceived or mistaken. The word is found in 
the English version of Acts L 8, without any 
corresponding term in the original; yet is 
it retained in the revised translation of Bsrt- 
lett (People's Edition) and 'A Layman.' It 
is, however, omitted laj Shsrpe, who, render- 
ing the original exactly, gives 'many prooft;* 
so Wieklil^ ' bi many argumentes ;' l^dale, 
' by many tokens ;* snd Crsmner, ' by msny 

INFAMY (L. in, 'not,' snd/etma, 'fsme,' 
'repute'), disgrace, stands in Prov. xxv. 10 
for a Hebrew term rendered in Gen. xxxvii. 

I N H 51 1 N H 

S^ * efil report;' Nembers st. 30, ' sl«nd«r ;' powy idleviatioas of evilv too pBesdug to 

jukd Jer. xz. 10, ' deUmingJ he endued, oaimot zeasonably be expe^ed. 

INFINITE (J,, in, 'not; uadfaiu, * end'). The Turks and Syrians sre about at Oie 

that which is onilmiited or boundless. The maximum of the dYilisation possible to Mo- 

Uebrew language expresses the iniinite, as hanunedans of ibe present time. The mer- 

* numberless,' literacy, ' no number' (Psalms jsantUe cdass is said to be li4tle respected, 

cxl^ii. 5). A cuallar form, * without nom* and generally to lade integrity. Veraeity is 

bar/ is uaed to denote a great but iindeter* beld very lightly by aU. The people prao- 

nine^ Munb^ (Ps. zL iS ; cy. 34). Ano- tise tamperaooe and fhigality, which may be 

Iber wj9f of espresaing Ae infinite in He- denominated Oriental virtues. Their sitoap 

brew is to tarm it ' omUoob/ 4>r ' without tion with regard to the physical means of 

end' (Job xxii. 5). comlbrt and subsistence, are in many re- 

INFIBMITY (U IS, ' not,' and firmut, spects favourable, and under a tolerable 

'strong'), want of strengA, weakness (Ps. government would be dmost unequalled. As 

IxsriU 10 ; comp. .Gen. xlviiL 1. Judg. xvi. it is, the Syrian peasant and his family fare 

7). mudi better than large portions of the la- 

INFLAHICATJON (L. in, intens., and bouring daases of Europe. The mildness 

flamma, * a flame'), a burning; so the body of the ^limate^ -tfie abnodanoe of land and 

ia said to be inflamed when atfeoted with its fartility, with the free and luxuriant paa- 

heat, swelling, redneas, and pain. In He- turage that covers the mountains and the 

brew, the word rendered * inflanunation' sig- plains, render it nearly i]iqK>ssible that 4he 

nifl«s * to bom ' (Dent xxviiL fi2 ; oomp. peasant should not be well ^nippUed wilb 

Gen. xxxL 36. Prov. zxvi. 23). bread, fimit, meat, and milk. They ailmoat 

INFLUENCES (L. in, < into,' and fluo, alwaya appear well clothed. Their houses, 

'I flow'), literally that which, bj flowing too, though often of a slight oonstmotion and 

into, impels, is a term uaed in Job xxxviii 31 mean appearanoe, must be pronounced com- 

of Uie Pleiades. ' Sweet influenoes * is the modious when compared with tiiie daiic, 

rendering of a Hebrew word which some crowded apartments usually occupied by the 

derive from a root aignifying '^leUgfat,' as corresponding dasses in Eun^e. Agrieul- 

inProv.zzix.l7,e]qilaLiingitinJobtoreiiBr tnral wages vary a good deid in different 

to the season of apring, when the Pleiades, parts of the country, butt the average is not 

or the Seven Stars, make their appearance ; less than three jot ibur piasters a day. With 

others, from a root which conveys the notion adl these advantages, population is said lo 

of binding, eonstrue the term, ' the bands of be on the deoline----so astive and destructiva 

the Pleiades.' Bartlett^s revised Bible sen- are the vicious tendendes of tiie rdgning 

ders, system of religion and government Poly- 

' Canst th<ml)ind the dudn of BdadflS, gamy, military conscription, unequal and 

OrlooMtbelwiidsof Orionr oppressive taxation, forced labour for tha 

The w<Mrd ' bands' is not infieqiuenlly ap- rulers, general insecurity of property, and 

plied in P^sian poetry to the Pleiades, the consequent 'discouragement «i industry, 

which, to use the aUupion of Herder, seem aie probably the prindpal causes of this 

to be .bound to one another in datedy union, deplorable result There are o^r causes 

and thus joyously to udier in the spring. of depopulation, :Mfaich are inseparable from 

INHABITANTS, the, of Judea were dif- general ignorance and barbarism. One of 

ferent at different periods. See Caxaasmss. tiie moot destructive, and at tbe same tane 

At the present day they are Arabs, that is most latent is, probsbly, the want of medl- 

they iQ>eak tbe Arabic, though, with dight ed knowdedge and skill. There are nowelL- 

erceptions, they are probably all descend- taught physicians ; and in the hands of the 

ants of the old inhabitsnts of BjnA. They ignorant peetenders, ^who always thriye on- 

are a frne, spirited race ct men, and have dersuch droumstances, diseases come armed 

given Hohammed Ali much trouble in sub- with a fatd malignity unknown in civilised 

dning them, and still more in retaining countries. The plague often sweeps un- 

them in subjection. They are add to be checked over the country us well as the town, 

industrious /or Orientds, and to have the carrying off a tenth, a frMi, or a third of the 

right dements for becoming, under better inhabitants. The m<»e common and milder 

auspices, a civilised, intellectud nation. It diseases, which readily submit to proper 

wiU, however, be found acarody practicable treatment often acquire the greatesr viru- 

to raise a people to a respectable sodd and lenee, through neglect and imismanagement^ 

mord state under a Turkidi, Egyptian, or till they yield only to the great destroys in 

any other Hobammedan goaremment The the extent of their ravages. The appear- 

inherent vices of |he rdigious system enter, anee of the people is stilting and, to a Eu- 

and, from their unavoidable connections, ropean, strange. They wear ndther hats, 

most enter, so deeply into the politicd ad- bonnets, nor stoekkigs ; both sexes appear 

ministration, that any reform in government in loose flowing dresses, and red or yellow 

jNT improvement in the people, beyond tern- dippers. The men have red caps, with or 

1> 3 


without tnrbaiiB; the women are concealed divine influence, the nature of which the 

by white Teils, widi the exception of the eyes, herself is made to describe in these words — 

INHERITANCE (L. in, * into/ and hern, * Nor do I know what I say, but the god com- 

( an heir '). See Hxbitaob. mands each thing which I speak/ Philo 

INIQUITY (L. in,* not,' and cBTttttf,' equal/ says, 'A prophet says nothing ot his own, 

'just'), that which is not equal (£8ek.xTiii but another supplies him with what is fo- 

29), unjust or improper conduct, is repre- reign to his own mind: he is an instrument 

sented by several Hebrew words conreying of God, invisibly played upon by him.' The 

the idea of what is bad, worthless, dec. (Numb, great preyalence of a belief in divinely-oii- 

zxiiL 21; comp. Job zi. IL, and Ps. z. 7). ginadng commmiications appears firom the 

INK. See Books, i. 189. writings of Josephus. We may instaaoe hia 

INNOCENCY (L. in, * not,* and noeto, ' I declaration to Vespasian, made after the cap- 
hurt,' 'injure'), harmlessness (Dent ziz. ture of Jotapata, to the effect that he had 
10; comp. Numb. xzziL 22). been instructed of God to predict that Yes- 

INQUISITION (L. in, * into,' and qtuaro, pasian would be master of the Boman em- 

*I seek'), searching into; so the Hebrew pire (Jew. War., iii. 8, 9). In this general 

original in Esther ii. 28, from a root mean- opinion lay the ground of the idea of inspi- 

ing ' to seek ' (Numb. zvi. 10), and in Dent, ration entertained by the early Christian fa- 

xix. 18, from another root of similar import thers. Justin observes, ' It is not possible 

(Lev. z. 10). for men to know things so great and divine 

IN3PIBATI0N (L. tnipirc, * I breathe by the human understanding, but by grace 
into ') is the translation (Job xzziL 8) of a descending firom above on holy men, who, 
Hebrewwordsigniiyingandrendered* breath' offering themselves to the influence of the 
(Genesis ii. 7 ; Tii. 22. 1 Kings zvii. 17), Divine Spirit, and becoming like a lyre un- 
' blast' (2 Sam. xxii. 16. Ps. xviii. 16), and der his hand, communicated to us a know- 
' soul ' (Is. IvuL Id). The term is thus used ledge of heavenly things.' This conception 
of God's influence in communicating and of inspiration, which Justin restricted to the 
destroying life (Job iv. 9), of that life itself writings of the prophets, was afterwards ex- 
and of the breath which is its index ; also tended to all the misceUsneons contents of 
of the understanding, or rational powers, the Bible ; and when opposition to Bome, at 
by which the human race is distinguished the period of the Beformation, necessita^ 
(xxxii.8). The usage thus stands in sgree- the expression of a broad antithesis to its 
ment with the general tenor of the older doctrine of the validity of tradition as ex- 
Scriptures, which uniformly refer all great pounded by the church, grew into the broadly 
and cardinal events, whether they are what enunciated position that the scriptures of 
men call bad or good, to the immediate the Old and New Testament, being in- 
ageney of the Almighty (Exodus xxxi. 8; spired of God, are infallible truth, and, as 
zxxv. 81. Numbers XL 2d. 1 Sam. z. 0,6. 2 such, the sole guide of the Christian life 
Kings iii. 15). and the sole judge in controversy. Hence 

In the New Testament the noun ' inspi- every proposition, as being of God, iras 

ration ' does not occur, but in 2 Tun. iii. 16 alike divine and true ; scripture and revela- 

we read (translated word for word as it stands tion were oohicident. It was an ineonsist- 

in the Greek), ' every scripture divinely in- ency, not an intentional reyoking of this 

spired, also nseftil for doctrine,' &c., where doctrine, that the Beformers put forth oreeda 

the reference is to scriptures of the Old declaratory of the faith of a Christian, which 

Testament The term ' dirinely inspired ' properly, according to their own principles, 

(thtojnmutas, Theot, * God,' and pnto, * I could be nothing else than the Bible and the 

breathe'), does not occur in any other scrip- whole Bible. One inconsistency led to ano- 

tural passage ; so that we are deficient in ther. Inconsistencies in practice were al- 

means for ascertaining the sense in which lowed to prevail, for Christians did not keep 

the writer (Paul?) employed it In 1 Thess. the seventh day holy or undergo cironmcl- 

iv. 9, Paul uses a similar term, * divinely sion. This they justified by saying that 

tati^^'^-' for ye yourselves are taught of Christ had in these respects superseded 

God to love one another ;' where the teaching Moses. Thus making a great rent in their 

was that which came to the Thessalonians in Aeory, they ceased to hare the power to sus- 

the way of those special instruments provided tain it ; for if the human mind might an- 

of God in the dispensation of the gospel. thorise a preference of one part over ano- 

The term thaopnetutot and others of a si- ther, then, on sufficient reason, might it 

mllar import do not infrequently occur in do so again and again, till the idea of inspi- 

other literatures, as < bom of God,' * given ration lost both its integrity and its tmst- 

of God,' ' taught of God,' ' filled with God.' worthiness. Accordingly, it has become 

Plutarchspeaiuiof 'dreams inspired of God;' most variable in the amount of its claims 

Cicero declares, ' no one ever became a great and the extent of its prevalence. Christian 

man without some divine inspiration ;* the sects which, talking of * the plenary inspira- 

Giooian Sibyl was held to be filled with the tion of the Seriptures,' and appearing to 


aBseri their nniYenal ▼•IMity as absolate temple-altar at Jemsalem, Jeans replaoed by 
trath, take and leave of them what they forgiveness on repentance and newness of 
please, reoeiving some more, some less, but life through God's mercy in his Son (Gal. 
none sll. The most thorough-going Pro- iv. 8, teq. 2 Cor. iii. 6, Mf.V Hence it is 
testants do not salute each other with a holy the revelation given in the New Testament 
kiss, wash each othei^s feet, or anoint the that the follower of Jesus has to learn. But 
sick with oil ; as little do they when smitten the mind of God in the New Testament 
on one cheek, turn the other, or give their is the mind of Jesus. To him, there- 
doak to him who has stolen their coat In fore, are we directed if we would learn what 
truth, no one now holds the doctrine that all is inspiration, and what inspired truth, in 
scripture, as being divinely inspired, is alike relation to ourselves. Jesus dedares him- 
tme and everlastingly binding. This, the self a prophet (Luke ziii. 88) ; also the Mes- 
thesis on which the Beformation was osten- siah (Matt xvi. 20 ; zzvi. 08, 64. Luke iv. 
■ibly achieved, is now given up in fact, and 18, mj. John iv. 26) ; as such, he received the 
should be explicitly renounced in words; Holy Spirit (Matt iii 16), by which he was 
tile rather because the appearing to retain it warranted in improving the Old Dispensation 
has the effect of setting the science of the (v. 20—48 ; xii. 18). In the Gospel of John 
Bible ib direct contradiction to the science is given a doser and fuller description of 
of the day, and so jeopardises the accept- Cluist^s rdation to the Spirit of God. Here, 
anoe of that divine volume in its proper cha- Jesus is not only said to * speak the words of 
raoter, as a record of what God in his pro- God,' in consequence of having received the 
vidence has done for man's religious train- Spirit (iii 34; comp. i. 32), but he declares 
ing, and an invaluable witness to the truth, his doctrine divine, masmuch as it is nut his, 
The chief terms expressive of God's influ- but his Father's (vii. 16 — 18), in virtue of 
enoe on the minds of his servants have for an intimate union between them (viii. 16, 
their meaning the idea of unveiling or un- aq, ; xii. 49, 00 ; xiv. 10 — ^24), and of ex- 
covering (Lev. XX. 17 — ^21. Numbers v. 18. press instructions or communications made 

1 Sam. XX. 80), and then tropically signify of God to him (viii. 26 ; xvii. 8). The sub« 
to make something known by word or deed stance of divine truth Uins made known to 
(Matt X. 26). Hence God makes a revela- Jesus, and by him revealed to man, xiv. 6, 
tion when he instructs men in those rdi- is given in his own words in xvii. 8. 

gious truths which they do not know (1 Cor. Of the teachings of Jesus we possess four 

iv. 5 ; comp. Bom. L 19, 20. Ants xiv. 17. narratives besides the devdopments of the 

Ps. xix. Bomans ii. 4. Deut xxx. 11 — 14 ; same given in the epistolary writings. In 

especially consult Acts x. 10, uq, ; xvii. 27). these documents prevail great diversities of 

The media of eommunication are various, style, and some of doctrine and fact These 

Sometimes a direct influenoe of the Divine diversities prove the independence of the 

Mind is intended (Gen. xvii. 1. Is. xlviii. 16 ; writers, but they prove also that their pro- 

Ixi. 1 ; comp. Luke iv. 18. Mark xili. 11. 1 per character is that of witnesses to the 

Cor. ii. 10. 2 Cor. xii 1, leg. Ephes. L 9. truth. So in the Old as well as the New 

2 Pet. i. 21.) Testament, every record is an evidence of 
That the Old Testament contained a dls- facts and states of mind, from which we 

closure of God's will, is distinctly aoknow- may elicit truth. 

ledged by Jesus Christ and his apostles, who. Viewed in this light, the Bible undoubtedly 

however, are so far from teaching that a sys- contains a divine revelation. Nor can its great 

tern of absolute and everlasting truth was to facts and teachings be accounted fbr apart 

be found there, that they made it the object from the admission that ' holy men of old 

of their lives to supersede it as a system by spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit' 
a higher development of divine truth. The When we contemplate such men as New 

entire Hebrew ritual they were instrumental ton, Watt, and Dalton, or as Homer, Shake- 

in removing. God, who appears in the Old pere, and Milton, we cannot doubt but that 

Testament as the Idng of Israel, Jesus exhi- they had received of God extraordinary pow- 

bited as the equal Father of mankind, who ers. To the same conclusion must we come 

does good even to the evil and unthankAil. when we contemplate Moses, Davids and 

The prospect of earthly good to be enjoyed Isaiah. Each of these trios stood, in their 

in the promised land, by means of obedience ilcind, far above their fellows. As was Homer 

to the Mosaic ordinances, Jesus and Paul in literature, so was Isaiah in religion. In 

enlarged into the hope of a heavenly and degree, at least, their faculties and their abi- 

spiritual inheritance, freely given to dl be- lity transcended the powers of all other men 

lievers. The Jewish notion of an abode be- We are not here concerned to inquire whe- 

yond the grave, in Hades, where only a kind ther the powers of Newton and Milton were 

of life in death prevaUed, Jesus changed into merely ordinaiy powers carried to an unnsud 

etemd life enj(^ed in the blissfdl presence devation ; but, however this may be, we find 

of God ; the representation of sin pardoned a distinction in kind between them and Mo- 

in virtue of constant offerings made on the ses, David, and Isaiah. The latter, besides 


being pre-enrfaieiit writers, possessed high fore left shades hf tfie Mb ti tlie lights in 

religions wisdom snd nel»le Mligiovis sym- the mind and Ae hiaiofy ol liiB awssengers. 
pakhies, whieh set them far id adraace of These arasseiiigeft form a seiles, begm- 

flieir several ttes, and made them <hs spi- nlng witlk Abraharii and ending with the 

ritaal lights of the ancient iTorid. In lela- aposAe John, eonsSstinf of mmt mosl vart- 

tSon to their tespeetite times, Abraham SUmmIb ons in their endowmottts, btH all eonepiring 

higher than OalBeo. Here we have a fkcft ' to bear wNnees to the wnA.' The sabjeet 

of which some aocotint must be glten. The of thefr common tesiBtnony itf the inspired 

Scripture assigns tospiration. The oinse is burden of the Bible. The partieiilars are 

snffleient as wdO! as indispensable. Some no less few ihnn the topies are irapoitanl 

divine influence there must htfve been, else These pardetdars^heirsver.haTeto be gajned 

the actaally seen divine results eonld not by a eomparative study of the record ; and 

have existed. The annotmeement of the inasmiiefaaflth«9^vairyki srt>staBeeand fbnn 

creation of the irorld by Supreme Intelli- witti a long snceesslon ef age*, and wKh the 

gence with whieh the BiUe opens, is an an- minds of those Who seareh aflsr ftem, iSiey 

tioipation of the last result of a high and latfe eaanol be regarded Mr one absolvts whokr, 

philosophy, and can have been made by a eonaistkif of pure, infaUible trutb ; though 

ftigiiive Hebrew, bred in the nridst of ido- doubOess they aM so dear, taSl, and dcnfr- 

la&y, only as the grand oonsequettce of di- nite, as to leave one genenfl imptessiofni en 

Tine instructions. The natmta of those in- sineefe and thoaghtftil minds, which eon- 

stmotions we may not be able to define. As duces to God's grsteiods designs in pitmioC- 

a part of God's operatioiis, they may well be ing, in union with his Spirit, ttie salvation 

hidden from finite minds. But flie heavens of the soul. SeD' Avomss, Obsatiov, 

do not more clearly or ftally declare Ae PBOYHBts. 

handiwork and show fotth the glory of God, INSURBEOTION (L. In, ' against,' and 

than do the Scriptures, by distinct and nu- turgo, *I rise*), a ffsing, thai is, against 

merous evidences, attest his influence and established rule ot authority (Esra It. 19). 
«Iaim a divine original. From the earliest IN8TBU0TION (L. tn, inlsns., and 

to the latest periods of their historical range, tiruo, * I form,' ' build,' or ' ftonlsh '), the 

they present a succession of great minds, of communication of knowledge er ki/Wmation 

distinguished lights, of legislators, bards, (Ps. 1. 17. Prov. i. 3), represents a Hebrew 

prophets, and apostles, who carried forward word which, from a root meaning « to bind,' 

God's great work in the world in promoting or ' restrain,' is also reiidered ' ehaatiBemenI' 

the enlightenment and elevation of man, in (Deut xi. fl) and < ctorteeiion ' (Prov. vii 

developing his powers, preparing the ages 22) ; the idea being, that the eomnrauieadon 

successively for fuller displays of truth and of knowledge (of God) restrains the natural 

larger measures of good, and the credentials tendencies to excess and wrong, keeps the 

of whose inspiration were and are found in conduct within proper bounds, and so guards 

the divine work which they undertook, the agaixlst the transgression ef God^s lafws. 
lofty spirit in which they discharged its du- INTEGBITT (L. integer, < whole,' ' entire :' 

ties, and the large and ever-growing benefits in and tango, * untouched,' ' uninjured ' f ), 

which they conferred on mankind. entireness ; as applied to conduct, npright- 

In the light, truth, and greatness of these ness, freedom from fcidt (Genesis xx. 6, 6). 

superior minds, is the essence of the Bibli- The original is rendered 'plain' (xxv. 27), 

cal inspiration to be found; and pre-eml- 'perftot' (Job i. 1), * upright' (Prov. xxix. 

nently in the wisdom, grace, love, and self- 10), 'undeflled' (Oant vi 9), 'simplicity' 

sacrifice of him who was greater than they (2 Sam. xv. 11). 

all, and who, as his Wen-beloved Son, lay in INTEBCESSIOK (L. inter, 'between,' 

the bosom of the omniscient Father, and so and cede, ' I go'), going between two parties 

learnt and proclaimed * the words of eternal with a view to et^et a reconciliation, as 

life ;' and who, as a religious guide, ' was Abraham intefeeded with God to save So« 

perfect, entire, lacking nothing f in his own dom (Gen. xvili. 28, teq.). The cenespond- 

words, ' the way, the truth, and the life.' ing Hebrew term signifies to ' come ' (Josh. 

Comp. John xvii. 3. xvi. 7), 'meet' (Is. Ixiv. 0), 'fall' (Judges 

The inspiration of the Bible is the inspi- tiiL 21), 'lay' (H. liii. 6), 'some betwixt* 

ration of its great men. The record can be (Job xxxvi. 82), and ' entreat* (Gen. xxiii. 

ealled inspired only so far as it bears the 8; comp. Jet. xxxvl. 20. Is. liii. 12; lix. 16). 

aignatures of their minds ; and misconcep- The Greek of the New Testament, in words 

tion would be avoided if the quality of inspi- of similar import, conveys the idea that Jesus 

ration were predicated only of the minds to intercedes with QcA for the saints (Bomans 

which it belongs, and so far as it belongs to viii. 27, 84 ; xi. 2) and all who some unto 

them. We say, ' so far as it belongs to them;' him (Heb. vii. 25 ; comp. Acts xxv. 24. Bom. 

because God, in making known his will, has, viil. 26, and 1 Tim. ii. 1 ; Iv. 0). 
in conform!^ with the laws of his provi- IKTEBMEDDLE (L. inter, ' amohg,' and 

denee, employed 'earthen vessels,' and there- medium, 'middle;' F. mesler, 'm^ler'), 'to 


tftka part in/ •• In the aAux» of otiMm; what he beUewd he did My, what he memt 
henee to inteitee, is used in Vtov, zriii to My. But beftyre this can be done, the inter- 
1 in a good aanM, lor * have to do with,' b«t pieter matt Mtiaiy himsel/ that he hu be- 
in a bad senM inzz.3; eomp. zvii. 14, being fisie hin the veiy woida of hie anliior, for it 
eqoiyalent to tluiietii^ into that with whieh it ftom hia worda only that he ean now eli- 
we have no coneen. A word eigniiying to eit hie aenee. Aeooidingly, the intezpreter 
* mix,' or *mingie,' ia in the odgiMl vaed in first inqnirM into ttie history of the serip- 
PioT. idv, 10; eosipk Ps. evi d6* tore that ia under his eye, in order to ascer* 

INTEfiiasaiON (L. mttr, *bekvasii,' tain when, where, by whom, and under what 

and miuo, * 1 send'X easiation, stoppings eiroiiinatanoM, it wu produced ? how it hM 

eeaaiiig for a while (Lam. iii. 4A). been preserred f are ttiere more copies of it 

INTEBPB£TATION» deiived tnm the than one f do they agree or diifor ? if they 

Latin inteiprei^ denoting ona who is be- diifer, what an the di'versities T— so that he 

tween two others-Ht means, or Inleimediaiy, may be enahled to jndge whether the writing 

for conTeying the thoni^ of the one to the ia anthcntie or nnauthcntie (written by the 

othei^ aiipuAes the process^ the ait» or the person to whom it is ascribed), gennine or 

seienoey which conveys iwm a book or writ- sporkras (that is, the wiitmg which he wrote, 

iog its impost to the reader. This oomma- and not another, or the aotnal production of 

nication may be made by trantfeiring the the aUeged time and ciroumstanoes) ; whe- 

idM firom one language into anothci^ and ia ther it is purs m tiie snthor left it, or cor- 

then called ' tiaBshitien»' by the substitution rupted tfasouc^ mistske, or interpol»ted by 

of which term fas intetpmtaiMn the force of firand; whetiier it is entire as it wm when 

some psMi^pos beeemM e te a w t (1 Oor. ziL it proceeded from its writer, or mutilated or 

10 ; xiT. 36. John i 98 ; ix. 7. Heb. ¥ii. 2); augmented ? ThsM inquiries, embracing a 

or the communieation may be by espnssing vast Tsriety of important topics, in the study 

the thought of the writer in sneiher word of of iriueh learning, skill, and diligence are 

the aame language (a gkkm)» et by Mveral of great moment, have been diligently pro- 

eiplanatoiy teime of the same Unguage seculed by professed theological scholars, 

(par^hnwe), botii whieh mean* came un- and led to the general conclusion that the 

der the general head of explanalion, or, to saercd scriptures of the Old and New Tes- 

UM the school term, csi;|SMf ; that is, lead* tament are of such a character m to dcMrre 

ing out or unfolding (the senM). The word tiie most oaraAil and exact attention on the 

used in tiie New Testsment, hermeneta (firom part of ths inteipreter. Before, howeTcr, the 

HermeSf the Oieek name for Mercuiy, the latter can enter on hia task, he must know 

Pagan mediator, or messenger, between the in what Isnguage ii tiie document which lies 

gods and men), like interpietation, hM for before him. Ia it an original or a transla- 

ito baM the idM of some ariddle party who tion? If the latter, is it trustworthy? And 

Mto M a medium of oommuniealiott. Hence here, although in general the authorised 

interpretatton is tiie procoM by whidh tiie English yersion msy be trusted, yet is it by 

thoughte of one mind sie communicated to no mema fanltlcM; and a familiarity with 

tiie mind of another, and tiie intaipretation the original languages and their cognate 

of the ScriptuTMis that proecM by which tiie dialecte is a moat deairable qualification in 

meaningofthesaoiedwritingsismade known, one who undertakM to intefpret the Scrip- 

The existenoe of such a proccM or art denotM tnrss. Such an one, howerer, if he wishea 

ito neccMi^i in other words, that thsae ia to paform his oflioe properiy, must, ag an 

in the Bible something dadE needing iUus- tntsrpreter, exclude firom his sphere that 

tration, something hidden to be revealed, which properiy does not belong to it For 

something difikult to be explained. Nor instsnoe, he hM nothing to do with the ere- 

will the existenoe of obMuritiM surpriM any dibiUty or witii the practical application of 

one who duly conaiders that the Bible, writ- the subjsct-matter. Whether true or false, 

ten partly in Hebrew, partly in Qreek, wm momentoua or trivial, divine or human, his 

produced at different times, by different sole business is to elicit the meaning, to 

writers, under very difBnrent droumstsnces, bring out and frftmmunifatf tiie import of 

in a atate of soeie^ most dissiimlar to our his text, to discover and act forth the seuM 

own, end eompleted« at the eariieat, some of his author. In that scum there may be a 

eighteen centuriM atece. Nor, whatever ite reproach to Astarte, or a rebuke to David, 

Mtnal obscurity, is it grMter or mors difilcolt or a reproof to Peter, or a solace to the re- 

to remove than that which hangs over ancient pentant ainner ; it may relate to the tribute- 

booka in general, whoM very antiquity is money,or 'justification by frith .** no matter; 

attMted by this (m in coins) rust of age. the expositor's sole duty is to conceive end 

As Scriptural' interpretation is the tnmsfBr exprras tiie mind of his original in such a 

of the thoughte of one mind to another mind, way m may bMt put the reader into posses- 

ite first businew is to asoertain what tiie eion of what tiie sacred penmen intended to 

thoughte to be so tranafBired are, and hence My. But m the inteipieter should aim to 

to seek opt tite mind, the senM of the writer, get his aathoi's exact mesning, the veiy 




* form and pressnra' of his thought— all 
that he intended, but not any thing else^^ 
8o is there nothing beyond this after which 
he should make inquiry. For if the mind 
of the original author is not all that we hara 
to look for, then is our record incomplete, 
and men in setting about to supply its defi- 
ciencies, will each bring his own notion, 
and so * hay, wood, and stubble ' of all kinds 
will be aggregated to the pure grain of the 
word. If, therefore, the mind or intention 
of the Holy Spirit has to be ascertained, 
that can be known, sad should be inquired 
into, only as conveyed in the mind of the 
writer and expressed in the ordinary Tchicle 
of human language. DisscTcr the mind of 
the Spirit from the mind of the writer, and, 
making the latter into a machine, yon de- 
stroy his Tslue as an attesting party and a 
witness, while you giye foil scope to all the 
Tagaries of unbridled fancy, and all the arbi- 
trary falsities of opinions spun from self- 
reliance ; so that in straining alter a sha- 
dow, you lose the substance, and make the 
Bible as yariable as the chsngefnl aspects 
of the human mind, thereby bringing it 
down to a leyel with the heathen oracles, 
which admitted of numerous applications. 

The first thing to be done by the inter- 
preter is, to ascertain the meaning of parti- 
cular words ; then, connecting these words 
into sentences, to deduce their import, so 
that by combining the sentences into the 
text, he may view the subject-matter as a 
whole, and form a full and exact conception 
of its drift and import Having thus tran- 
scribed the mind of his author on his own 
mind, he is now prepared to fulfil the pre- 
cise office of an interpreter, and be by trans- 
lation a medium of communication between 
himself and the reader. 

The functions which the Inteipreter has 
to perform are thus set forth in a few words, 
but their due execution requires many qua- 
lifications, aids, and resources. Of these we 
have space here to speak only in brief. An 
essential assistance is an acquaintance with 
the history of the times in which a book was 
composed; the days which preceded and fol- 
lowed; the maimers, usages, and institu- 
tions, civil and religions, of the people ; 
their literature; their position relatively to 
the world around them ; ihe exact condition, 
internal and external, of the author, his 
aims and qualifications, his position in the 
general world of thought and in the mental 
sphere of his own country. 

In employing for the elucidation of an 
author the aids of grammar and history, 
you will do well to form to yourself a dis- 
tinct conception of the general manner of 
thought and expression peculiar to him ; to 
familiarise yourself with his trains of ideas 
and phraseology ; to trace his feelings back 
to their sources and onward to their conse- 

quences ; to descend to his first principles, 
and follow them out in their applications ; 
and, in individual passages, to discover and 
enter into the assemblage of mental images, 
the group of associations, the flow of emo- 
tion, under which he wrote ; for thus will 
you be able to make your author's mind his 
own expositor, and be saved fkxmi ihe grave 
but common error of importing your opin- 
ions into his matter. And if in any ease these 
means should fail to remove aU difficulty, 
you should first search the writings of your 
author in order, if possible, to discover ano- 
ther passage (or more) in penning which his 
mind was in the same or a similar state ; so 
that, by comparing his words together, you 
may expound the obscure by the dear, sup* 
ply defects, correct errors, and exhibit the 
exact and frill train of thought to which ha 
intended to give utterance. Aid sometimes 
may be found in other writers, whether Bib- 
lical or not; but in usiug that aid, you must 
take special care to ascertain that the writers 
meant to speak on the same subject and con- 
vey the same ideas, otherwise yon will em- 
ploy their language in a sense which was 
foreign to their minds. 

Most carefully, too, must you guard your- 
self against all assumptions — those plenti- 
ful, and alas ! perennial, sources of theolo- 
gical and religious error. In general, you 
are to assume nothing, but prove every tiling. 
Accordingly, you are not to assume that all 
the Scripturid writers agree on the same 
subject, or that they dissgree ; yon are not 
to assume that there is a certain fixed form 
of opinion and doctrine running from Gene* 
sis to Revelation ; you are not to take any 
general form of belief, and seek to bring all 
things into accordance with it. Ton are to 
inquire into these writings ; you are to search 
after facts ; you axe to learn what each writer 
says; and when you have ascertained the 
burden of each, you are to lay the whole 
together and judge whether the parts are 
harmonious or not, whether there is a com- 
mon doctrine discoverable or not; if there 
is, what does it comprise, and how far may 
it be used in expounding parts which may 
yet be dark. This general comparison of 
the results of your inquiries is necessary to 
make you an interpreter of the Bible, for 
without it you can be no more than an ex- 
pounder of a gospel, an epistle, « histoiy. 
When, however, you have done your best to 
discover and declare the meaning of eaeh 
and every writer in the collection, you have 
discharged your duty as an interpreter, and 
may hand the results of your studies over to 
the religious teacher, whose office it is to 
ascertain the application of the modes oi 
thought and dusters of facts supplied by 
you to actual states of mind; and, should 
the general credibility of the books be esta- 
blished, severing the accidental from the 

I R 57 I R 

essential, the temporary from the everlast- Hebrews must hsTS obtained their gold by 
ing, to deduce and expound the great prin- eommeroe. Aocordiiig to some ancient writ- 
eiples, eternal troths, and undyiiig sympa- ers, it was obtained in the sand of certain 
thies which those materials may contain, in riyers of Southern Arabia. But the real 
snch a manner as to gain for them accept- * gold-waters of Southern Arabia' was the In- 
ance in the mind and observance in the life dian Ocean, on which enterprise conducted 
of his contemporaries. See Biblb, Book, gnat commercial operations, bringing west- 
Canon, IirspiBATiov. Aids to a right un- ward, among other merchandise, gold. South- 
derstanding of the Scriptures will be found em Arabia was a dep6t iriience gold was 
in rerised translations, of which we can brought to Palestine (1 Kings iz. 28 ; z. 1, 
recommend * The Holy Bible, with many seq. 2 Chron. Till. 18. Eiekiel zzrii. 22). 
Thousand Emendations; London, C. A. Bart- In 1 Maccab. riii. 8, mention is made of 
lett :* * The New Testament, rerised and mines of silTer and gold in Spain, the pro- 
made conformable to the Text of Griesbach, ducts of which were carried to the Asiatio 
by a Layman; London, Pickering:' * The markets by the Tyrians, who thus enriched 
New Testament, translated from Oriesbach's themselyes. Comp. Jer. x. 9. 
Text, by Samuel Sharpe ; the Second £di- Could we think that Job in xxriii. speaks 
tion ; I^ndon, Edward Moxon.' of Palestine, we might infer that the Hebrews 

INTBEAT (L. in, intens., and tmto, F. carried on mining to a considerable extent ; 

trttiter, 'I handle'), signifies to manage, for here are mentioned mmes of silyer, gold, 

conduct business, as with a superior ; hence iron, and brass, while allusion is made to pro- 

to make an arrangement or treaty, and so to cesses of metallurgy (i. 2, 5, 6). In Dent, 

implore, as being a chief means employed riii. 9, the fact is made probable by the de- 

(GexL xxv. 21 ; comp. Job xxxiii. 26). scription there given of it as a * land whose 

INVASION (L. ini *into,' and vodo, ' I stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou 

go'), a hostile going or incursion into the mayest dig brass.' Dan slso is mentioned. 

country of other people (1 Sam. xxx. 14). in Ezekiel xxTii. 19, among those who sup- 
INVENTION (L. in, 'on,' and venio, 'J plied the market of Tyre with wrought or 
come'), finding out by derising or con- polished iron; but whether or not they ob- 
structing, that is, making some^ing Dew ; tained the ore from their own country, the 
while ' discovery' is uneoMring, bringing to passage does not make dear. A coal mine 
light what exists, but is hidden. See Ecoles. has in recent times been wrought in Leba- 
rii. 29, and comp. 2 Chron. jjlyi. 15 ; also non, snd Edrisi mentions a very productive 
Prov. vilL 12, comp. with xiL 2. Jer. xxiii. mine near Beiroot. From Tarshisb, pro- 
20 ; xxx. 24. bably Spain, came to Tyre silver, iron, tin, 
IRON (T., sifsn in (German), as the most lead. I>om the north and west came vessels 
valuable of metals, may be made the occa- of brass (Ezekiel xxrii. 12, 18). Yet this 
sion of some remarks on metals in general ; does not prwe that mines were not wrought 
since, with that avoidance of abstract terms in Palestine itseUl That metallurgy was well 
for which in its simplicity the Hebrew Ian- known, if not practised, maybe inferred from. 
guage is remarkable, the Bible, while it men- many figures of speech taken from the art 
tions gold, silver, &c., does not contain the (Ps. Izvi. 10. Is. i. 22 ; xlviii. 10. Zech. xiiL 
general term metal. We have termed iron the 9. Ezekiel xxii. 18. Mai. iii. 8). For gold 
most vsluable of metals. Gold is of use chiefly and the other metals Tyre was the great 
from its being, on account of its rarity, a mart which, directly or indirectly, supplied 
suitable medium of exchange. The same at least a large portion of what Palestine 
may be said of silver. But iron, f^m the required. 

abundance of its ore and its appUcability to That the Hebrews in their earliest oondi- 

ihe practical arts of life, is not only of very tion were well acquainted with metals, and 

high value, but so essential to social pro- possessed skill in working them, so as to 

gross, that without it indiriduals and tribes be able to construct the articles required in 

could hardly have risen into nations. Iron is their worship and in ordinary life, may with 

at the present day found in Syria. There also safety be inferred from the existence of the 

may it have been found of old (Dent riii. 9). metals and the practice of metallurgy in 

It was used at an early period (Numb. xxxv. Egypt The metids required for the serrice 

16). The Hebrews appear also to have been of the sanctuary were gold, silver, and brass, 

acquainted with steel, since mention is made which were well known to the ancient Egyp- 

in the Bible of instruments that could hardly tians. Objects made of them are foimd 

have been made of any other metal ; and among the nuns of temples. The repre- 

according to some, the word itself occurs in sentations of such objects are common in 

Nahum ii. 8, where they render, * chariots of paintings and reliefs, and the hieroglyphic 

sparkling steel.' Comp. Jer. xv. 12. Iron groups which express their names are ascer- 

in part came from the neighbourhood of the taiDcd. To execute the work enjoined for 

Black Sea. the tabemaole, it was necessary that the se- 

Palestine has no gold mines. Hence the veral proeestes of overlaying (Exodus xxv. 

II, 34), —mUot, ud linMlni wftk Ik haD- 
mu, ihiMild be fMfarmcd wtth ikill nd 
4*zurit;. TbaM pracaHU ni^ Mill ta 

ba TMdar mm the hlero^jph far prid. Ths 
boK on tha ground oontalna Iha gold-diial 
■a branglit ban Iha lainaa or washing*. 
Tba Ma nan agluto tha on in a clolfa, in 

gnina. The block, the nal, and 
mallet, BTB tor pounding tbam. 

Tha naxt opandon, amalting 
hara axhU>itad. Tha ote i* "' 

tba metal ia mdtod, lod tha c 
ora, 1> ixiiis remoTed (Iiaidi xl. 10). 
to t)ie A 1'"'^ deajgn npnaenU the n 

liMt of • fnmaoa in ordat, aa the hlara- 
gtjpha tn tbe original import to pnrl^ the 
gold from tlig drags (Eiod. iit. 11. I*. L 
i». Ewk. nJL IB, SO). 

Then ia in Aa British Masenni ■ amall 
flgnrs of the god Amoim, or Aniiin, in sflrer, 
baring (ha head-dicn and the atliie of the 
lower part of die bod; reprcMDled lif Ihin 
|dalea of gold laid orer the ailrer. A few 
yaan tgo, a mammj vu foaod in the dc- 
Mopoliaof Thebea entirely wrapped in pUlsa 

Thla inlmating gnmp Ii blowing die tat- 

many eaithen fnimell at Oe top, into all of 
which the fased metal ii ponred in anei»a- 

■ion. Another man iDppliea ftiel to kindle 
B fire roand the monld, in order to keep it 
■t a high temperatnre, for lome time after it 
hia recBired Ihe metal. 

In the aame manner we rouIcI preaent 
pictorea of other operationB (la. xlL T; xll*. 
13. 1 Kinga tIL 4S), bat piefer letting be. 

■liila pt in tin dnerL Sm Namlwn liL eihibiliii( 

(somp. G«mi« zlil. 3 ; iiIt. 33), the ■!)*« 

ditfggn mmtianed in which pl><» id*j find 

Uhumtion in (be precediiig rat. Eqnill; 

wn Ag qnsnlitj reij gnat itliioh 

In Solomon'i tvmpl« (t Chroii. 

nix-i). Among olhn Ailido lulloDi, 

Am Paniani, tlian anolendj eziMed in ez- 

toMndinai; MDOont of nlTcr and gold in 

ttttnaili and oniamBDii, whenea we are jua- 

liAad in tfia eonoliuioa thai ItM co^r ^"^ 


Inatnmanta of Tuiona metal* an nen- 
Uooed in the Old 

irca— azea (Dent. xii. U. 3 King* tI ; in 
the oiiginBl, ' iron '), aaws (3 Sam. xii. 81), 
oUida (Dtnt ixril. 5), nmi (Eiek. iv. 3), 
we^ona (1 Sun. iriL 7], bedstsada (Daat 
iiL 11), and ahadola (Joah. xriL 18. Jndg. 
L IB) ; from coppat Or brass, Dteiui]a of dl 
Und* (LaT. Ti 38. Namb. iri. 39. 3 Cbron. 
i*. la. BmriiL 37), also anDoui and ansa 
(1 Sam. nil S, 10, 88. 2 Samoel uL 16), 
chain* (Jndg. itL SI), and mirron (Eiod. 
znrilL 8). The largu object! were cast; 
alao ^an which men employed for aichi- 
tMtmal deooraliali (I Kii^ tiL 10, »).)• 
In Solomon'a time, the akiU (dt this opera- 
tion *a* oblaiiMd in Phoniei* (14); from 
gold and ailTCT were made omameats of Ta- 




and silver pmsented by Sethos to Amonn, at 
Kamak, as fnxits of campaigns against the 
Canaanites. Comp. Joshua vi. 19. Images 
of false gods were made of silver (Is. ii. 20. 
Acts xviL 29 ; comp. ziz. 24), which were 
often overlaid with gold. Of lead were made 
weights and measures (Amos viL 7. Zech. 
V. 7, 8). As workers in metals we find in the 
Bible the ironsmith (Isaiah xliv. 12), the 
brazier (1 Kings vii. 14), the gold and silver- 
smith (Jndg. zvii. 4. MaL iu. 2), artificers 
who are traced back to Tubal-Cain as the 
original instructor in brass and iron (Gen. 
iv. 22). The fabricators of weapons and 
other utensils of iron and brass were com- 
monly carried away by conquerors, for the 
purpose of disabling the conquered from 
rising against tiieir oppressors (2 Kings 
zxiv. 14, 16. Jerem. xxiv. 1 ; xzix. 2 ; comp. 
1 Sam. xiii. 19). As money, gold was used 
by weight in David's time (1 Chron. zxL 25). 

The use of gold in weaving may be traced 
to the earliest times, but seems to be parti- 
cularly characteristic of Oriental manners. 
It was, with woollen and linen thread of the 
finest colours, employed to enrich the ephod, 
the girdle, and the breastplate of Aaron 
(Exodus xzviii. 5 — 8, 15 ; zxxix. 2 — 8). 
The ornamented silks of the Chinese are to 
the present day manufactured in the man- 
ner described by the sacred historian. Comp. 
Ps. xlv. 18. According to Josephus, the 'royal 
apparel' of Herod (Acts xii. 21) was * a tunic 
all made of silver, and wonderfiil in its tex- 

ISAAC (H. laughter; A. H. 8285, A. C. 
2208, y. 1896), the second of the three great 
forefathers of the Israelites bom to Abndiam 
and Sarah in their old age, in agreement 
with the divine promise (Gen. xv. 4; xvii. 
17 — 19 ; xxi. 2~-8). His birth occasioned 
the expulsion from the family of Ishmael, 
his half-brother, on which Isaac became the 
sole heir of his father^s rights and property 
(xxi. 10, seg. ; xxv. 5, seq, ; comp. Gal. iv. 
28, 80). In this position, and as the chUd 
of many hopes, Isaac was specially dear to 
Abraham, whose faith was in consequence 
sorely tried when he found himself called to 
offer his only son as a burnt-offering. The 
youth was spared, for < a willing mind ' was 
what the Divine Being required; and his 
trust in God and readhiess to sacrifice his 
most valued possession, in obeying the will 
of Him by whom it had been given, were 
clearly attested by the preparations made by 
Isaac for the oblation (Genesis xxii. 2, aeq, 
Heb. xL 11, 17—19. Bom. viii. 32. James 
ii. 21). In the fortieth year of his age, 
Isaac married his relative Bebekah, who, 
after twenty years of sterility, bore him the 
twins Esau and Jacob (xxv. 19 — 26). Isaac 
led a herdsman's life, which in those early 
days was often exposed to dearth of food. 
Hunger led him to Gerar, on the south- 
western borders of Canaan, where, fearing 

that, according to the custom of Eastern 
despots, his wife, being beautiliil, might be 
taken into the king's harem, he gave it out 
that she was his sister, and so afforded ano- 
ther proof that the best characters of the 
Bible were not intended to be considered 
faultless. In this ease, as always, falsehood 
begot dii&culties. The patriarch returned 
to Beersheba (Gen. xxvi.). When in old age 
he haS become blind, he was misled, under 
his wife's direction, to confer on Jacob that 
paternal blessing which of right belonged to 
Esau, and which had the effect of a modem 
testamentaiy bequest This mistake he be- 
wailed tod did his best to repair. The fa- 
mily peace was, however, broken up. Bebe- 
kah was punished in being deprived of the 
presence of her favourite child, who, after 
years of hardship and captivity, returned to 
buiy his father at the advanced age of 180 
years (xxv. xxvii. xxviu. xxxL xxxv.27; xliz. 
81). The promises made of God to Abra- 
ham were confirmed to Isaac (xxvL 1 — 0; 
xxii. 16). 

While neither of the children of Abraham 
will bear a comparison with their father, 
who offers the beau ideal of the patriarchal 
character, Isaac is the least interesting, 
presenting few prominent characteristic fea- 
tures. He for the most part led a tran- 
quil life, spent in pastoral pursuits, and 
in the enjoyment of that peace which the 
even tenor of his way guaranteed, on the 
sunny uplands and fruitfal vales of Southern 
Palestine. The warmth of his paternal affec- 
tions and the pastoral richness of his imagi- 
nation appear in relief in the well-written 
narrative itthi describes the purloining from 
him of the birthright, and its immediate un- 
happy consequences. A fine, impressive, but 
painAil picture is presented in the blind old, 
grey-haired man, dealing as he may with a 
treacherous wife, his high-spirited first-bom, 
Esau, and his supple and successful younger 
son, Jacob. 

ISAIAH ( ofJehmah), the celebrated 
prophet, was the son of Amoz, considered by 
some identical with the prophet Amos. So little 
is known of the events of Isaiah's life, that his 
name is scarcelymore than a representative of 
his writings, which, however, are so multifa- 
rious and sublime as to afford a good compen- 
sation for the loss of any mere outward repute. 
It is remarkable that a man whose influence 
must in his day have been very great, should 
have left of himself in the Hebrew annals 
only scattered and imperfect notices. Fully 
as much, however, is known of Isaiah as of 
Homer, with whom in other respects the He- 
brew poet has been compared. According to 
the few prefatory words which introduce his 
writings in our Bibles, Isaiah exercised his 
prophetic office in the days of Uzziah, Jo- 
tham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah 
(i. 1 ; vi. 18). From vi. 1 compared with 
vii. 1, it has becu inferred that he did not 

ISA 61 IS 

begin his work till the year that king Uzziah is predicting the foture, but weaying a history 

died (A. M. 4796, A. C. 702, V. 758) ; and of (he past He seems to ma to haye oom- 

as he appears to have been aliye in the four- posed not a propheej, but a gospel/ An- 

teenth yearof Heaekxah(xxxTi. 1), hispnb- gastin also: * Isaiah, among &e misdeeds 

Ho ministry lasted for about half a century, which he reproves, the just acts that he en- 

With a view, probably, to command atten- joins, and the Aitnre soffering of sinners 

tion and give eflect to his teachings, he was, &at he foretels, has prophesied mneh more 

aa would appear, accustomed to wear mean, than others respecting Christ and the church, 

unsightly, and uncomfortable clothing (jo. diat is, of the king and oi that state which 

ft). Jerusalem seems to have been his ordi- he founded.' 

naiy place of abode. He was probably twice In sacred Scripture also are testimouies 

married. By his first wife he had a son to Isaiah's worth and authority. The histo- 

(vii. 8), who was called Shear-jashub {the rical books, which only seldom mention the 

rmMtuder vaiU turn). His second wife (vii. prophets, speak of Isaiah (2 Rings xix. 2, 

14), ealled also 'the prophetess' (viii. 3), 20; zz. 1. 2 Chronicles xzxii. 20). In the 

bore him another son, to whom was given New Testament appeal is often made to his 

the symbolical name of Maher-shalal-hash- writings and testimony (Matt. i. 28 ; iii. 3. 

baz {huUn th» booty I quick to tho proy /), Luke iv. 17. John zii. 89, 41. Aets vilL 28. 

as indicative Uiat before the child should be Bom. iz. 27; zv. 12). 

old enough to call his parents by their name, ISAIAH, THE BOOK OF THE PBO- 

the enemies of Judah, namely Syria and PHET, may in regard to its contents be di- 

Samaria, should be vanquished and plnn< Tided into two very dissimilar parts. The 

dered. Another name (Immanuel) was given fint, containing i. — zixiz., is chiefly occu- 

to the child in token of the intervention of pied with the present and the immediate 

God for the deliverance of his people (viii. future ; most of its speeches are directed 

8, 10, 16). against the kingdom of Judah or foreign 

Isaiah's religious instructions were ad- nations. The former have reference partly 
dressed chiefly to Judah and Jerusalem, yet to the political dangers which threatened 
he turned his prophetic eye on neighbour- that kingdom under Jotham and Ahai, aris- 
ing lands. Under Jotham, whose i«ign was iQg from the confederated Israelites and Sy- 
in general prosperous, Isaiah had little rians, and at a later period, specially under 
other duty Uian to enforce moral princi- Hesekiah, from the Assyrisns ; partly to the 
pies. The weakness and idolatry of Ahaz growing moral lazity of the people and their 
called forth greater exertions from the pro- governors, which precluded Uie hope of ' bet- 
phet, who manifests political wisdom and ter things to come,' and held out only an 
seal. Chiefly, however, in the first half of increasing severity ot divine punishment 
Hesekiah's reign did he employ his now Isaiah's main effort lay in tbis---on one side, 
mature powers for the high religious, moral, to keep the monarch and his subjects from 
and political ends which it was the aim of all steps oontrary to the theocratical consti- 
his life to promote. A diversely related tra- tution, for instance, from alliances wiUi fo- 
dition makes him to have suffered a death reign states (vii. 11 — 20 ; zzz. 2 — 7 ; zzzi. 
of violenoe under Manasseh (698 — 648 ) . 1-h5 ) , and from undue reliance on martial re- 

Besides his religious and political writ- sources and human help (ii. 6, sef.; iz. 8,109. ; 

ings, designated prophecies, Isaiah wrote a zzii. 8, Mj.), and to encourage diem to place 

biography of Uzziah (2 Chron. zzvi. 22) and a calm reliance on the arm of Jehovah, who 

of Hesekiah (zzziL 32 ; comp. Is. zzzvi. — would not fail to succour his true worship- 

zzziz.). Psalms zlvi. and Izzvi. have been pers (vii. 9 ; viii. 18, $eq,) ; on the other side, 

ascribed to him ; comp. Is. zzziii. Suppos- to enforce with all earnestness the faithftd 

ing Isaiah to have been only twenty years service of Jehovah, and to oppose religious 

of age when he was called to the prophetic eztemality (i. 2, 17 ; zziz. 13, 14), avarioe 

ofBoe, and that he wrote the lifo of Hesekiah, and love of splendour (v. 8 — 10 ; iz. 9 ; z. 

he could not have died before the 88id year 2), oppression and fitiud (L 21 — ^28 ; iii. 

of his sge. 14, 10 ; v. 28 ; z. 1, 2), ezcess and idolatry 

Deservedly has Isaiah been held in high (i. 2—4; u. 6—8 ; iu. 16—26 ; v. 11, 22; 

estimation. Jerome and Luther compare his zzz. 22; zzzi. 7). In the pursuit <^ his 

style with the qualities of the eagle. Grotius object, the prophet draws a very dark pie- 

eonsiders him the Demosthenes of the Bible, ture of the moral end religious condition of 

The statement of Josephns, that Cyrus by the people of Judah ; showing by implica- 

feading his oracles was induced to set the tion what need they had of a voice of stem 

Jews at liberty, shows the repute in which and faithfU warning, and how certain was 

they stood. Eusebius terms Isaiah < the their course downwuds to national ruin. 

great and wondeiM prophet' Jerome re- Threatenings are uttered against foreign 

marks, ' he is to be cidled sn evangelist ra- peoples, as the Babylonians (ziiL ziv. nt 

ther than a prophet For so elearly has he 1 — 10), the Assyrians (z. 0, ioq. ; ziv. 4—27), 

diseonrsed of the great mysteries of Christ the Philistines (ziv. 28—82), the Moabites 

and the Chnrefa, that yon think not that he (xt. zvi.), the Syrians (zviL), the Egyptians 


(xWL 12, Mff. ; XTiiL zb.)» ^ TyiUau TDl neeiMly, the ptopherfM «€ ImUi 

(xxiii.) : who, Iboagh in part employed as iMie generally feeegnJiied aa written bj ttiat 

inatmmeatt in God'e band for pwiahiDg his aablime teacher. Wiihin the laat fifky jeava» 

people, «re theaselTes to be punished in howerer, this geneBaOy • xeeeiTed opiniMi 

conseqoenoe of their enmity to Jndah, their has been impugned. The qneation haa 

arrogance, and their neg}eot of die tme God. been debated afanost axehiaively in Germany, 

This part, momo>?er, oontains reproofs of where names of great repute m ranged on 

Israel (iz. 8--Z. 4) and the treaaorer Shebna both sides. The aasailants have denied the 

(zziL 10, M^.; eomp. 2 Kings xviii* 18), and anthentioity of more than one-half of the 

brief declarations respecting Domah and Ara- contenia of the book. It is not, for die moat 

bia (no. 11—- 17), with some historisal par- par^ pretended that these impn^ied portions 

tionlars (rii zz. zz^i— «aciz.). eve forgeries. They Aie genuine bat later pio* 

The aeoond part (zL— Izri) fonns an in- dnotions, which came into ezistence just be- 

dependent and well-ordered whole, in which fore or during the exile, and being written by 

is promised the return from the Babylonish some one bearing fiie same name so tiw gmat 

eaptiyilj. Here, while describing in ri.rid prof^et, or en iwrnfficient grounds being after 

oolonrs and irith a truly prophetlo «ye tiie a time held tobe his, were ascribed to Isaiah 

happy condition of ihe ransomed and lege- and added to the manuacript rolls which 

nerated nation, the writer is led to mingla oontained his anihentie works. Hence arieea 

in his pietnres traits which look beyond tiie a division of fSatb book into the Proto-Ieaian 

reatored nationality, and hare from an eady (the first or really Isaian) and the Oenteio 

age been held to refer to the Measiah and (the seoend), or Psendo (falaely so called) 

biB happy times. In relation to this portion Isaian |HM>pheeiM. In what we have beiose 

of his < vision' is it that Isaiah has been designated the first pact of Isaiah, the fol- 
spoken of as ' the evangalicsl prophet' . lowing portions have been dedsmd nnau- 

In the first pad, a strict chronological ve- thentic, namely, ziii. ziv. — 2d ; zv. zri. l->- 

zangement is not throughout observed. The Id ; six. 16^-20; zzi. 1—10; zziii. zziv.— 

vision of oonaecvation, iridoh may weU be zsviL zxziy. xzzv. zzzvL-o-oczsoz. In the 

supposed to have taken plaee at the outset, second part all, without ezeepticn, from zL 

is not lound till you come to the sizth chap- to IzvL, both indonine, are pronounced to 

tar. The passagea ziv. 2B-^2 ; zrit 1-^11, have had some other person than Isaiah for 

belong Ao the time of Ahsi, though preceded their author. 

by others which relate to the reign of Heae- That much of wliat is uneartain and aAl- 

kiah. ' The burden of £gypt' (mx*) has trary has entered into the views of the hoa- 

been reckoned one of the latest of Isaiah'a tile oritics, as aafficiantly evident from the 

prophecies, and is posterior to xsviU*'*- facte that th^ agree neither in the passagea 

xxziii, which poriu^ refsr te aariier eisnte te be Adjudged nnanthantio, nor in ezplain- 

than zzii. 1—14; i^nce we infer that the ing the origin of teae paaaages. X3iey are, 

prophet wrote and puUiahed his prophecies indeed, all 4tf one mind in declaring lliat 

separately, and that they won o^lacted to- Isaiah did not write the splendid portion, 

gyher by a later hand, when marks of time xziiz.~4zvi; but here their agreement 

were less recognisable, jiffor, indeed, are stops. 

modem critics of one mmd in regMrd to In allusion to a species of poUlieation not 

dates; for instance, the first chapter has unusual in Germany, filename ^flying leaved 

been placed in the time of Uaiiahf Jotfaam, has been applied to parte of Isi^. In ii. 

Ahsa, and Hexekiah. is an instance iUustralive of what » uMcnt 

The second part may be divided into tlufee The fint veiee announces a prophecy con- 

kadingportion^, each ofnine chapters, which oemmg Judidi and Jerusalem; Sie second 

are separated by a concluding verse, namely, eommenoes a prophetic view of the di^s of 

zlviiL 22; Ivii. 21; Izvi 24 This impor- the MesaiidL; and it is not till the sizth verse 

tant part seems to have been pietly neariy all that * the word ' annomioed in the opening 

published, if not written, at the same time, verse begins. At the ninth verse seems to 

which, speaking generally, may be consi- commence a subject of a far wider bearing, 

dered as towards the latter part of Ismsh's With the commencement of the nezt chapter 

life ; when, retired from the press of public fiie prophet retnms to his own disobedient 

affairs, he liad leisure and repose to reflect eountrymen, and the subject is followed up, 

profoundly on the actual condition of the hut with little oonseeutiveness of thought; 

nation, and, seeiug how ' coming evento oast for the writer seems so mastered by his emo- 

their shadows before,' predicted the unavoid- tions, that he throws out his words with lit^ 

able enslavement of the corrupt people, and tie regard other thsn #mI which troth and 

their deliverance through the gracious oouur religion demand. 

sete of God. In this view the historical por- iUter a jimilsr manner prase is -blended 

tion, zzzvi.— szzziz., which has reference to with verse, so that sometimes ttie one aans 

Isaiah's public ezeriions, stands in ite right almost insensibly into the odier (i¥.— viii). 

place, aiuee what follows belougs to a later Thus, too, in followhig chapters, the wiak- 

period edneaa of the Hobraws, their puniahment by 


Ihe A8i|ri«BS and EgfpHiaam, tbe pimiih- Iflmelitei, U expressly nsmed (zUr. 28; sir. 
flMBt of fliese CoRignen tibflnselTes, and 1 ; eomp. zbrilL 80). The risk of proving 
dsjs of pesee, safety, and joj, are inter- falae was too great for the prophecj to have 
mingkid in a nuHuiar niiieb, while it sns- been uttered before that conqneror had snb- 
talns the seader's attention by the e<mata&t jvgated Babylon ; ivbUe there was a certainly 
ehaoge of seeae, disdeses the agitation of of being eoimcted of groundless pretensions, 
aaad luder which the mntfiar wrote ; ao that if theprophecy of his finronr to the Jews was 
^ese wihten wanunga and predictions ha;^ sot pat forfli till alter the issoing of his fk- 
«U the piotBresque vividness of a preseait noos decree. Besides, the whole tenor of 
veality, and aeam as if sat down item tiie these lofty strainswonld have been idle— nay, 
glowing lips of the inspired seer, who, ' rapt could never have come into existence (for 
into other times,' paints in burning words &eee are not the feigned emotions of a pro- 
things that aland before his prophetic eye. fessional poet, but the tnie voices of the 
Tet, while tile record diseovers the action irf a most religions and the most sublime of 
distorbed state of tibooght, ite eleamess, ite God's prophets) — had the period of their 
definite statemente, ite dealinga witii actual utterance been posterior to the decree of 
or coming realities, ite Strang and prevailing Cyrus, since beyond a doubt they were in 
moral tone, ite pure and loCiy raligioua fe^ Ute main designed to ftdill the command 
ing, ite profound revenikce for Ood and his with which thef begin (xL 1)^ 

to make a broad distinetion between the true under the troubles and offpnataoDM of exBe 

pK^het of Jehovah and tiw falaities of Ddp in a land of idolaters. 

phi and Bodona. Itmnst howeser be added, Now this distinctness, Hhis pfeoision, tUt 

that it is only in the fiist part we find such minuteneas, are tokens of reality. They dis- 

an interminglh^ of matarialaaa looks like a tinguish tiie prophet ftom tiM sootiisayer. 

eoUeotion of separate pieces. The seeond They are an appeal and a challenge to con« 

part is from fint to laist one grand poem, temporaries who would never have received 

vslating^ at iri mte ver paiiod it was wr^ten, the writings in question had thejnot known 

■to the eouaes, eonseqnenees, and tsmuna- tiiem to be genuine, and to whom these qua- 

iion of the osptivily in Babylon. lities were eo many teste and evidenoes. 

Most distinct as well as emphatie are se- Mor is it to be supposed that a fUsiAer 

vcral of tike piwpheoies. We give one or would have risked tiie exposure which must 

two iastapoBs. Difflenll is it to mpf>^to any hare followed the publication of these pro- 

<Mher than the times and the Ueasings of pheoies, had they been either mere bold 

the Messiah the language emplofsd in ti. eoiqeetnres or put forth ealy near or slier 

J^-*6. With equal preeiflton andibeee isihe ihe events. Rash indeed waa the expeii- 

rstnm from BiSliyloo set forth in xL 10—16. ment made ky him, or tiiose who uMend 

Most graphic is the dessr^tion of the fones these predictions or pubUshed this coUee- 

musteiing against Babylon* and the assault tion, i^ with tiie assumption of a propheey 

by the hardy Medea (expressly named, xiiL 17) in nearly every page, the Whole was netiiing 

of that eil(p, whoae roni is described wifli as more tium history lesd backwards, and a weU- 

mneh tiutii as force (xiiL). In x. JI8, the oraered eeiies of facte fiirown into poetic 

aeveial stations of the Anyrisn saay am oonfosion. Such a notion offns no expla- 

mentioned witii a geognvhie&l knowlsdge nation of the undeniable fMttiisttheee writ- 

of Paleatine as exset as the manner of ings were received by the nation, enrolled 

•the writing is posticsL How ramute and among ite aaersd volumes, and appealed to 

graphic is the deserqption of ths sins of Jo- as of divine authority. Indeed, the pro- 

dah, as set forth in IriLJ Hoe is .a oopy iihetic beosme the great eduoalional booka 

ftomnatore. Hem is esidenee that tiie sitist vf tilie people; they formed the national 

painted tern a reality. God's psophete have mind; tiiey orsated and coloured the na- 

slways bean a persecuted moe, and the per- ttonal expeetations ; speclfioslly they gave 

'Ssention has rsgsd die more, ths more laitii- ziae to the entire state of thought and feeling 

iU wem they in bearing their testimoiqr; whieh we teim Messianie; and must, there- 

but neverwitii sotme, nerurwithso cAotive fine, hare been believed to be genuine end 

a ^en did a wsiter descnhe ' the siliotions anthotitative— a belief i^ich.iAnde a tacit 

of the righteoua,' as when, probably spesfc^ but strong attestetion to their eredibOity. 
ing olhimseU; Isaiah wrate the toudiingpas- We regard with 190 Ustp inlsiest the ques- 

aageefonndinLd— «; lii. 18— liiL Then, tion as to whetiier tiie entire book, ot what 

witii what exactitude as well ss foice is the part of it, may be asoiibed to Isaiah. H 

overthrow of Babylon piedicted(xlvLx]vii.)! laaiah did sot, some one else did, write 

Langnsge is employed tiiat bstokens a fUl these sublime tempositJaDa, whose trutii, 

and accurate acquaintance with the poUtieal, reality, and divine chametar shine eenspi- 
socisl, and religions condition of the city and euous^ in every paragraph. HofTever it oiir 
empire. But Cyma, tiie great instenment to ginatsd, the book is here. It waa in tiw 
be employed in the ranaom of the captive handa of the Hebrew people esutuiles b^- 


fore Christ It hts been • light to them teristio of a period anterior to the depor- 

and to the world. Blot out the name Isaiah, tation of the Jews beyond the Enphzi^efl. 

yon have not destroyed a line of the book ; Such a state is described as existing at the 

disown his claim, yon do not invalidate its time when these prophecies were nttered, a* 

authority. The sun remains the same whe- in zl?iiL, where (2) it is implied that the 

ther designated tol, as in Latin, or luliot, as city of Jerusalem is still standing entire 

in Greek. And in regard to the allegation (comp. Ixvi. 6), and in It. 1 — 8 ; idso with 

that evidence of more than one hand is seen Uie moral and social degeneracy idiich ido- 

in the work, we think that, as in the case of latry produces, in Ivii. Iviii. ; in the last paa- 

Homer, it is more easy to conceive of one sage, with a dear implication (2—4) that 

Isaiah than of two or severaL the temple services were then (*this day') 

The objectors would have effected some- actually proceeding ; comp. liz. The second 
thing of a nature to trouble the friends of part, perhaps the loftiest of all the produc- 
revealed religion had they proved that these tions of the human mind, derives a unity 
writings were uncongenial with the Mosaic and a completeness from the subject Stand- 
system, unconducive to the good of the He- ing at a considerable distance from the ao- 
brews, unsuitable for the benign puiposes tual events, the prophet, enlightened by Him 
of Providence, unfitted to perform a part in to whom all things and all times are one 
the education of the human race, unhisto- eternal present, foresees and declares that 
ileal in their particulars, irreligious in their the religions and moral depravity in the 
tone, and immoral in their tendency. This midst of which he lived would inevitably 
they have not done and cannot do, for the end in the captivity of the nation ; that this 
very reverse of the qualities here implied are punishment would produce reformation, re- 
those by which the entire book (speaking formation turn aside the anger of God, who 
generally) is distinguished. Three prime would restore his penitent people to their 
spiritual truths are exhibited, and most va- native land, and give them, in reward for 
riously and impressively exhibited, in the their obedience, a degree of prosperity and 
work : — ^I. God is ; he is the living and true happiness such as they had never before expe- 
God, in contradistinction to idols ; he is tiie rienced. This is the prophet's theme. But 
sole God, in contradistinction to Persian the manner in which his utterances are put 
Dualism ; he is a Mind separate from and forth is as novel, various, lofty, and im- 
independent of creation, in contradistinc- pressive, as the thoughts themselves are 
tion to visionary theories of speculative and grand. We have here to do, if not with the 
transcendental philosophy. II. God is the first of prophets, eertamly with the finest of 
Governor of the world, who exercises judg- poets. Say these are not real predictions ; 
ment In the earth, punishing (he guilty, re- you cannot deny tiiat they contain the 
warding the obedient, using all men and the very essence of true religion. Befuse to 
mightiest states as his instruments, and aim- Isaiah tiie honour of being their author ; 
ing only at one thing, namely, to (UI^ make you are still obliged to reverence the mani- 
holiness, and with it happiness, universal ; festations of a mind that is not the less great 
which grand aim will be realised in a coming for being unknown. 

age, when, inferior instruments having per- The piophetie powers of the writer are put 

formed their part, the great Messiah will beyond a question, for he describes a state 

begin his reign of piety, love, and peace, of things far greater than could have en- 

which shall embrace all nations and extend sued from any glorifioation of restored Juda- 

over endless ages. These three ideas, pur- ism ; and we argue that if the author pos- 

sued throughout the work in union with in- sessed the faculty of so looking into the 

stances of partial retribution, local restrie- future, he may well also have seen and fore- 

tion, national and political colouring, give to told the overthrow of the Chaldean empire, 

the prophecies of Isaiah an ideal character ; and the restoration of the captive Hebrews 

so that you have only to strike out what is by the favour of Cyrus. That Isaiah did 

temporary and limited, in order to gain di- predict such a state of things is obvious, 

vine truth in all the width of its historical In the midst of glowing descnptions of the 

import, and true prophecy in its application coming glory of Israel, he interweaves deela- 

to Jesus and in its bearing on future ages. rations whose fulfilment did take plaoe, and 

The theory, however, which supposes that is yet taking place, but which not even a 

the second part was composed during the prophet of the captivity oould, unless in- 

exile, is confrited by passages which require spirad, foresee. In brief, these dedara- 

an earlier date. The effect ot the captivity tions amount to this, that the Chentiles 

was to disabuse the minds of the people so should be converted to God, sad a spiatoal 

that they put away that idolatry and its abo- reign commence whieh would be a source of 

minations, the practice of which, especially as blessedness to all nations, and eventoally 

exhibited in the century that preceded the prove the glory of Israel (xli. 1 ; zliL-^iliv. 

exile, was the cause why they were appointed J^li; xlix. 14—26 ; IL 4-4v. ; Ix. Ixil). 

of God to undeigo that calamity. A state In exhibiting the spread of the kingdom 

of aetnal and gross idolatry is, then, charac- ot God over the worid, the prophet speaka 

I S L 65 I S R 

of a personage in tenns which find no eoan- whole world as his Tassals, tbongh he may 

terpart save in Jesus, the Christ of God, have had a special reference to the ezpedi- 

whom they acoorately describe, to prepare tion nndertaken by Xerxes against Greece, 

for whose appearance they must have pow- ISRAEL (H. hit fights with God, or God^$ 

erfUly wrooght, and whose claims over oar Jighter) is a name given to the patrisxeh Jacob 

own hearts &ey still assert. Thus : in consequence of his wrestlingwith an angel, 

' Behold my servant whom I uphold, termed «/, or god (Oen. xzzii 24,28 ; xzxv. 0) ; 

Mine etoet in whom my lonl delighteth ; the origin of which account may have been a 

k^:ST^tS^'SS^io ft. -U.B.. "«««»y obUin«l b, J«ob orer • tomidrtde 
He BhaU not cry nor ntM hit voice, opponent named el, whom the self-glorifying 
Kor eauae it to be heard in the stieeta. faith of later times identified with a heavenly 
A bruiaed reed shall he not break, power denominated by the same appellation. 
And smoking flax shall he not quench ; 5.^ ., ^ «.«o « n^^>. a»i.*«. » m.« k.«^ ^-s 
He shaU not f*U nor be discouraged. Or the name God s fighter may have on- 
Till he hath eatabliahed judgment in the earth ; ginated from the Hebrews havmg m their 
And the Isles shall wait forhis law.' hands God's cause, in the conquest of the 
The Hebraism of Isaiah is of a cha- promised lend. Comp. Numbers zzi. 14. 
raeter most dissimilar to that developed • Israel,' however, became the favourite deno- 
in ' the law' and the early history. It still, mination ot the Abrahamids, who regarded 
indeed, has Jerusalem for its centre, but its it as honourable, and used it themselves as 
circumfeienoe is the entire world. It rests their national name. For ' Israel,' some- 
on Moses, but its spirit is, to a large extent, times ' children of Israel,' or * house of Is- 
the spirit of Jesus. This widened vision, rael,' was employed (Ezod. iiL 0. Deut vL 
which embraees the Messiah, and the die- 8, 4. 2 Sam. xiL 8). 
dosure of whose objects occasioned and sus- This name, Israel, was, on the severance 
tained the expeetatton of his advent (xlii. of the kmgdom under Rehoboam, retained 
1 — 9 ; xlix. I — 6 ; liii. Ixi.), seems to ns by the ten tribes in contradistinction to that 
inexplicable if you deny that it was a natn- of Judah, {he name of the tribe which, with 
ral and healthftil offshoot of Mosaism, pro- Bex\jamiii, remained faithfiil to the national 
duced under the genial and fostering warmth institutions. That the national designation 
of the Divine Mind. Most extraordinary should have been held by the revolted tribes 
and without a parallel would it be, that Uie may possibly be accounted for by die fact, 
development and adequate expression of the that they were the greater number and co- 
national ideal should have been the work of vered the larger part of the land, as well as 
a false, an unknown, or an inferior prophet ; firom the predominance of the cultivated 
and that views of God, of human duty and tribe of Judah, who, in possession of the 
human good, which found their archetype capital, might easily give its own name to 
in Jesus Christ, but which the world la not the southern kingdom. On the blending 
yet civilised enough to receive into its heart of the tribes in one oommonwealdi, which 
end life, should have sprung from a mixture took place on the return from captivity in 
of Hebrew exdusiveness, sagaeity, and spi- Assyria, ' Israel ' ceased, except historically, 
ritual hallucination. See Pbophbt. to be a distinctive appellation (Luke i. 80). 
ISLES (L. intuUi, F. isU, 'an island'), In the establishment of a separate king- 
in the strict sense oi portions of Isnd sur- dom under Behoboam, Israel gained the 
rounded by water, is a term which does not larger portion both of men and territory, 
frilly correspond with tiie Hebrew original, for Jerusalem and the province of Edom fell to 
that sometimes denotes a coast or country the lot of Judah ; four-fifkhs of the country 
lying (westwsrdly) on the sea shore, or, still and the sovereignty over Moab belonged to 
more vaguely, a distant land or remote west- IsraeL Jerusalem was hemmed in very dosely 
em distriots (Genesis x. 5. Is. xx. ; xl. 15. by the alienated population. In the pass of 
Esekiel xzxix. 6), especially die coasts of Gophna its last town was Geba, only six 
Europe (Isaiah xxiii. 2, 6 ; Ix. 9. Jer.ii. 10; miles distant On the eastern road also, 
XXV. 22). These islands, or western coast- Jericho, eighteen miles oil^ was Israelitish 
lands, appear in connection with Tyre, since (2 Chron. xxviiL 15). In fact, the tribe of 
from the Phcsnioians it was that the Hebrews Judah would have stood alone but that it 
obtained the little knowledge they had of commanded some of Uie Beqjamite towns, 
maritime aflUrs and the maritime districts The barrier between the two kingdoms was 
of the West Indeed, die islands and shores Mount Ephraim. 

of the Western or Great Sea, the Mediterra- < Israel,' as denoting the lend occupied by 

nean, were peopled by a Phoenician popn- the ten revolted tribes, may be described as 

lation, with which the mother cities on the being die eastern coast of die Meditorranesn, 

northern coast of Palestine kept up a eon- whose boundaries were on the nordi, Leba- 

stant oommerei^ intercourse (Isaian xL 11 ; non ; on the west, the Mediterranean ; on the 

Ixvi 19. Eaek. xxvii. 85). When it is said, south-west, Philistia ; on the south-east, the 

in Esther x. 1, that ' Ahasuerus laid a tribute northern extremity of the Dead Sea and the 

upon the land and the isles of the sea,' the river Amon ; and on the east, the Arabian 

writer meant by these terms to represent die desert Its capital was Samaria. The king- 

VoL II. £ 


dom of Imel ma ruled >ui»«iinlj bj 
tmnlj king! during t period of mboOt 200 
jBire, being tt iMtt Anttojtd by Iht Amj- 
riani, eir. T20A.C., in oonHqasiu* of the 
Bins, ohieBf the idolatry, of the luUion (3 
KingiiTii. 23). 

ITALY, oBlled by the Qreekt Haiperi*, ar 
Ihe Westwn Land, u it Uy to the vest or 
Oreeoa, probably the Hebriw Kiltim (Oea. 
X. <), or Chiuim (Nonb. uiv. 34), > tmit- 
ful peniniola in tha norlh-«a>C of the Hedi- 
temnein Sta, was diridad into, t. Upper or 
Nontwro Italy, or Oallia CiuJpina and Li- 
gnria; 3, Middle Italy, or Italy Proper, oom- 
prlilng EtniTl*, Unibria, Pieaniim, Sun- 
nlum, Lttiiuo, and Campuila ; 3, Lower 
Italy, oi Magna Otseia, which aonaiated wT 
Lacania, Brnttium, Calabria, and Apulia. 

Already at the day of Penleeoat ^petrad 
in Jenualem ' itrangerB tkom Borne,' Ihe 
oapital of Italy (Acta ii. 10),afaewtiig that in 
the Ifaen mstiopolii of Ihe vorid had been 
made a preparatiou for Ihe goapal, which 
was aflarwardt eaccesefally proolaimsd and 
eelabliihed there ohiefly by tha a{K>atle to tha 
Oentilei (Acta iriii. 8; xxvli. uriiL Hob. 
liii. 84). 

ITUH£A, a dlitiiet wfai<di in the time of 
Jesoi belonged to the tstrarshy of Philip, 
■on of Harod. IlorBa is mentioued in oon- 
naetloQ wilh TraebDnitia (Luke iiL 1 ), and 
ii henee to be looked for in the north-easl- 
em part of Perea. In 1 Chron. t. 10, we Snd 
B tribe of Araba, oallad Jetnr (oomp. I Chron. 
L 81, and Oeneaia iiT. IS), belonging to tha 
Hagarilet, whom Benben, Oad, and Ihe half 
tribe of Hanaueh, subdued and expelled. 
Jmu is obrionsly Ihe root of ItutBa. We 
an Ihns taught that it lay in the ngim 
iioiili-«wtof ^J" 

6 I VO 

and Anranltia, which also were tuidtr Phi- 
lip'a goiemmeDt. The Dame liu not in 
modem times been disoorerad, ao that w* 
oan gJTe only this general refcreaca for Ihe 
locililj, whioh the ancient* deaoritw as a 
high land fnll of fllefM and caTema. 

IVOKT, aorrectly given in Ihe Hebrew a* 
leetJi, or 4ltphants' teith, was known la the 
Hebnwa long befbra Ihey were familiar with 
Ihe anima] itself, whioh, springing froin In< 
dia, paised throng Persia and Western Asia 
into Ihe more weitem pans of the worid, 
though elephants of a hind inferior to those 
in India existed in Africa at very early pe- 
riods. It does not ^psar that elephanli 
were well known to Ihe Jews till, in Iha time 
of die UaecabHs, Ihey bad to meet them 
in tha flebl of battle. Iiory seems to have 
originally some to the Israelites from the 
Phianioians, who imported prodnets of India 
and distribnled Ihem over the west (Eaahie! 
snii. la). Some idea maybe formed of the 
luxury of Ihe Fhcenioians from ihe slatoment 
— eien if oonfiued to OTerlaylng, and that 
only in eaae of pleasnre-Teaeela— that they 
used iTory for the banche* of their ihipe 
(6). Aa in Egypt, so in PaleaUne, iTory was 
einployed br deotnating, aliielly l^ inlaying, 
eh^, eonches, and olber pieeas of fbmjture 
(1 Kings I. IS. Amos (i. 4), thongb aome- 
times it was IsTiabad on rooma or even 
entire edi&oes <I Kingi "M. 30. Amos iii. 
10. Paalms ilr. 8). Domeslie ntensili and 
image* of idol* also were by ^e anaient* 
madsofiioiy, Cranp. Bcr. niii. 12. Solo- 
mon himteU importad iioi^wilh gM, siher, 
^tes, and paaeotA*. This enl a^Uta siti- 
elsa of Ihe Und, b«iaf a part at lb* Ubuu 
paid by the EthiopiAaf, a ' ' 

J A C 67 J A C 


JABESH (H. drynas), sometimes called land, in order to choose a wift of his own 
Jabesh-gilead, a considerable city (not to be kindred (zzvii). While onhiawaj, Jacob had 
confoanded with Jabez in Jodah, 1 Chnm. a remarkable dream, and receiyed of God a 
ii d6) lying in the north of Qad, or the promise of great wealth and honoor; which 
south-west of Manasseh, in Gilead, beyond induced him to set np a monument of stones, 
the Jordan (Judg. zxi. 8, leg. 1 Sam. zl. 1. on which he poured oil (comp. Jer. iii. 0), in 
2 Sam. iL 4), identified with the modem commemoration of the Divine condescension 
Wady Jabes, which, lying to the south- (xzyiii.). ArriTcd in Haran, he was well re- 
east of Beisan (Bethshan, or Scythopolis), ceiTcd by his maternal uncle, Laban, whom, 
sends its waters from the east into the Jor- according to the usage of the country, he 
dan, some miles below the southern end of served seven years for the hand of the fair 
the Lake of Galilee. BaeheU but was deoeitfully made the hus- 

JABBOK (H. evacuation), * river on the band of the ill-&vouied LeiJi. Another seven 
east of Jordan, which rises in the high land* years' service made Baehel his wife. By 
of Basban, and falls into the Jordan oppo- the two, and Bllhah and Zilpah, their hand- 
site S>ohem. It is small, but has water in maids, Jacob had twelve sons andonedaugh- 
summer. The upper Jabbok, the Nahr Am* tar (zxiz. zzz. 1 — ^24 ; zzzv. 16, Mg.)- Mean- 
man, formed the western boundary of the while, Jacob formed with Laban an arrange- 
Ammonites (Numb. zzi. 24 Deut. ill. 16). ment by which he acquired large posses* 
The lower Jabbok was the northern bound* sions, employing means die character of 
ary of the Amorite kingdom of Sihon. The which may not be without parallels, but 
Jabbok divided the high land of Oilead be- which, whether found in modem or in an- 
tween Gad and Manasseh. It is now called cient times. Christian morality condemns 
Wady Zerka. Comp. Gen. xzzii. 22. (zzz.). The relations between Jacob and 

JABIN (H. A« that Midi), a Canaanitish his uncle, whiidi had ibr some time been of 

king of Haaor, in GalUee, who at the inva* an unpleasant kind, this tnmsaotion seri- 

slon of the Israelites effected a confederacy ously troubled and darkened, so that, a sepa- 

against tliem, and was beaten by Joshua ration becoming desirable, Jacob, after twenty 

(Joshua zL 1, teq,). The same name was years' service, proceeded to retum into Ca- 

bome by a successor of the preceding, who, naan with his wives, ohUdren, and catde. 

in the time of the Judges, held the Israelites Obliged to steal away, he was pursued and 

in subjection for twenty years, at the end of overtaken by Laban in Gilead, ^ere, after 

which his general, Sisera, was slain by Bank disputes of a threatening nature, the uncle 

and the heroine Deborah (Judg. iv. 1, tag.)* >^^ nephew came to terms of peace (zzxi.). 

JACINTH, or Hyacinth, in Hebrew Uh- Besruiing his journey, Jacob, having had 

them, called in the common version ligwr$f an extraordinary interview with God (see 

from the translation of the Seventy (Ezod. Israbl), was alarmed by finding on the road 

zzviii. 19. Bevel. xzL 20), is a transparent before him his brother Fsau, whose wrath 

red stone, with a tendency to yellow and he dreaded, and whom he took steps for 

brown, less valued now than of old. conciliating. Such measures were not ne- 

JACOB (H. he that suppianU; A.M. 8844, eessary. Generous in his nature, Esau came 

A.C. 2204, V. 1836), one of the three great to welcome, not assail Jacob, to whom he 

patriarchs in whom all the families of the showed brotherly love and offered a guard 

earth were to be blessed (Gen. xxii. 18) ; a for his protection (xxxii xxziii.). On leav- 

promise of which we of these days have seen, ing his Bedouin brother, Jacob, still jour- 

and are more and more ftilly seeing, the gra- neying towards the south. west, at lengUi ar- 

dnal Mfllment He was the son of Isaao rived in Canaan, coming to ' Shalem, a city 

and Bebekah, and twin-brother of the elder- of Schechem' (18), where he erected an 

bom Kflau, whose heel in the burth he took altar, which he called £l-el6he-Israel, God, 

hold of, and so received the name of Jacob tlu God of ItrasL From this place he went 

(Gen. XXV. 21—26). The quiet, domestic southwardly to Bethel, where he built ano- 

character of the latter made him the darling ther altar, which he denominated El-beth-el, 

of his mother, who, unhappily misleading God of Bethd, or of God*s house. Travel- 

him, through false kindness, aided him to ling hence, he lost in childbirth, at Ephratah 

procure his brother's privileges as the first- (Bethlehem), Baohel, whom having buried 

born, and so gave occasion to hatred between in the way, he set a pillar upon her grave, 

her two sons, and great and lasting trouble to At last, he reached Hebron and rejoined his 

her favourite. Having reason to think that father, whose death brought once more toge* 

her son's safety demanded flight, she led her ther Jacob and Esau, who, having united in 

husband to send Jacob to Haran, their native the obsequies of their parent, separated ap- 


J A C 68 JAM 

pare&ay for ever (xxxTi. 6 — 8). Whil« Esaa pelled to dig welli for watering hia eattle 

repaired to Mount Seir, Edom, Jacob settled (GtonesiB xiirlfi. 18 ; zxxriL 12), though no 

in Canaan, where he had to bewail the appa- mention is made of such a fact in the Book 

rent loss of his beloved son Joseph (xxxrlL), of Genesis, nor are we sure that the well 

whom,however, compelled by famine to send whieh now bears the patriarch's name is 

for com into Egypt, he found there in the that whieh bore it in me earliest times of 

office of grand Tixier, and to whom he on the gospel ; yet there is nothing to prove 

invitation went down. Here he lived many the oontrary, and the loeal tradition is not 

years, in the enjoyment of every earthly to be contemned. 

good, in the district of Ooshen, expressly JAEL (H. a Xct^), the wife of Heber the 
chosen as the best fitted for die abode of Kenite, between whose house and the king 
himself and his family (xxxix. — ^xlviL). Ar- of Hasor relations of amity existed. Avail- 
rived at the advanced age of 147 years, Jacob ing herself of these, Jael invited Sisera, ge- 
felt the approaoh of death. He therefore neral of Jabin, king of Hazor, to accept die 
called his sons around him, and, with the shelter of her roof when, being defeated, that 
knowledge of a father and the prophetic eye soldier was flying for his lifo. He accepted 
of a sage, pronounced on them characteristic the asylum, was kindly treated, and men, 
blessings and died. According to an oath vdiile asleep, was slain by his hostess (Judg. 
which he had taken from Joseph, his dead iv. 7, leg.). The deed is highly praised (v. 
body, having, in agreement with Egyptian 34) ; whence we may learn Ihat it is no less 
usage, been embalmed, was conveyed into for warning and avoidance than imitation 
Canaan,and interred at Hebron (xlviiL — 1.). that the Christian must study narratives 
Thus was preserved a memorial of the promise found in the Scriptures, 
made by God to Abraham, Isaac, and him- JAIB (H. light ; A. M. 8041, A. 0. 1607, 
seli; that the land of Canaan should belong Y. 1401), a Oileadito, one of the Hebrew 
to their race ; and dins, even in. death, was Shophethn, or Judges, who ruled Israel 
the right of possession illustrated, and ae- for two-and-twenty years. His private pro- 
tnal possession in some sort taken. perty was large, for he possessed in his na- 

Jacob is one of tiiose passive characters tive district thirty towns ; so that to each 
that are constantly under the power of eir- of his thirty sons, whose dignity was such 
cumstances, from which, receiving an im- that they lode on thirty ass-colts, he gave 
press, they prove good or bad according to one of these places, which, after him, were 
evente. Thus we find him all his life sub- named Havath-jair, Jair^s villages (Judg. z. 
ject to outward influences, without possess- 8 — 5. Comp. 1 Kings iv. 18). 
ing the internal power necessaiy to subdue JAIBUS, a ruler of the synagogue, whose 
them to his wiU. Under the hand of his daughter Jesus restored to life ; in doing 
mother, and living tranquilly in her tent, he whidi he gave utterance to an intimation of 
reciprocates the love which he excites in her his doctrine that death is properly but a 
and her household ; but, yielding to the pres- sleep, in the words, ' Uie maid is not dead, but 
sure of her stronger will, he commite a mis- aleepeth' (Matt ix. Mark v. Luke viiL). 
deed that proves the fbst of a series of bad JAMES (the Elder), in the original tha 
or unhi^py actions, in which he is carried same name as Jacob, is a name borne in 
along in life, now flying from his in- the New Testament by one of the Twelve 
jored brother, now, through his own evil Apostles, son of the Galilean Zebedee and 
conscience, mistrusting that brother's gene- Salome, and brother of the qpostle John, in 
rosity ; serving his uncle during his prime, coi^unction with whom he, while pursuing 
and gaining advantage over and fireedom his business as a fisherman, was called to 
from him only by the cunning which is the high office of being an apostte of Jesus 
the eharacteristio resource of weakness; Christ (Matt. iv. ai, 33 ; z. 3. Mark L 19, 30. 
till, yielding to the imperious demands Luke v. 10 ; vi 14). The two, with Peter, 
of hunger, he fonns a connection with a were admitted into the special confidence of 
foreign land, into which he is at length in- the Lord (Mark ▼. 87 ; xiii 8. Luke viii. 
Toluntarily led, and where he terminates his 51) ; so that James was present at his trans- 
days in a state of prosperous dependence, figuration (Matt xvii. 1) and at his humiti. 
Had he possessed more internal power, he ation in the garden (Matt xxvL 87), a privi- 
would hardly have done his modier's evil lege which may have been iStie occasion why 
bidding, or been necessitated to lean on the their mother preferred a petition for their pre- 
unsafe staff of Egyptian munificence. eminence (Matt xx. 31). James and John 

JACOB'S WELL was, in the days of our appear to have been distinguished for energy 

Lord, the name of a fountain in the vicinity of character, which, while yet unrestrained by 

of Schechem, not Ui firom the road leading the mild and loviog spirit of the gospel, 

ikrom Jerusalem to OalBee, iriiich was con- broke out on one occasion into a request 

aidered to have been dug by the patriarch that Jesus would smite with Uf^tning an 

whose name it bore (John iv. 6, 13). There inhospitable village of Samaritans (Luke ix. 

can be scarody a doubt that, like other no- 03), on which account it probably was that 

mads, Jacob, when in these parts, was com- they received from tiieir Master the name of 

^^ Si f!'' " ??«!?'B~ (»«* "t- rf in Ter. 3, miul be uialhM perwn, ud It 
17). The •cavity whioh Junoi <lupI>T»d probtblj Junai th« Lwi, um of Alphan*, 
daring Qia lUetiina of Jmd> q>p«>n to hno ud bcothw of th< Lord (John riL 6 rehn 
b«n rammed kflar ttae mutiulon, tin be to in auliat period) Thii emingnt iKnan 
wu mule ut oldest of Oie wrath of Herod 
Agripttt, who, A. D. iS, eaoeed him to be 
baheulad (Aet* ziL 1, 3}, Thu, in foim- 
Bent of the •oidi of Chrial, did June* drink 
of hia Mmm'* eiip (Matthew zz. 30—23. 
KMfcl.SS— M). 

The bunOy to lAleh Jania* and John be- 
loDfnl po i aaaaed waie property, being, aa 
would l^pear, the joint owner of ■ Addnr 
barqne on the Lake <d Galilee, in the woik- 
ing of whioh ther emploTed hind tenuiti 
(HaAL20. Lake t. 10). 

JAMES, diiiJDgiiitbed from the fbrmer m 
•aie Lew' (Mark it. 10), or 'eon of Al- 
plueoa,' wu ilao probablj an apoetle (Httt. 
«. 8. Huk iiL 18. Luke li. 1ft. Acta i. 18). 
Alpfannii )■ a Greoiaed fonn of the Aramiio 
CTeophaa, Cleopae, or KJopea (John lii. 85). 
Hence Jamea the Leu waa >on of Mary, the 
aiater of Chriefe molher (John zii. 2ft. 
Mark xri. 1. Lnke xbt. 10), tad Jimea 
and Jeans were eiaten' eona, or eonaini ; on 
whiih aeconnt, with a latilode not anknown 
to (he Hebrew, Jamee ie called ' the Lord'a 
brother' (Oa). i. 10; comp. John rii. 8. 1 
Cor. ii. ft. Mmihew liiL 6ft. Mirk ri. 3). 
From the paaukge in Oalitiui, it appean 
that Junes the Leae held ■ prominent Bta- 
oun in the chnroh at Jenualem ; and Acta 
lli. 17 ahowa oa a penon of dialinetiDn in 
the Bame commanity bearing the name of 
Jamea. who, aa Junaa the Elder Is apoken 

we find in Acta it. IS, iq.; hd. 16, »tq- 
Oil. IL 9, 13, where he «pp»n u hl^ In 
□ffire in the cbnrch at Jemaalem ; and 
after the death of Jamea the Elder, b« 
aeema to h»Te been simply termed Junea 
(1 Cor. IT. 7). Rig alttince with Jeana and 
hia own character combined to mae Um to 
the dignity he held. The inflnettoe which 
enined he emplojed for the fortherance of 
his Jewish riews of the goapel, and ao waa 
brought into collision with the jostle Pud. 
According to Josephas (A^'tiq. zi. 0, 1), be 
waa atoned to death, at the (legation Mt tha 
high-priest Ananaa, eir. 63 A. D. 

The passage in Josephua is so important 
an indirect confirmation of the gospel hia- 
tory, that we shall set down (he histoiian'a 
words: — 'Aninns' (or Ananias) 'assembled 
the Sanhedrim of judges, and brought betbre 
them the brother of Jeens who was called 
Chriat, his name was James, and eome of 
his companions. And when he bad made 
an aecosation against Ihem, as breakers of 
the law, he deliTered tbem to be stoned.' 

JAHE8, THE EPISTLE OF, written by 
James, ' a servant of Ood and of the Lord 
Jesas Chrisl,' probably James the Lesa, ia 
termed a eatbolia or general epislle, becanae 
addreascd not to a particular commDmily, bat 
to Christian eonrerte from Jodaiam, of the 
twelTc tribes, tbat is, of the great body of 
the HebrewDation,Bcaltendataoad<NrUTinc 
in heatheo and foreign lands. 


The epistle, whieh most have been written urgent importtnoe, James describes the tnie 
before A. D. 02, when its author was put to origin ot pieralent wars and fightings, and 
death, appeared in a period of trial and per- severely reproves die vices of cupidity and 
secution which caused men to waver in ttieir sensuality. Evil -speaking is condemned, 
fidelity, and occasioned many sudden alter- and an irreligious trusting In time to come, 
nations of condition (i. 2 — 12 ; v. 10), and vdiieh was the more blameworthy because 
when it was expected that the coming of the tlie Lord was about to make his second ad- 
Lord drew nigh (v. 7 — 9). False views of vent (iv.). Then follow charges of oppres- 
the origin of temptations (i. 13) and of the sion and injustice against rich men, whieh 
justifying efllcacy of faith (ii. 14—20), as it is dif&cult to think Christians could have 
well as general improprieties of conduct (iL rendered themselves liable to, and which may 
1 ; iii. 1; iv. 1), so prevailed, that James refer to heathens, the rather because, in v. 7, 
considered it his duty to pen this letter. The the writer seems to return to the subject of 
passage relating to faith and works (ii. 14 — his first address, exhorting his * brethren' to 
20) is of special importance as marking the be < patient unto the coming ot the Lord' 
contrast held to have existed between this (7 — 11). Evils which appear to have arisen 
pillar of the church (Gal. ii. 0) and repre- from the contrary practice, probably since ju- 
sentative of the Jewish school of Christians, dicial oaths before heathen tribunals (comp. 
and the aposUe Paul, whose views on justi- ii 0) involved the invocation of idols, in- 
fication by faith (Gal. ii. 10) it may appear duced the writer altogether to problbit swear- 
designed to withstand. The piece, however, ing. Then follow directions of a practical 
is a striking proof that speculative opinions, nature, which bring remarks on the ei&cacy 
however important in themselves, cannot of heartfelt prayer and the greatness of that 
suppress in the Ghristisn's heart the natural work which is performed in the conversion 
fruits of the divine religion of the Redeemer of sinners. 

of the world, for the letter is replete with If the epistie terminates somewhat ab- 

the wisdom, gentieness, love, and goodness ruptiy, the fact is only in keeping with its 

of the gospel. After the usual greeting, the general character, in which, although a train 

writer speaks of the topic, temptation, which, of thought may with care be traced, there 

as of the most pressing importance, was up- are scarcely any of the ordinary observances 

pennost in his mind (L 2 — 14). Referring and tokens of orderly arrangement. The 

evil to man's lusts, he ascribes good to Ood, piece is unartistic, a production of piety 

who had brought forth Christians as a kind rather than literature, yet containing pas- 

of first-fruits of his new creation, and they sages of high literary merit (i. 17, 27 ; ii. 

ought, in consequence, to be gentle and ex- 17 — ^20 ; iii.). 

ceUent. Hence arise an exhortation against The epistle shows that at the very early 

prevalent vices, and a briei^ but fine and period to which it refers, an organisation 

true description of religion (14 — 27). Hav- already existed in the Christian church by 

tug spoken of the needy, tiie writer is led which each community was governed. Thus 

by association of ideas to warn his readers the brethren met in their assemblies, which 

against that unchristian partiality which neg- were open to the public (ii. 2), and which 

lecta the humble to show honour to the great were obviously a copy of the Jewish syna- 

Tbis disregard to the poor was the more gogue, this very word being used. These 

inconsistent, because Christians themselves churches were presided over by elders, whose 

had suffered from the injustice of rich hea- duty it was! to visit the sick (i. 27), and, 

then men ; and the duty of maintaining equal having prayed over them, to anoint diem 

affections is urged by the consideration that with oil and pronounce the forgiveness of 

a law is equslly broken whether transgressed their sins (v. 10). The members succoured 

in one point or many (ii. 1 — 12). Theunbro- each other in want, and, confessing to one 

therly spirit arose, according to the sequence another their sins, afforded the aid of mutual 

of <he apostie's thoughts, from erroneous advice and prayer (10). They also employed 

notions respecting faith, as if mere belief themselves in endeavours to convert sinners 

had a savmg power (12—20). This religion (19, 20). 

of the head had also occasioned a despotic The existence in this epistle and in otlier 
manner of acting, accompanied by an ungo- parts of the New Testament (Galatians i. 7 
vemed tongue, whose transgressions are re- — 9 ; ii. 4 — 9, 11 — 14) of evidence that Uie 
proved, as well as its natural effects, ' bitter earliest expounders and advocates of Chris- 
envying and strife ;' and a picture is by im- tianity were not in all points agreed, affords 
plication drawn of the state of Christians, an assurance of the good faitii which pre- 
which proves that writers who paint the ear- vailed on all sides in &e Christian charch ; 
liest days of Christianity as morally all sun- for had imposture had any part in the fabrica- 
shine, borrow largely from their own imagi- tion or modification of our sacred writings, 
nations. The reproof is terminated by a these signs of disagreement would have been 
beantiftd description of ' the wisdom that is careftilly erased. The same divergences prove 
from above' (iit). Reverting to the same that the books must have come into exist- 
topic, doubdess from a conviction of its enue before the end of the first century, after 





whioh professors began to regard diversity 
of opinion as a great eril, to treat deyiations 
fromestAblished opinions as heresies, and to 
excommunioate their authors. Troe Chris- 
tian toleration scarcely sonriYed the apos- 
tolic age. 

JANNES and JAMBRES are in 3 Tim. 
iii. 8 mentianed as the Egyptian magicians 
who withstood Hoses (Exod. vii. 11, 23), 
who, however, appear to hftve been more 
than two. This disagreement, and the simi- 
larity of the two names (comp. Ooo and 
Maooo), give reason to think that we have 
here a vdio and a trace of a Jewish tradition 
which prevailed on the sulgect in the fint 

JAPHETH. See Ditibiov. 

JABEB, eaUed in Hos. v. id; z. 6, <king 
Jareb,' or the * king of Jareb,' neither of 
which is known in history. The word is 
probably an epithet describing the ruler of 
Assyria, as * the hostile' or ' the great king.' 
Comp. 3 Kings xviii. 19. 

JABMUTH, a city in Judah (Joshua xv. 
85), which, before the invasion of the Israel- 
ites, was the seat of a Canaanitish king (x. 
3 ; xiL 11). It now lies in ruins, under Uie 
name of Jarmule, about twenty miles south- 
west from Jerusalem, in the direction of 

JASHOBEAM, son of Haohmon (1 Chron. 
xi. 11), called also Taohmon (2 Ssul zxilL 
8), one of David's heroes; the chief of three 
who appear to have fought together in a 
chariot, or on foot, a manner of fighting pre- 
valent among the Hebrews. 

JASON is properly a Greek name which, 
from the time when Greek influences made 
themselves felt among the Jews, individuals 
of that nation were led to adopt (from Jbsum, 
or Jothmd), according to a custom which pre- 
vailed of borrowing frum the Greeks names 
similar in sound to their own native Hebrew 
appellation»— a practice which has something 
resembling it in the practice of modem Is- 
raelites, as Braham instead of ilbraham. The 
name, which occun thrice in the books of 
Maccabees, is found in Bom. xvi. 21 as a 
kinsman of PauL This relationship may 
explain the ikct that in Thessalonioa Paul is 
found a guest of Jason (Acts xvii. 5). 

JASPEB (from a Hebrew word of similar 
form), an opaque, many-coloured stone, of 
the species qusrtz, which was in common 
use among the ancients for ornament PUny 
remarks of it, that though surpassed by many, 
it retains the glory of being very ancient 
(Exod. xxviii. 20. Ezek. xxviii. 18. Bevel, 
iv. 8 ; xxi. 18, 19). 

JAVAN, son of Japheth, and forefather of 
the Asiatic or Ionian (Ion, Ivan) Greeks, 
who, as lying nearer to the Hebrews, would 
give them their own name for the country ; 
which name, Javan, may therefore, in a more 
extended sense, be taken to represent the 
Greeks of Ionia and of Greece Proper (Gen. 

X. 2—4. Isaiah Ixvi. 19. Ezekiel xxvii. 

JAZEB (H. he that helps), a city in Persea, 
in the tribe of Gad (Numb, xxxii. 1). Its 
position is not well known, but it has been 
sought somewhat south of Babbath Ammon, 
and identliied with Wady Sir, whose water 
flows into the Jordan opposite Jericho. At 
that place are some small pools, whidi are 
thought to be the sea of Jazer mentioned in 
Jer. xlviii. 82 ; for sea, in Biblical language, 
often means only a sheet of water. 

JEALOUS (F. jalmtgf from a Greek root 
signifying to* be hot'), a heated state of 
mind arising from the possession by another 
of what belongs to yourself. The term is 
used of God as strongly descriptive of his 
abhonence of idols, which received the ho- 
nour due to Him only (Exodus xx. 6 ; comp. 
Is. xlii. 8. Ps. Ixxviii. 08). 

JEABIM signifies wood (Josh. xv. 10). 
Mount Jearim (Har-Jearim, that is. Wood- 
mount) was the name of a small hilly ridge, 
along which ran the boundary of Jndidi, 
westward from Jerusalem. A neighbouring 
town was hence called Eiijath«>jearim (9). 

JEBUS (H. which treads under foot), the 
ancestor of the Jebusites, a clan of Canaan- 
ites (Gen. x. 16) who, at the time of the 
Hebrew invasion, were settled on Moimt 
Judah, or Ephraim (Joshua ix. 1. Numb, 
xiii. 29), being under a monarchical govern- 
ment (Josh. z. 1, 23), whom Joshua defeated 
(xi. xxiv. 11), but could not capture their 
stronghold, which was afterwards called Je- 
rusalem (see the article ; xv. 8, 63), where, 
in the time of the Judges, the Jebusites are 
found predominant (Judg. xix. 11), though 
some Israelites seem to have obtained a 
footing in the place (i. 21; comp. iii. 5), 
which was conquered by David, together 
with Zion, ito chief bulwark (2 Sam. v. 6, 
seq.), but the Jebusite population were not 
exterminated (xxiv. 16). The remnant of 
them was made tributary by Solomon (1 
Kings ix. 20, seq.). Jebusites are mentioned 
alter the captivity (Ezra ix. 1). 

JEDUTHUN (H. who gives praise), a Le- 
vite appointed by David, after the ark had 
been brought to Zion, to aid with music and 
song in conducting divine worship (1 Chron. 
xvi. 41, 42). He was aided by his sons, who 
prophesied with a harp to give thanks and 
to praise God (xxv. 8 ; comp. 2 Chron. v. 
12). Hence there arose a family or race of 
singers, who, either from lineage or profes- 
sion, were termed sons of Jeduthun (2 Chron. 
V. 12; xxix. 14 ; xxxv. 15. Neh. xi. 17). To 
JeduUiun, the chief musician, are inscribed 
certain Psalms (xxxix. Ixii. Ixxvii.), but pro- 
bably only with relation to the composition 
of the music or its performance. 

JEGAB-SAHADUTHA, an Aramean ex- 
pression which signifies mount of witness, 
being of the same import as the Hebrew 
Oaleed (Gen. zxxi. 47). The former terra 




was used by Laban, who was an AramflBan 
(xxT. 20 ; zxriii. 2), and belonged to a race 
which extended to the north ot Palestine, 
from the Mediterranean to the Tigris, being 
by political rather than national or lingoistio 
qualities divided into Western Aranusans, 
known by the special name of Syrians, and 
Eastern Aramasans, that is, Mesopotamians, 
Babylonians. The language of the latter 
generally bears the name of Chaldee. 

JEHOAHAZ (H. paaasion of Jehovah; 
A.M. 4700, A. 0. 848, V. 856), son of Jeho, 
eleventh king of Israel, ascended the throne 
in the twenty-third year of Joash, king of 
Judah. Daring a reign of seventeen years 
(comp. 2 Kings xiii. 10; xiv. 1) he eonfci- 
nued a oonrse ot idolatrous disobedience, 
and was in consequence made subject to the 
Syrians, and reduced so low that he could 
not muster more than fifty horsemen, ten 
chariots, and ten thousand infantry. His 
repentance, however, was accepted, and the 
day of Israel's doom was postponed (2 Kings 
X. 33 ; xiii. 1—9). 

JEHOAHAZ, or SHALLUM (A. M. 4939, 
A.C. 609, V. 608), seventeenth king of Ju- 
dah, son of Josiah and Hamutal, was, after 
a bad reign of three months, deposed by 
Pharaoh Necho, who, since his conquest of 
Josiah, exerted an influence over the king- 
dom of Judah. The dispossessed monarch 
was carried captive into Egypt (2 Kings 
xxiii. 81—34. 2 Ghron. xxxvi. 1—3). In 
Jer. xxii. 11, Jehoahax bears the name of 
Shallum, which may have been his personal 
appellation, exchanged for the former on his 
ascending the throne. 

JEHOASH, or JOASH (H. fin of Jeho- 
vah; A. M. 4716, A. G. 832, V. 841 or 839), 
son of Jehoahaz, and twelfth king of Israel, 
reigned sixteen years. The repentance of 
his faxya and good qualities of his own 
caused some diminution in Israel's disobedi- 
ence to God; consequences of which were seen 
in the pious concern the monarch showed to 
the dying prophet Elisha, and his three- 
fold defeat of the Syrians. The vigour thus 
gained was, however, unhappily, turned 
against Hebrew interests; for Jehoash made 
war on Amaziah, king of Judah, who, proud 
of his conquest of Edom, had challenged 
his neighbour in Samaria. Israel was vic- 
torious, but, probably from some remnant of 
a brotherly feeling, stopped short of destroy- 
ing the kingdom of Judah. Lamentable, 
however, is it to see these two representa- 
tives of the Hebrew race engaged in mutual 
conflict the moment that the defeat of foreign 
enemies gave them some spare strength. The 
reply of Joash to the challenge of Amaziah 
aflbrds an interesting instance of the beauty 
and expressiveness of the Eastern parable 
(2 Kings xiii. 10— xiv. 16). 

JEHOIAGHIN (H. $trmgth rf Jehovah ; 
A.M. 4951, A.G. 597, V. 599), called also 
Jecouiah (1 Ghronides iii. 16), Jecbonias 

(Matt L 12), son and snooessor of Jehoia- 
kim, and nineteenth king of Judah, ascended 
the throne at the age of eighteen, under cir- 
cumstances of a generally adverse character, 
but of whose exact nature we have no infor- 
mation, though it seems strange to find him 
apparently taking the sceptre as a matter of 
right when his father had been carried cap- 
tive to Babylon. The now rapidly sinking 
glory of Judah was not retarded by this pow- 
erless monarch, who, unwarned by all the 
punishments sufTered by his predecessors, 
pursued a wicked and idolatrous course 
(Jer. xiii. 18, teq,), and was consequently, 
in the eighth year ot the reign of Nebuchad- 
nezzar (comp. Jer. lit 28, 29), earried cap- 
tive to the now all-conquering Babylon, toge- 
ther with his harem, his court, and the chief 
men of his kingdom. Many years did Jeho- 
iachin languish in chains, tOl at last Evil- 
Merodaoh alleviated his lot (2 Kings xxiv. 6, 
t$q» 2 Ghron. xxxvi. 8, teq.)» 

JEHOIAKIM (H. coiffirtnation if J^w- 
vofc ; A. M. 4940, A. C. 608, V. 608), eigh- 
teenth king of Judah, whom, having deposed 
his elder brother, Jehoahas, Neeho set on 
the throne, substatuting this for his former 
name, Eliakim. As the result, he became 
a tributary and vassal of Egypt, to meet 
whose demands he heavily taxed his own 
people. This subjection, in consequence 
of the defeat of the king of Egypt at 
Garehemish, was in three years exchanged 
for enslavement to the Ghaldees ; for Nebu- 
chadnezzar, his father's assaOant, earried 
the nominal king of Judah a captive lo Ba- 
bylon, since he could not be turned away from 
evil by the warnings of Jeremiah, nor even 
by the distinct threat, *he shall be buried 
with the burial of an ass, drawn and cast 
forth beyond the walls of Jerusalem ' (Jer. 
xxii. 19). The wicked monarch even sought 
to take Jeremiah's life, and actually slew 
another faithful prophet, Urijah (xxvi. 20, 
eeq.), and burned Jeremiah's prophetio roll 
(xxxvi. 21 — ^23). As a chief cause of his 
deposition, it is mentioned that he filled Je* 
rusalem with innocent blood (2 Kings xxiiL 
3Q,teq.; xxiv. 1 — 6. 2 Ghron. xxxvi. 1 — 8). 

Jehoiakim's conduct is that of a man 
whom wickedness has driven to desperation, 
and desperation made a fooL BaUier than 
turn to God, he resolved to pursue his own 
bad courses; and when hindrances of the 
most legitimate kind appeared, instead of 
reflecting on their admonitions, he took vio- 
lent measures to remove them out of his 
way, regardless alike of human blood and 
his own degradation. Having imbrued his 
hands in lite blood of prophets, he made 
war on their writings, and, like a madman, 
thought he could idter the inevitable oours* 
of events by destroyiog the record of words 
which did not determine, but merely de- 
scribed them. Vain are all these resources 
against God and his changeless and invin- 

J E H 73 J E P 

olble laws. Bat of all the reaonrees of Ahab, king of larael, with whom, howertr, 

wickedness none is so absurd as the bom- Jehoshaphat entered into close political rs- 

ing of books ; for even when copies were lations for the purpose of withstanding his 

rare the dreaded evil was not averted, and powerful enemy, the Syrians (1 Kings zziL). 

undying infamy was earned. The social and religions ameliorations of 

JEHOBAM (H. tsaUation cf Jtikaoah ; Jehoshaphat were rewarded by victories, to 

A. M. 4665, A. C. 883, V. 889), fifth king of which they greatly conduced, over the Hoab- 

Judah, son snd successor of the pious Jeho- ites, Edomites, and Ammonites ; but his ts- 

shaphat, by whose lessons he did not profit forms seem to have been greatly dependent 

From the existence of incongruous dates on his own personal influence ; for after his 

(comp. 1 Xings zxii. 00, 51. 2 Kings viiL demise, they, as must be all dianges which 

16), he is thought to have reigned for two have not their root and growth in the peo- 

years conjointly with his father. Through pie, were for the most part of brief duration 

the all-prevailing influence of his spouse, (2 Kings iii.). 

Athaliah, he became a aealous promoter of JEHU (H. As that it; A.M. 4072, A.C. 

the worship of Baal, and ere long destroyed 876, V. 884), the tenth king of Israel, hav- 

the good which Jehoshaphat had originated, ing extirpated the fiunily of Ahab, began the 

Impiety led to crime. In order to make his fiiUi (Zimri being reckoned) dynasty in Is- 

throne secure and augment his riches, he rael (comp. 2 Kings ix. 2. 2 Chron. xxii. 7, 

slew his six brothers, besides other per- *tq,). As by his position naturally placed 

sons of distinction. Good men mourned, in opposition to the preceding family, he 

Elqah threatened. In vain : the infatuated proceeded to put down in Samuia the ser- 

monaieh went on his way, and brought Ju- vice of Baal (2 Kings x. 18, teq.), but the 

dab to a lower religions degradation than bovine idolatry of Jeroboam and Egypt he 

idolatrous Israel. The extemsl condition did not touch, probably because he found 

of his kingdom eorresponded with its inter- it too deeply rooted in the sfl^ections and 

nal vices. The Edomites wrested from his habits of the people. Under him, Israel, 

hands their national independence (comp. which was now weak and without aid from 

Oen. xxvii. 40). His idolatry set Libnah, Judah, lost all its trans-Jordanic posses- 

a priestly city, in revolt against him. The sions, which were captured by the Syrians. 

Philistines rose in hostility. The Arabians After a powerless reign of twenty-eight years, 

made a foray into his country, and carried Jehu finished his days in Samaria (2 Kings 

ofl^ even from Jerusalem, all his sons save x. 84—^6). 

one. After a melancholy reign of eight JEOPABDT (T. gefoAr,' danger,' Scottish 

years, he died of a very painful disease (a jtpari), is the translation, in Luke viii. 

dysentery), unlamented, and condemned to 82, of a term signifying < to be in peril,' 

exclusion ttom the sepulchres of the kings which in Acts xix. 27, 40, is rendered < dan- 

(2 Chron. xxi.). ger.' Comp. 1 Cor. xv. 80, and Bom. viiL 

JEHOSHAPHAT (H. jvdgmmi of Jdio- 85. The word is written juparti* by Chan- 

vofc ; A. M. 4644, A. C. 904 , V. 914), fourth cer, and jupardy by Sir Thomas Moore, 
king of Judah, son and foUower of Asa, con- JEPHTHAH (H.^ viii open; A. M. 4808, 

temporary of a1imi>>i and Joram, kings of A. C. 1245, V. 1188), a Oileadite whom, on 

Israel, was, during a reign of twenty-five account of his illegitimacy on his mother's 

years, eminent for the attention which he side, his brothers, slter Uie death of their 

gave to the maintenance of pure religion father, thrust out from the family posses- 

snd the unprovement of the people. Dis- sions, and who in consequence became the 

tingnished for piety, he endeavoured to sup- head of a band of freebooters. In this po- 

press idolatry; and with the view of setting sition he gained so much renown, that ha 

the religion of his fathers on a firm basis, was appointed by the Israelites their chief 

he took systematic measures for the reli- in a war with their oppressors, the Ammon- 

gious instruction of his people (2 Chron. ites, whom he defeated. His achievements 

xviL 7, iS}.), and, as a natural expression raised him to the office of judge in Israel, 

of his own religions convictions, he ap- which he governed during six years. He 

pointed for the administration of justice tri- was sueoeeded by Ibsan. 
bnnals in every city subject to a supreme Before entering into battle with the Am- 

court, sitting in the capital, and consisting monites, Jephthsh vowed that, if sncoessAil, 

of Priests and Levites, who were to act as he would give as a bnmt-offering whatsoever 

servants and representatives of Jehovah (xix. came forth fh>m the doors of his house to 

5, i#9.). Nor did he neglect the material meet him on his return. His daughter, in 

welfare of his kingdom ; so that, small as it the joy of her heart, came with music to 

was, it became an object of terror to the give a welcome to her vietorious parent 

neighbouring Pbilistian and Arab tribes. On seeing her, his only child, how did the 

who were brought to acknowledge his sn- heart of the hero sink ! But the vow was 

premacy. Unhiqipy was the influence which made, and must be kept The only favour 

arose horn the marriage of his son Jehoram that his daughter asked was a reprieve of 

with Athaliah, daughter of the idolations two months, in order thai she might go up 

J £ R 74 J £ R 

and down the iDountains, and, with her com- the haidheartedneM and depravity of the 

panions, bewail her unhappy lot in dying chief men and mlera of Jadah. As with 

withoat having been a mother. The grace others whose energies have been given to 

was accorded. At its termination she was religion and literature, few are the events of 

pat to death (Judges zi. xii. 1 — 7). his life, which for the most part is found in 

This blameworthy act has been differently his recorded thoughts. Labouring strenu 

represented by two opposite schools. One, ously to detach his people from relying on 

impelled by a feeling of unwsnrantable hos- earthly power, and to lead them to Jehovah 

tality to the Scriptures, have endeavoured to as their only safe reftige ; or, if they would 

make it serviceable in proving that the an* look to man, to guard against revolting from 

oient Hebrews practised human sacrifices, Babylon and alliance with Egypt ; urging on 

and that Jehovah was only a refinement on the attention of the nation the certain fact 

IColoch, who was their originsl deity. that ruin would overtake them, unless they 

The other school, actuated by false assump- turned from idolatry and its attendant ini- 
tions of a friendly nature, and influenced by quities ; rebuking slike prince, priest, and 
the incidental mention of Jephthsh in Heb. people, he drew on himself an almost uni* 
zi. 32, have taken it to be impossible that the versal dislike which ripened into enmity, so 
girl could have been really sacrificed, and that his life was put in peril, and his liberty 
so were led to suppose that she was de- taken away. Owing, at last, his deliverance 
voted to a life of perpetual virginity. This to Nebnehadnessar, and receiving from that 
is not to believey but disbelieve, not to ex< monarch an ofiier of an honourable asylum 
pound, but explain away Scripture, which at Baboon, he virtuously preferred affliction 
in this case is clear and explicit. A know* with his own race, and, doubtless in the hope 
ledge of the history of the times might have of rendering some service, placed himself at 
shown to both schools that the Mosaic thesideofC^edaliah, whom the king of Baby- 
institutions were in no way answerable for lonhad set over the vanquished IsraeUtes(Jer. 
a transaction which was in contravention of zzxiz. zl.). On the assassination of Geda- 
them, especially in a period when those in- liah,the venerable prophet was carried down 
stitutions had only partially come into ex- into Egypt, whither the ascendant party fled, 
istence, and had been repeatedly infringed and where, in a short time, he entered into 
(Judg. z. 6, teq.), and on the part of a man his rest, after a most troubled life, and after 
who, whatever merit he possessed as the seeing the fulfilment of much of what he 
liberator of Israel, on which account he is had foretold. 

favourably mentioned by the writer of the At the express command of God, Jere- 

Epistle to the Hebrews, was tiie son of a miah abstained frnom incurring the obliga- 

strange (foreign) woman, was bom out of tions that ensue fix>m a mairied life (xvi. 

wedlock, had from an eariy period of his 2). The reason may be found in the difll- 

life been a disqualified person, and at last culties of his career. All his energies and 

made himself tiie leader of a troop of ma- care were required for the service of his 

rauders (zi. 2, 8). Such an education on country, to which he gave an undivided 

the border-lands of idolatry and theism, may heart, in the vain hope of saving it from 

well have prepared him boUi for his vow and ruin. His self-denial enhances our esti- 

its observance. Nor can the friends of re- mation of his worth, while his example can 

▼elation defend his conduct except on the with justice be cited only in cases of similar 

assumption of the general and most perilous necessity. His character was conformable 

error, that David's crime with Bathsheba, to his work. Indomitable perseverance, un- 

and other misdeeds which are merely re- wearied assiduity, strong siTections, and, 

corded in the Bible, must be either extenu- above all, a profound and ceaseless regard 

ated, veiled, or excused. to the Divine will, made him eminentiy fit to 

JEREMIAH (H. •Uvated of Jehovah), the struggle on for many years against ' a wicked 

second (Isaiah being the first) of the greater and perverse generation' in the display of a 

prophets, the son of Hilkiah (oomp. 2 Kings faithfulness in reproof, an urgency of appeal, 

xxii. 4), of a sacerdotal family resident in and a terror of denunciation, which find no 

the priesdy town of Anathoth (now Anata, parallel out of the pages of the Bible, and 

comp. Josh. XXL 18), in Benjamin, about which may well raise a blush on the cheeks 

three mUes to the nortii of Jerusalem, began of such Christisn preachers as speak blandly 

his ministry, when quite young, in the thir- of great national crimes, and prefer a false 

teenth year of Josii£, king of Judah (A.M. courtesy to the paramount claims of truth, 

4910, A.O. 029, v. 629), and continued it Justice, and God. 

in that of his four successors, Jehoahas, Je- Besides his prophecies, Jeremiah has the 

hoiakim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah, during a credit of being the author of ' The Lamenta- 

period of above forty years. With reluctance tions,' and an elegiac poem on the death of 

did he enter on his arduous duties, which, Joaiah (2Chron.xxxv.25). Thewriterof the 

however, he prosecuted most diligentiy in Chronicle8(zzxvi. 21) and Daniel (iz. 2) have 

the midst of blind opposition and deter- referred to his announcements of the return 

mined hostility, that bring into bold relief from the captivity (xxv. 12 ; zziz. 10). By 

J E R 75 J £ R 

Matthew he is placed in the class of pro- dispated facts. Conflrmatioii Is added by 
phets who bore testimony to Christ (ii. 17; passages which describe the deep and Taried 
xri. 14; xzviL 9). In the last passage, iniquity of all olasaes of (he people (t. 81 ; 
words are cited as from Jeremiah which are tL 13 ; Tii. 8, 11, 81 ; ix. 2, teq,) ; also by 
not found in his extant writings, but words the Tivid descriptions given of the proceed- 
of a somewhat similar import may be read ings of the enemy, and its eonsequenoes 
in Zechariah (zL 12). Probably, Matthew (viii. 16 ; iz. 9, t$q. ; zii. 7,teq,)i also of a 
wrote merely, ' spoken by the prophet,' whieh drought, which is painted as by an eye-wit- 
is in accordance with the reading given in ness (zIt. 1 — 6); equally by the strong na- 
his edition of the Greek New Testament by tnial, humane, patriotic, and religious emo- 
Tisehendorfl tions excited by the prospect of £e coming 

Events in the life of Jeremiah are also oalamities (iv. 19, teq,; viiL 21; ix. 1, i$q.), 

oonnected with otherpersons who are spoken From all which arises a strong evidence on 

of in this work. See Babuoh, Obdaliah, ftc. behalf of the certainty of other predictions 

JEBEMIAH, THE BOOK OF THE which relate to more distant periods, and 
PBOPHET, is in substance generally ad- even more important events; such as the 
mitted to be the work of the person whose conversion of the Gentiles (xvi. 19) and lihe 
name it bears, and who has given exact de- advent of the Messiah. See below, 
tails respecting himself and the communica- The reception and preservation of this 
tions he received from on high. Indeed, book of Jeremiah attest its truth and ere- 
the book contains too many eridenoes of dibility. The life of the prophet was as- 
having been written at the idleged time to sailed (xL 18, i§q.; xiL 6, teq.; xv. 10, 15, 
allow any competent judge to entertain a teq. ; xvi.), his writings enrolled in the na- 
serions doubt on the question. Among tional sanctuary. Whence the difference? 
other testimonies to this point, we indicate A sanctity was around the latter which the 
the following : namely, that when these ora- former was without The living man was 
des and historical notices were penned, the obnoxious because he spoke the truth; that 
Mosaic polity and ritual were still observed veiy truth embalmed his memory and conse- 
in Jerusalem (iv. 3, 6, 10, 11, 14; v. 1, ; orated his writings. This growUi of venera- 
vii. 8, teq. ; xiii. 13, 18 ; xviii. 11, 18) ; that tion is conformable to analogy. In the actual 
the Chaldaans had not come up to destroy case it is the more striking, because Jere- 
it, but were on the point of so doing (i. 15 ; miah, in the execution of his duty, assailed 
iv. 6 ; V. 15 ; vi. 1, 22) ; in the interval, how- aU the great powers of the nation — the 
ever, was given a time for repentance, on throne, the altar, the aristocracy (v. 80, 31 ; 
the appearance of which the threatened ca- viii.; x. 21) — who would by no means have 
lamity would be turned away (iv. 1 ; vi. 8 ; been the medium of transmitting to pos- 
vii. 8) ; that should the oifeied mercy be terity the dark catalogue of their own mis- 
refused, still a remnant would be spared (v. deeds, had not God and truth been stronger 
18) who would return back home, when lite than human passions. One class, the fidse 
alienated kingdoms of Judah and Israel prophets, who charged Jeremiah with utter- 
would again be one (ill. 18 ; xvi. 15). The ing things both untrue and unnational, and 
time is still more closely marked by ii. 18, whom that man of God in no way attempted 
80, where we see that the prophecy was pub- to conciliate, must have occasioned the se- 
lished after Judsh had disowned allegiance verest scrutiny into his claims, and would 
to Asyria, and thrown itself on the protec- have easily caused unpopular falsities to pass 
tion of Egypt ; and by vii. 15, which shows into deserved oblivion. In reality, however, 
that Israel had already been expatriated, their words have perished, while those of 
These facts combine to fix the oomposition Jeremiah are immortal, 
before eir, 590 A. C, when Jerusalem, and The Book of Jeremiah divides itself into 
after 720 A.C., when Samaria was laid waste, two parts. The first contains addresses to 
and when Judah transferred its fealty to the Jews, with interspersed historical notices 
Egypt. This last date is reduced to a lower (i. — ^xlv.) The second comprises prophe- 
number by XV. 4, where Manasseh (cir. 690) cies against foreign nations (xlvi. — ^li). A 
is mentioned in such a manner as to show supplement (lii.) presenting the history of 
that the passage was put forth some time the last Jewish king, Zedekiah, closes the 
after his death {cir. 040). This brings the work. The addresses to the Jews are dis- 
period of the ministry of Jeremiah into the tinguished by their contents. Those in 
half century immediately preceding the fall which a moral purpose predominates, may 
of the Jewish capital. Hence these prophe- be found in i. — xii. 13 ; xiii. — xviii. ; xxii. — 
cies were uttered before the events of which xxiv. The following are distinguished for 
they speak. That, in agreement with the their political bearing: xxi. xxvii. xxviii. 
declarations of the prophet, the Chaldoeans xxxii. — xxxiv. xxxvii. Beferences to the 
did come and destroy the national polity, days of the Messiah will be found in iii. 
and that a remnant of the people did return 16 — 18 ; xxiii. 1 — 8 ; xxxi. 81, m^. ; xxxlii. 
to their native land when Judah and Israel 14—26. Jeremiah, like Isaiidi and Amos, 
were again united, are well known and un- had occasion to direct his language against 

J E R 76 J E R 

ladmdiuls (zz. 1 — 6 , zzriii. —17 ; xxiz. definite predlcdons as proofs dist ihe Scrip- 

d4, 83). In his onoles respecting foreign tnre appeared at the time when the event so 

nations, Jeremiah threatens with overthrow foretold entered into history. Thns, if a 

the Egyptians, Philistines, Moabites, Am- prophet foretels the eaptoie of Jerusalem 

monites, Edomitss, Damascenes, Elamites, by Nebaohadnessar, or mentions Cyras by 

and Babylonians (zlvi — ]L) name, he, by so doing, is held to belong to 

The arrangement of the matter has given the period of which he speaks. This is not 

mnoh trouble, sinoe it is diiBoalt to asoer- to expound, bat destroy the Bible ; not to 

tain what (if any) principle was followed in investigate, bat deny the claims of pio- 

patting the several parts together. The ear- pheoy ; not to interpret the past in its own 

lier portions only i^pear to be in ohronolo- Ught, bat to thrast on it the speealations of 

gical order. The &ni ohi^ter forms a pro- modem times. Sooh a proceeding is oon- 

per introdoction. From ii. — vL stand in traiy both to a soand theology and to com- 

their right plaee as having been produced mon sense. 

in the reign of Josiah, under whom Jere- JEREMIAH, THE LAMENTATIONS 

mish began his prophetical career. The OF, derive their English name from the 

contents of vii. — ^ix. look to the commence- Latin Vulgate translation (Lamentationes), 

mentof the reign of Jehoiakim (comp.zxvL being among the Jews called Ehca (Ah!), 

1—^ with viL d — 12), and are therefore in the opening word, or from their subject, 

their proper place ; for there is no prophecy Kinnotht that is, * wailings.' In the Hebrew 

clearly relating to the short reign of Jehoahas, Bibles ttiey stand between Buth and Ecole- 

who was followed by Jehoiakim. To what time siastes, among the Hagu^grapka, or Sacred 

belongs z. 1 — 16 is not known. Here, how- Writings, spedflcally so termed ; the Jews 

ever, ceases the chronological arrangement make tibem one of the five volumes or rolls 

The passage z. 17 — 26 is thoaght to belong termed MtgiUoth. 

to the times of Jshoiachin. The following The subset of the poem is, beyond a 

chapter, zi., however, has been referred back doubt, the condition of Judah and Jerusa- 

to the times of Josiah. Unknown is the date lem occasioned by the conquest of Nebu- 

of the short piece, ziL 1—6 ; that found in ehadneszar, and the consequent sufferings 

zii. 7 — 17, has been ascribed to the days of and deportation. 

Zedekiah. It may, however, be questioned The poem was written a short time after 

whether these are dl chronological displace- the commencement of the captivity. This 

ments, and not in part the natural ezpres- appears from the graphic description with 

sions of the prophets confused mind, which which it opens, and in which, with a true 

in its visions mixed together different times poetic vision, the writer ezhibits Jerusalem 

and dissimilar conditions. The absence of as a solitary widow weeping sore in the night 

chronological order is not diminished in the in consequence of her bereavement, * for 

remainder of the book, as may appear from Judah is gone into captivity' (i. 1—4). The 

this arrangement of passages according to same fact is attested in the whole cnapter, 

eritios, written under Jehoiakim, zi. zzv. in which Jerusalem is personified as speak- 

zzvL zzzv. zzzvi ; and under Zedekiah, zzi. ing of her actual distress in a variety of man- 

zziv. zzvii. — zziz. zzzii. — zzziv. zzzvii. ners no less striking than painfU; the sum 

zzzviiL It slso deserves notice, that while of which is, 
the Seventy in general closely follow the * Abroad, the iwordbereavetk; 

order of the Hebrew tezt, they have here de- ^^ borne, certain death.' 

parted from it. The prophecies against fo- Indeed, similar evidence is presented in the 

reign nations, which in the original stand at remainder of the short Book (iL 10 ^19, 21 ; 

the dose, they have placed in the middle, iii. 47 ; iv. 8 ; v. 0, 17). 
Passages also are now found in this book In one sense, the Lamentations form the 
whose right to form part of it has been qnes- history to the Prophecy of Jeremiah ; for 
tioned. In IL 64 we read, *Thu8 far are they record, only in a poetical form, the 
the words of Jeremiah ;' whence it appears events as having actually taken place, which 
that the concluding chapter was not pro- his prophetic writings foretold. Not only 
duced by him. It, with the ezception of are the events recorded, but the causes are 
28 — 80, was borrowed tiom 2 Kings zziv. assigned, and in both is found a striet ae- 
18 — ^zxv. 80, and may have been added in cordance with the general tenor of the He- 
order to complete the historical notices sup- brew Scriptures, and specifically with the 
plied by the prophet. On insufllcient grounds previous writings of Jeremiah. It is diffl- 
has the anthenticity of IL and Iii, and of cult to see how a competent judge, on perns- 
other parts, been called in question. Obvi- ing these two consecutive writings, can deny 
ously, however, these attacks, as well as eiUier that predictions ezisted among the He- 
those made on Isaiah, have proceeded from brews, or that they received due ftdfilment 
a determination to get rid of what bore a The Alezandrine translators state in a few 
supernatural character in being a clear prefUory words, that after Israel had been 
prediction of future events. With a cer- enslaved and Jerusalem left waste, Jeremiah 
tun tehool it has been a maxim to regard sat himself down, and, with weeping oye% 


nlt*nd Ihli dirge am hii aflioted motlier- 
raonttr. Thii kceoimt ot fht origin of Om 
poem Sudi corrobontion In ill eonleoM 
■nd tanor. Jotaphiu kl>D (Antiq. i. I), I) 
uoriba* tha work to Jinmiih, uid with him 
agree not onlj tba Talmud and Jerome, bnt, 
wiut i> of loon importanoe, Lha thonfhU, 
itj'le, and phnwealogj. 

Tha IdmantatioDa have peoollaritiet of 
fonu which maril notice, the rather beoaaae 
Ih^ laud lo ahov that it ii poaaible for an 
artLBcial exterior lo be connected widi the 
nuMt natural and touching thoughti. The 
fint, leooDd, fonnh, and fifth poemi haTs 
each twenty-two Teraet; the third mnniu 
of Ihrtte timee twenlj-two. Thii nambei 
waa detannined b; tha nomber of tha letters 
in the Hebrew alphabet; for all these poema, 



eie^ the laal, are alphabetioal, that ia, eaeh 
venain tom begins witfi a letter of the alpha- 
bet, A, B, C,6k. The third poem, or iihq>teT, 
ia etill more artificial, eonaiating of twen^ 
two tripleta, eaeh of the three tinea of whidi 
begiuawitb the letter* taken inordet (oomn. 
Pa. cxix.). •■ 

JE&ICHO (H. meaning, probab);, m- 
;>nir}, a rojal eit; of Canaan, the moat dia- 
tingniahad of ihirtr rojal eitjaa, hariDg a 
king ot it* own (Joah. xii. S), aflerwarda a 
town of Beqjunin; Ijing aerentaen mile* 
Dorth-eaat of JeruiUem, fire from the north- 
ern extremitf of the Dead Bee, and about the 
aame diatanoe wait of the Jordan, neui; op- 
posite the part where tha laraeUtaa paaaad 
that finr oa their enlrance into Palestine, 
BO that Jericho wu the fint town wLich 

thej had to sabdne. As die vallej of the 
Jordan in general, so the Tioinit; of Jericho 
was denominated a plain, ■ the plain of lha 
*allej of JeriohD' (Dent, xxxit. B. Josh. It. 
18;t. 10). The Tsllefof the Jordan, which 
ia a long deep mine. Ilea near Jericho, from 
Ats to til hundred f»tt below the lerel of the 
Heditemneen. The raja of the ton, here de- 
tained and angnMUted hi power b; raflaeti<m, 
make thee* [dalna snltry, and theretbre both 
Inealabrhms and ler; prodnetlte. Hence, 
while the distriol ia distingoiahed fbr Inn- 
riance of vegetation and material beaalj, its 
Inhabitants are aweak and sickljraee. This 
T^raoT-bosom aboonded in palms, whenoe 
h was called ' Ihe oitj of palm trees ' (Sent. 
xniT. 8. Jndg. UL 18), and waa famona for 
gaidena of liim. Eorielwd b; ita natural 

laa at an earlj period to dia* 
tinetion and independence (Jothua xiL B), 
the fanner of which it enjoyed In Ihe days 
of the Bedeemer. Of the latter it wta de- 
priTcd bj Joihna, who bj ipeoial aid re- 
duced it ehortly after he had aet hie foot on 
the aoil of Fsleatine (fi.). That hero bar- 
ing deitrojed the place, its reoonatmetion 
was forbidden nnder a penalty (Joahna iL 
88), which Hiel, in the daya of Ahab, ia- 
eurred (1 Kingi iri. 84; oomp. 2 Sam. i, 
0). From the laat passage but one it aeem* 
likely that Jericho, after Ihe diriaion of lha 
kingdom, belonged to Israel, wbedier ori- 
ginally or by conqaest doea not appear. 
With this tact It ts In tsoordancc that Eli- 
aha, a prophet of Iirael, had hero many dia- 
ciples, ions of the prophets (3 Xing* IL d, 

J E R 78 J E R 

Iff.). Under Ahoz, howerer, it belonged to stand on the roate between tlie two eitjee. 

Judah (2 Chron. xxviii. 15). Being near A plaoe in the Ticinlty is pointed ont, in a 

the border*, it probably changed masters small grassy nook or vaUey, called the field of 

more than once. After the exile, Jericho blood, as the scene of the robbeiy of the good 

took part in reboilding Jerusalem (Neh. iii. Samaritan. No part of the world could be 

3). In the time of the Maccabees it was better adapted to the perpetration of robbe- 

fomished with fortifications, which Herod ries than the region bordering on titiis road, 

enlarged, at the same time adorning the which is still acconnted the most dangeroas 

place with palaces, in one of which he part of Palestine; and in the opinion of 

ended his days. As Jews in their jonmeys Olin, the old khan may occupy the site of 

from Gtalilee to Jndea sought to avoid Sa- the inn, or be the inn itself, referred to in 

maris, that lay between them, they com- the parable. 

monly proceeded to Jerasalem through Je- Of the nature of the country some idea 
richo, as did Jesus (Matt. zx. 29. Mark z. may be foimed from these words : — ' We en- 
40. Luke ziz. 1 ). Jericho, destroyed by the tered on a region far mors rugged and moun- 
Bomans, rose from its ruins, and in later tainous. The Tcrdure gradually decreased, 
times became a bishop's see. It was a city till at length not a shrub or blade of grass 
in the time of the crusades. was Tisible. Still there was less of bare rock 
The road from Jericho by Bethany to Je- than before, nor was it of so dark a hue. The 
rusalem, lies over unfruitftil sands and high, surface of the stone was more loose and shelv- 
wild, precipitous, and naked rocks. As it ing, and in many places reduced to debris, 
was an unkihabited wilderness (Josh. zri. The road runs along the edge of steep preci- 
1), the gorges and clefts of the rocks bar- pices and yawning gulfs, and in a few places 
boured robbers in all periods. Hence the is overhung with the crags of the mountain, 
name, Adummim, *the red or bloody way' The aspect of the whole region is peculiarly 
(Josh. zv. 7). The scene for the parable of the savage and dreary, vying in these respects, 
GoodSamaritanwaswell chosen (Luke z. 30). though not in overpowering grandeur, with 
The wilderness of the Temptation (Quaran- the wilds of Sinai The mountains seem to 
tania, or forty-day wilderness) formed a part have been loosened firom their foundations, 
of the wilderness of Jericho (Matt iv. 1). and rent to pieces, by some terrible convul- 
' The water of Jericho' mentioned in Josh, sion, and then left to be scathed by the 
zvi. 1, is a plentifU brook, which near the burning rays of &e sun, which scorches this 
place flows from the mountains and issues naked land with consuming heat' 
in the river. Its supplies were of old dis- How aecurately the Scripture speaks of 
tributed by canals over the low lands, which the traveller going down from Jerusalem to 
were hence made so fertile. Jericho, may be gathered firom Olin's words, 
< The plain of Jericho ' is very eztensive, as follows (ii. 199): — ' Soon after passing the 
and was renowned not only for its palms, ruined aqueduot, we commenced descending 
its balsam and olive trees, but also its roses rapidly towards the plain, which cannot be 
and bees. less than 1600 or 2000 feet below the sum- 
Jericho has undergone the fate of all the mits of the mountain. It seemed to me the 
once flourishing cities of Palestine — ^it has most fatiguing part of the journey. I had 
fallen, and almost disappeared. A misera- suffered much fh>m the motion of my horse 
ble hamlet named Ericha, or Biha, with an in clambering up and down the rugged steeps, 
insignificant fortification, in which is kept a which had formed by far the largest part of 
em Jl body of soldiers for the protection of our way from Jerusalem, unable to relieve 
pilgrims to the Jordan, is all &at is found myself, as at other times, by an occasionsl 
in the wide open plain, of which that part walk ; and now every step of the jaded ani- 
only shows signs of former fertili^ which is mal, as he dropped his feet deliberately and 
naturally watered by the afore -mentioned heavily firom rock to rock, jerking and jolt- 
brook. The wild mountains which stretch ing my lame back, inflicted absolute torture, 
between it and Jerusalem are occupied by Fatigue and the violence of the heat had oc- 
Arab freebooters, who lose no opportunity casioned a good deal of irritation and fever, 
of plundering travellers, so that a journey and it was with some difficulty that I main- 
firom Jerusalem to Jericho is now perhaps tained my position in the saddle for the last 
even more perilous than it was in the times half hour previous to reaching the foot of 
of the Saviour. the mountain.' 

About half-way between Jerusalem and A wholesale robbery, comprising thirteen 
Jericho, the traveller finds a fountain and a camels loaded with the provisions and bag- 
khan, or inn. It is close to the road, at a gage of the governor, &c., besides sevextd 
point where the valley ezpands. Here is a others, was committed on the caravan in 
stoi;ie basin for watering animals, and it company of which Olin (ii. 204) went down 
seems to be customary for travellers to halt from Jerusalem to Jericho. * A number/ we 
for refreshment and repose. The khan is built quote his words, *of the pilgrims, in Uieir 
of rough stones, and has a ruinous appear- zeal to make the most of the festival, came 
anoe. This must always have been a noted out from Jerusalem yesterday, and, of course, 

JEB 7 

bcfn* ths nu1itai7 ncoR. Thej wen in 
■DiUcisnl nombsn, when logctfaiT, to insure 
tttttj ; but k mui who biul incsntioiul; 
mnduvil i iboit diaUniw from ths ooin- 
puif 1Mb eTcniiig, fell in with aoma B«- 
doniua, wlio itripped htm of aU hi* clolhea, 
■nd,perh*pii btctiiM Ihsydid nol find mncli 
mouej or other Tilu&blei npon bit person, 
beat him tmmercifnliy. How strilung mi il' 
iDitrwion of the ilorr of the good SunuiUn 
vjd of (he tinebtngeRbleneu of Oriental 
muuien I ' A oertain man went down from 
Jenu&ltn) to Jeriaho, And fell vnong thieTfli, 
which stripped him of hii raiment, and 
woanded him, and departed, leaving him 
half d*ad.' To-daj an Italian, whoia tall 

a Janualem, togslhar with 
hia wife, were attacked by robben aa Iher 
were an their wa; here, etripped qnila naked, 
and pltmdered of eierj Ibing ther had.' 

'At night, the aapeot' (aiji Warbnrlon, 
when in the plain ot Jericho) 'of mj bi- 
Touaa waa Terj plcmneque. The watoh- 
flre biasing amoog the dark green abmbe, 
gleamed now npon the water, now upon the 
ga; oapariaone of the horsea that remained 
Btuding and aaddled all night The Arabs 
slept around mj tsnt, wrapped in their striped 
bemanscs; nightingales were thrilling the 
dark groves with their song; and from the 
lop ot the tower of an old castle where a Toik- 
ish gairiaonwas qnanend, came aoandB of 
musu and lan^ter, as the ladies of the 
Aga's banm were o^ojing Iha moonahlne 
and the cool air of nli^L Abont three in 
the morning I ronsed mf Bleeping people, 
who iprong to their tttt with aUerilf. In a 
few minutes a little fire waa made with dried 
learea and twigs, ignited bj tinder and a 
plalol- flash; ^en the eoAe aleamed and 
bubbled, and this, with a roll of bread, oon- 
stitnted onr morning's repast I paaaed 
through some glades and grovee of great 
beaut; on mj waj to the ai^oining moun- 
tains, bnt eoold dsleot no trace* where Jeri- 
eho onee stood, with her temples, palaces, 
and theatres. A eaiions monnd and a large 
tank-like cioaTaCion were the mlj diaturb- 
anos of Hatnre'a coder of things that I ob- 
serrsd. At the approaeh of morning ths 
stir of lUit, flut seomsd, like lewen, to fhr- 
meoi the miftM of ths world aroond, was 
Ter; striking; Artt dta paitildge'a call joinad 

almost ererj nei^bonriDg failL Then e«me 
sunrise, first flawing the lighteloads above, 
then flushing oTer the Arabian moontains, 
and pouring down into the rich vallej of tha 
Jordan; the Bead Sea itself seemsd U> eiMM 
lo life under the blessed spell, and shma 
like molten gold snong its pnipla hills. I 
lingered npon that mountain's brow, and 
Ibou^t I had not seen so eheerfiil or at- 
traotire a scene in Palestine. That Inxo- 
riant Telle; was beantilbl as one great plsa- 
■ure-ground. lu brooks snd grove* «f aio- 
mslie shrubs, intermingled with eloping 
gardens and verdant TaUeys ; ths oi^ <^ 
Palma might still be hidden onder the ti>- 
reat whence the old castle just showa its 
battleiaents ; the plains of Oilgal mi^t sUU 
be foil of prosperoDS people, wift eottag«a 
concealed under that abnndaat shade; and 
the Dead 8ea itself shines and sparkles aa 
it its waters rolled in ptira and nftesfaing 
waves ■ o'er eoral rocks and amber beds' 
alone. The road from henee lo Jerusalem 
ie drear and barren, and uotliing bat Be- 
thanj ooonrred to divert m; thoughts tMm 
the Btemlf besntitol Dead Sea' C>i- 172). 

The meet beanllfol feature of the plain 
of Jericho is an extensive grove — It would 
more pniperl; be esUed f»reeU<-that borden 
npon the weslen side ot Ihe modem villsga, 
and BtfMches northwsrd to the distsnee of 
two miles or mors. On the banks ot Iha 

the'u doskj forma were ai 

s,*ad a 

n darting flvoD|^ 

theehoms; the liiards began loglanse upon 
the rocks, the insects on the ground and in 

the air; the jerboa, aprett; little animal be- stream it ie an ahsolote thicktl, la mtaj 

tween a rsl snd a rabbit in appearanee and places impenetrable by roan or bsaat. Far- 

habits, was peeping bom its barrow, flah ther (ram the waur-coone, and north of ths 

glannl n g in the Btream, bans boouding over nvine, the treee are more scattered, atand- 

the dewy grass, and, as more light came, the ing singly or in small clomps, and resnn- 

ally fbrm ct the gaielle could be seen on bling, in plaera, an oiehard thickly planted 

J£R 80 JER 

with finit trees. Seen, however, at some those who senred at it This was an erfl 

distance, the whole region has the aspect of omen. Jeroboam, alarmed, bade his servants 

an unbroken forest, most extensive and luxa- seize the man of Ood, and stretched oat his 

riant This verdant and beautiful tract, so own hand for the purpose. In a moment, 

gratefbl to the eye accustomed for a long the hand was dried up. It was restored to 

time only to waste, arid deserts and bare its Amotions only at die intercession of the 

mountains, is indebted for its luxuriance to prophet The warning was in vain. Jero- 

the moisture, diffused by means of the brook boam, too enamoured of regal power to listen 

and the aqueduct, firom the fountain of to the voice of God, went on in his wicked- 

Elisha. ness, undeterred by domestic bereavement 

JEROBOAM (H. inareating the juapU ; and prophetic denunciations, till his name 

A.M. 4585, A.C. 963, V. 975—054), the son became a proverb, and his sins had reached 

of Nebat, an Ephrahnite, the founder and their height; when, having reigned two-and- 

first king of the separate kingdom of Israel, twenty years, in which he had been in constant 

made himself eminent in public works in enmity with Rehoboam and his son, Abgam, 

which he was employed by Solomon. The from whom he suffered a disastrous defeat, 

distinction which die young man here gained he died of a sudden and painltil illness, 

failed to satisiy him, when, a short time af- Nadab, his son, reigned in his stead (I 

terwards, he was designated by Ahgah, the Kings xi. 26, M9. 2 Chron. xiiL 8, M9.). 

prophet of Shiloh, as the future king of ten The history of this monarch throws light 

of the tribes of Israel. This destination ex- on the ftet that the promises of Ood are 

cited the jealous enmity of Solomon, and he conditions! on the use made by men of the 

tried to take away the life of Jeroboam, who opportunities put into their hands. The 

sought refuge with Shishak in Egypt (comp.l placing of him at the head of a kingdom 

Kings xL17). On the ascension of Rehoboam, was designed not only to punish Solomon 

the reformingparty, placing Jeroboam at their for idolatry, but to promote the worship of 

head, solicited at the hands of the new mo- the God of Abraham and Moses. Had the 

naroh an alleviation of their national bur- end been answered, Jeroboam woald have 

dens. Their prayer being refused with harsh been successftil and happy. He disobeyed, 

and threatening words, discontent broke out and thereby forfeited his privileges and de- 

into rebellion, and God's will in punish- stroyed his peace. 

ing Solomon's idolatry (1 Kings li. 88) was The character of Jeroboam may be re- 

aooomplished in the establishment of an in- garded as the type of the statesman who, 

dependent kingdom, with Jeroboam at its with die sid of some cleverness and great 

head, which comprised ten tribes, with part opportunities, tries to the utmost what can 

of that of Benjamin, leaving to the old Da- be elfected by policy ; but, neglecting princi- 

vidieal dynasty only one entire tribe, namely, pie and disregarding duty, barely succeeds 

Judah. The sundering thus effected, Jero- in his selfish objects, and loses in the at- 

boam took every means to make perpetual, tempt sll that dignifies humanity, makes life 

In particular, he saw how neediU for his desirable, and is well-pleasing in the sight 

own purposes it was to destroy the national of God. 

unity, which, though set on a firm footing JERUSALEM (a name made up, proba- 
only in the reign of David, the observances bly, of a Greek word, fcieroi, * sacred,' and 
of the Hebrew religion tended strongly to tatan, Hebrew for < peace,' or * safety,' Hie- 
eonfirm. With this view he undertook the rosolyma, denoting the sacred asylum or 
encouragement of idolatry, and, influenced stronghold, and bearing with the Arabs the 
probably by what he had seen in Egypt, he appellation of el-Kuds, tht holy, or Beit el- 
set up at Dan and Bethel, the extiemides of Mukaddis, the ianetuaty), the celebrated 
his kingdom, the worship of Apis, towards capital of Palestine, lies in the province of 
which the Israelites had of old shown a pro- the same name, lat 81 deg. 46 min. 48 sec. 
pensity (Exod. xxxii.), and by the attracdons N., and long. 85 deg. 18 min. E. from Green- 
of which he may have hoped to seduce the wich, on a tongue-shaped table-land stretch- 
Jndahites firom their allegiance. In order ing north and south, belonging to the west- 
to enhance the splendour of the new ritual, em ridge of the Palestinian hills, and formed 
in which he prudendy retained much of the and defined by the valley of Jehoshaphat on 
Hebrew ceremonies, and widi a view to the east, and that of Hinnom on the west On 
throw a veil over the dishonour to which he the southern part of the sort of promontory 
was reduced, of placing insignificant and enclosed by these two valleys, stands the holy 
unworthy persons in the sacerdotal ofllce,the city, being 2500 feet above the level of the 
king himself took part in the impious wor- sea. On its northern and north-eastern side, 
ship, which united the adoradon of calves there spreads out a broad open plain as far 
with the service of Jehovah. This daring as die Wady Beit Hanina. The southern 
apostaey called forth from Judah a prophet part, on whidi the city stands, has four sepa- 
The king was burning incense at the idola- rate Mounts— Zion, Acra, or Akra, Beaedia, 
tzons sltar in Bethel, when a terrible voice and Moriah, with Ophel, a continuation of 
was heacd denouncing min to the altar and Moriah. Of these there go together. Acta 

J £ R 81 J £ R 

^Jebns) and Zion (the Upper City), which fathers h^ye taken measures for the aeeom- 

form a floath-Boath-westem xidge, and Beze- modation of their guests by porohasing tiie 

tha, Moriab, and Ophel, which form a north- entire spot and erecting new edifices. In one 

north-eastern ridge. Between these two great of the chapels, the place where Christ stood 

divisions mns a oleit or Tallej, which, be- before Annas, in another, that of the behead- 

ginning at the Damaacos Gate, leayes Beze- ing of the apostle James, receive devout 

tha and Moriah on'the north and east, comes homage. The great church is adorned, or 

to the mosque el-Alssa, where it unites with rather disfigured, by paintings of Armenian 

another coming from the JaiTa Gate on the artists, the sole effort of whose art is found 

west side of the city, which, keeping an in a prodigality of colour and gilding in a 

easterly course, divides Zion lh>m Akra. childish manner. The castle, or citadel. 

The two, thus united, take a southerly di- stands at the north-western comer of the 

rection till they come to the spot where Hin- hill, somewhat south from the Ja£fii Gate, and 

nom and Jehoshaphat nm together, and form forms an irregular union of quadrangular 

the ancient valley Tyropoeon, or Cheese- towers, which, on the inner side towards the 

mongers' Vale. The city is thus divided city, are surrounded by a low wall, and on the 

into three chief parts : — I. Zion, which outer or western side have a deep trench, 

mostly lies out of the present city, and forms The towers on this side have strong bol- 

the south-western portion of the tongue of warks, which bear traces of antiquity and 

land ; II. Akra, on the north of the former, may belong to the Boman period. This 

which sinks towards the northern plain men- stronghold bears since the time of the cm- 

Honed above ; III. Bezetha on the north, sades tlie name of David's Tower. On the 

Moriah in the middle, and Ophel in the northern side of the hill, within the city 

south, making one continuous high land, walls, is found the Protestant church not long 

Ophel in its southern point mns beyond the since established by the Church of England, 

Pool of Siloam, on a precipitous cleft frrom in conjunction with the king of Prassia. The 

40 to 50 feet high. The breadth of the city Jews' quarter comprises the north-eastern 

from the brow of the valley of Hinnom, near part of the hilL ^is part of the city is the 

the Jafik Gate, to the brink of the valley of smallest, the dirtiest, and the most thickly 

Jehoshaphat, is about 1020 yards, of which crowded with inhabitants as well as houses. 

818 yards is occupied by the area of the If you pass through the Zion Gate, on the 

great mosque. North of the Jaffa Gate the south you find, beyond the walls on the 

dty wall sweeps round more to the west, in- right hand, the house of Caiaphas, now an 

creasing the breadth of the city in that part Armenian convent Under the altar of its 

The country about Jemsalem consists for church is a stone which is said to have 

the most part of limestone rock, which, ap- been that which closed our Lord's sepulchre, 

pearing on the surface, and tiiat surface Straight on towards the south, is the Cosna- 

being scattered over with loose stones, ren- culum (2887 feet above the sea), or house 

ders the sofl anything but firuitfbl. The in which Jesus is said to have instituted 

olive, however, flouri&es there in great the Lord's Supper. The edifice was once a 

abundance, and in the vales and on the Christian church, but is now held by the 

plains you see com*fields, which however Mohammedans, who honour it as the sepul- 

are not very productive, while vines and fig- chre of David. This sepulchre is found in 

trees are wholly wanting. the lower rooms, the entrance to which is 

Having thus given a general idea of the difficult even for Mohammedans, while ao- 

spot on which Jerusalem stands, we proceed cess to the apartment where the last supper 

to describe somewhat more closely Uie four is alleged to have been eaten is granted to 

eminences we have named. every stranger on payment of a small fee to 

Zion, on the west and south, rises sud- the Turkish doorkeeper. It is a large empty 
denly firom the vale of Hinnom ; on the north room, built of stone, from 50 to 60 feet long, 
and east, along the Tyropoeon, the side is and some 80 feet high. On the eastem side 
less steep. The height of the hill at its is a small niche in the wall, which on some 
south-western comer amounts to about 154 occasions Christians make use of for the 
feet, at the Jaflk Gate only to 44 feet The performance of mass. On the southern side 
surface presents a plain of considerable ex- is a simEar niche of larger size, which serves 
tent, the northern part of which is enclosed the Mohammedans as a sign in their duty of 
by the present city wall, and contains the turning in the direction of Mecca when en- 
Jews' quarter, the citadel, and the Armenian gaged in their devotions. The same hall 
convent This, the richest convent hi the served the apostles for a place of assembly 
East, consists not of one building, but of a on the day of Pentecost In the vicmity 
multitude of houses and courts, which are you are pointed to the house in which, after 
encircled by one continued waU. Notwith- the birth of Jesus, Mary his mother dwelt 
standing this magnitude, the place is not and died. The remainder of the table-land 
capacious enough to receive the thousands is under culture. The eastem declivity is 
of pilgrims who stream hither, and the holy also in part cultivated. 

Vol. n. F 

JER 8! 

Akr> liM on the noRh of Zion ; its higli- 
•rt put li tb« nortfa-WNt aomu, on whloh 
ii tlia LMlD monutory. Eutvudi ftvm thi« 
the fij le*di yon to the Ohonih of the Rolf 
Bepolehm, on the rtdgn of Ihc bill, ttom whloh 
ths vaj (Mm ths Gala of Damaaoni and the 
TalJej between Akn and the great moaqne, 
TDDi in a eoniiderable deellTitj. The moat 
inipoflaiit bnlldinge on thii eatnenae are — 
the Latin Oonfent, the Chnroh of Ilia Holy 
Bapnlehn, the Greek and tlta Coptic Can- 
TenL The Latin conTent, Bt. Salvatot, foi- 
meriy belongins to Oib Georgian ChilitlaDi, 
la DOW in ibe huida of the Franoiaaan or 
lUnoiita monk*, who ftom the year 1818 — 
IMl had OtaiT <diief aeal on Zlon, at the 
idaee where now die Conaeolom atanda, bnt 
Wing driven henoe b; the Moalema, fliad 
dieir abode hare on Akra. Aeeording to 
Sdiabtit, it ii UTO tat abon the aea. 
From ita terraeel foa ha*e an onintemipled 
and baanlifDl tIbw of Jernaalsm. Soulh-eaat 
bum tha Latin oonrent lie, oloee lo each 
Dthar, tha Onek and the Coptic wnTanL 
Kaitof [ha Greek ooQTenl itanda the ohtinli 
of the Holji Sepnlehra, whleh praperlj oon- 
aista of three efanrebea, that of (he Sepol- 
ohie, that of OalTarT, and that of ttie Dii- 
eoTerj of tha Onwa. Elae CiltuiT. 

Soulh-eaat from hanee, Id (he middle of 
the eity, yon ua the Buaan, niending to 
tha Jews' quarter, ooniiating of two Dirrow 
atreeta nnder a roof, with open ehope on 
eaeh aide, wMoh are oeoapied with deilen 
and artiiana ailting at tbalr work. 

From Akr« In a north-eaataily direetion, 
yon procMd diroogh the deep vale whioh 
nmi (roin Ae Damaaona Gate lonthward to 
the Tyroptaon, imtil jon eoma to the emi- 
nenoe teimsd BaufAo, whoae weatam aide la 
aa hi^ aa Akn, and alopea gradnally to- 
warda the aaat to tha border of the valley of 
Jahoahaphax. In the nelnity of the Damaa- 
ena Gate, the wealera and northern deelivlly 
ia very eteap ; on the northern eide, on whioh 
nma the alty wall, the rock ilnka anddanly 
down, and at ita foot aitanda a deep wide 
tnndi ont In the roek. Tha lop of the hOl 
ia tor the moat part covered with low bolld- 
ingi and hnta ; on the north-aaat it ia within 
the walla ooonpied witfi gardena, fielda. and 
frnit • Ireei, among whieh ifatnd delaohed 
hooaaa, eo that the whole haa the appaai- 
ance rather of a village than a city. On Ba- 
■etha a fine view of &e other parte of Jam- 
aalem may be had. 

On the same elevation widi Beietha, and 
aeparalad ttom 11 neither by a valley nor a 
noticeahta einking of the gronnd, alanda, 
(Onth tram Baieiha, Honnt Horiah (3380 
feel above the aea), on iriiich ia tha area of 
tha gitat moaqna al-Haram e*.Seheri( the 
anoeeaaor of the ancient temple, tha inner 
eoQTta of whioh Chriatiana are forbidden on 
pain of death to enter. The itonea of the 


lower pan of the onter wall are parfly of 
great aiaa. being from IT to 80 fcet long, S 
to feet high, and 1 to 7 hat thick; ^ving 
•vtdanaa of being remaina of a very ancient 
e un a tiu etlon whi^ reaebaa back to die timea 
<rf the Savionr, or even of David. On tha 
platform environed by thla vrall la the great 
moaqna. In riiloh ia tha aaered atooe of lb* 

NOiqCB or OUAM. 

Kobammedana, who repreaent it aa the idan- 
tiaal atoneiriilch Jaooh aaed aa apillow (Gen. 
nviii. 11), and on whieh atood the deatn^- 
ing angel when ha poniahed the people for 
the Bin of thaii king (3 Samnel ndv. It), 
18 ). ^ilh eqnal certain^ do they add that 
tha atona originally fell ttom heaven, waa 
the ipot on which propheti kneeled in 
prayer, and whan, at the deilmetion of Ja 
maalem, the prophata Bed, tha alone pro- 
ceeded to By aftn Ihem, bat waa arreetad 
and Aicd In ita praaani apot by Ibe angd 
Gabriel, the marka of whoaa flngera im- 
pteiHd in tha graap atiU remain viaible. 
Under the alone la ftnmd a hollow place, 
wldeh tradiUan aaaarta to have been daaigned 
tbr holding Ibe ark of the covenant and other 
aaered otjeela. Neat lU* great Hoalemaano- 
taary are amaUei moaqoea and other bidld- 
inga, open placea with brookt and aealtered 
Ireee. From the Jew^ qaarter a email nar- 
row atreet nue to a apot near the weatam 
wall ot the moeqoe or haram, not tti ttom 
ita aonthem end, called the ' Place of Wail- 
ing,' whither Jewa repair, eapecially em Fri- 
day*, lo weep over tha min of their temple 
and the till of their power. Along the aide 
of Ihe northern wall of tha pUlfonn, at ita 
eaatem end, i* foimd a deep trendi, wlliA 


Mditiaii namM th* Pool ^ 
the naliiM Biikat bnil, IhmTi PooL Th« 
Matam «aMm%«>f dia Pool lie* ■onaarihe 
d^ sail •> lo alli>» banraan the two onl; a 
laaa which aondneU bom Slaphvi^a Gate to 
the Boaqns. Tha abeat iAi«h ntna north 
boB the Pod m a waataiij diMedoa from 
Staphan'a Oala, brtman the heighta of Bcoa- 
Iha and Horlah, la tha Via Doloroaa, orWi? 
of 3oiTo>, along which (be tiaiur U pointed 
to the bnlldinge and apota vbioh call to mind 
BoRanngi of Jean* aa ha waa led &oin 
;manl toaiecDtion. On the right aa jon 
enter Btaphen'a Oata, is the honae of Aiuu, 
where the malhai of our Lord ii aaid to 
hare baan bom. Farther on in the aatue 
diieotion, on the nonh-weet comer of the 
wall of (be moaqne, is what ie termed Pl- 
lata'a Honae (now thereeidcneeof the Tork- 
iah goTsmor), with the apartment in which 
Jmos waa elad with a robe of purple and de- 
lidadaalhepretandedkingoflhe Jewa. Thej 
alao ahow die apota where Jeaoe aat boimi^ 
where waa the jadgment-aeat, and wbeia the 
orown of fhoma waa womn. The lligbl of 
■tape before the palace of Pilate, down which 
the SaTioor went bearing lua eroBS, called 
■eala Hncbi, ' holf ladder,' ia now in Borne, 
in a aepaimie boilding neit lo the calebralsd 
cboroli, 8l John Late/an. On the otlur aide 
of (he atraet ia the chamber in which Chriat 
ia aaid lo hare been aooorged ; tbnnerl; a 
fine ehnrch, now a atabie for the govemoi'e 
horaei. Farther on, near ttie ateps, atanda 
Iha arch where Pilate pointed oat Jeana to 
the people with Iha worda, ' Behold the 

where the Bedeemei thrioe tall under the 
weight of Ilia eroae, where he met Haiy 
etmiing bom a croaa etreet, where Simon 
of Cyreue ralieied him of hia burden, and 
where ha eaid to the matmna of Jaruaalem, 
' Weep not fin me, bnt weep tor foonelToa 
and jonr children.' Bejond tfaeae apota ia 
the honae ahown aa that of the ' rieh man,' 
the palace of Herod (north of the atnat), 
and the bonee of tlie holj Veronloa who 
wiped from the brow of Jeena blood and 
awaal with her handlercliief, which waa 
thaiaon imprinted with an indelible likeneea 
of the Lord. Thenoe 70a reach the jadg- 
ment-gata, now bnilt up with n. itons wall. 
The general direction of the Via Doloroaa is 
prob^T coiTSal, bnt we can hardi j oonoelra 
that memor; and tradition oonld hats trana- 
mitled in w> many oaMa the exact apota on 
which theae enaia took place, daring the 
tronblea and obliterating canaaa which en- 
aned not long after tha Sarianr'e drath, 
tbon^ it mast not be denied that the warm 
alhctionaof Uie Jcwiah heart were eniinenUr 
lltled lo retain a bold on recoUecdona which 
love, gaiaf, and religion eombinad to make 
dear and nnerable. 

The eleration fiinned faf Beseiha and 
Morlah rnna forward aaufltwardl; to a point, 
forming the ancient Ophei, which ie boauded 
on flie eaat by the deep Talley of Jehoaba- 
pha^ and on the weat by that of the Tjro- 
piBon, aa ateep bnt not ao deep. On the 
aorfaea Ophel ia HaL It ende jnat abore 
the Fountain of Siloam, in a clUF ftom 10 
to M fact hi^. 

Tlie pteaeni walla which anrroimd the 
cilj were, according lo an inicriptlon In 
Arabia found on tha Jaffk Gate, boilt in the 
Meth year of the Hegira, that ia 1B42 A. D., 
at the command of the aalian Solymau. 
Tlicy are provided with towers and batfle- 
menta, and preaent an imposing appearance. 
The oalcrwall,Tarying with the elevation or 
einking of the anrAtce, rlaea to fh>m 20 to 
60 fbel in height. At the north-eaat comer 
and along a part of the northem aide, * 
broad and deep trench haa been dog. 

The city baa fonr gataa, one towarde each 
qnarter of the woild. On the weatem aide, 
near the end of the Tyropoon, ie the Jaik 
dale, termed alao the Bethlehem and tha 
Pilgrim aate. It ia called by the natiTea 
Babol-Khalil (Hebron Gate). Theaenamea 
it baa gained becanaa the roada from theae 
three plafee, along which meet pilgrlma reach 
Jcnualem, find their termination there. It 
eonaiata of a masaiTc quadrangular tower. 
The Damaacua Gate ia found in the middle 
of the northern wall. Through tbia Gate 
paai those who travel lo Damaacna, and ge- 
nerally towarda tbe north. It is more richly 
adorned than the reat, and hence baa among 
the native population the nam* of Bab el- 
Amad (Gate of PiUaia). On tha eaeWiw 




Bide, eloM to the Pool of Bethesda, is found 
Stephen's Gate, which among the native 
Mohammedans hears the name of Bah es- 
Sehat (Gate of the Trihes), hat is hy the 
Christians called Bah Sitti Mejjam (Gate of 
my Lady Maiy). Ahove, on the outside, are 
the figures of four lions cut in stone, a proof 
that it is not an original work of the Mos- 
lems. Lastly, on £e south, the Gate of 
Zion leads out of the city to the southern 
part of ' Zion's hill,' near the Mussulman 
sepulchre of David, on which account it is 
hy the natives called Bah en-Nebi Baud 
(Gate of the Prophet David). 

Besides these four open gates, there are 
four portals which are now walled up: — I. 
On the north side, between the Gate of Da- 
mascus and the north-east comer of the city, 
is Herod's Gate, which is merely a smaJl 
portal in a tower. II. In the eastern side 
of the mosque wall is the Golden Gate, 
Porta Awna, probahly of Roman origin. 
The Frank name, whidi can be traced only 
to the historians of the crusades, is proba- 
bly derived firom some assumed connection 
with one of the ancient gates of the temple, 
which was ornamented with gold (Joseph. 
Jew. War., ▼. 6, 8). It was closed in the 
time of the crusades; but every year, on 
Palm Sunday, it was broken open in order 
to celebrate tiie triumphal entry of Jesus 
into the temple, held to have here taken 
place. It is still walled up, because, accord- 
ing to the Franks, the Mohammedans be- 
lieve that a king, passing through it, will 
take possession of &e city and become mas- 
ter of the entire earth. In the southern wall 
are two closed gates; one. III., on the south- 
ern wall of the hanun or mosque, near the 
comer where it joins with the city wall. It 
is found in a low quadrangular tower, 
through which formerly a way led into the 
oi^. It was first mentioned by recent tra- 
vellers. lY. Farther west, near the bed of 
the TyropcBon, is the Dung Gate of the 
Franks, which the natives term Bab el-Mug- 
hariheh (Gate of the Western Africans). 
According to Schubert, it is only in recent 
times, since the insurrection of 1834, that 
this and Herod's Gate have been built up, 
while the other two have long been dosed. 

The chief streets run at right angles to 
each other. As the whole ground north of 
Zion declines equally towards the east, while 
every street running from south to north is 
level, eveiy street passing fh>m west to east 
is a steep declivity. Generally, the streets are 
narrow and badly paved, often merely laid 
irregularly with broad stones, but their steep- 
ness conduces to their being clean, so that 
they do not present the filth visible in most 
Oriental towns. The houses are better built 
than are those of Alexandria or Smyrna; 
they are of hewn stone, and have flat roofs. 
On the roof rises a small dome, a peculi- 

arity which appears to belong to the distiiet 
of Judea. These domes seem to have been 
designed not merely for ornament, but, as 
building wood ia scarce, to support and 
strengthen the roof. Generally, &ere are 
two or more over eaeh apartment of the 
house. They make the chamber higher, 
and give the eeiling an azchiteotoral eifect 
Bobinson measured the oircumfeienee of the 
eity, and gives these results :— 

Eng.Pt. Gen.CooiBe 

1 From the JaA Gate tothe8.W. 
oomerof the citfyiint detoend- 
hig and then aaoendlng......... 1400 8. 

3 Zion Gate, level 600 Kattedy 

Z Dung Gate (olo8ed),desoendlng 1700 N.£aaterly 

4 8.E. oomer of city wall, nearly 

level 500 £. 

5 Wall of area of Great Moeque, 

8. side, aaoending S90 N. 

6 S.E. eomer of -wall of Mosque, 

level ^ 630 B. 

7 Golden Gate (closed), slightly 
ascending 1045 N. 

8 N. £. eomer of area of Mosque, 

level 468 N. 

9 8t. Stephen's Gate, level ...... 200 N. 

10 K.E. eomer of eity, level ...... 1063 N. 

11 Herod's Gate (closed), along 

the trench, level 1000 Westerly 

U Damaseos Gate, uneven ...... ISOO Westerly 

16 K. W. eomer of city, asoendhig 1900 8. Westerly 

14 Jaflh Gate, descending gradu- 
ally.................................... 878 8.40deg.E. 

12,078 Feet, 
or 4,686 Yards. 

This makes for the whole circumference a 
distsnce of 2| English miles, less 74 yards, 
or very neariy 2| geographical miles. 

On the sources whence Jerusalem was sup- 
plied with water, see the articles Bithbsda 
and CisTiBV. 

Williams ('Holy City') gives the foUow- 
ing summary of his opinions as to the 
sources of the supplies of water enjoyed by 
the inhabitants; — 'The upper spring of 
Gihon once had its issue on the north side 
of the city, not frur from the tombs of the 
kings. Its water was originally received into 
a pool called the Serpents' Pool, out of which 
it flowed, probahly down the valley of Je- 
hoshaphat In order to divert it from the 
uses of the enemy, and make it available to 
his own people in case of siege, Hesekidh 
stopped the upper fountam, and brought 
the water of the upper pool by an aqueduct 
down the valley which bisected the city, as 
fkr as the temple, where it supplied the re- 
servoirs prepared by himself or former 
kings, and then flowed off by an old chan- 
nel to the Fountain of the Virgin, and was 
continued through a new bore to the Pool 
of SUoam, otherwise caUed 'the Lower Pool' 
and 'the King's Pool/ being, in fiaot, 

15 JER 

Hianom, nniler Ihe Hill of ZioD, nor on th« 
meat aide of JchOBhaphat, go f*r u the old 
dl; sitended. This B«iiia to have uieen 
from the idea of ibe McrednesB of Ihe place, 
vliieh would be defiled \ij the preuuce of 
dead bodiea (ue Cliu). The most diitin- 
foiahed of these wpolohraa are the tombs 
wbioh bear Ifae names of Ihe Jndges, the 
Kings, the Prophete, Jshosh^hit, Absalom, 
8L Junes, and Zanharias. 

Kot fkr to (he norlb-easl of Ihe Dtmsa- 
oni Oate is Iha so-oitled OroCto of Jeremiah, 
In which the prophet is said to hare writtra 
hi* LamantUions, beneath a roond, inan- 
lated hill, iriioee southern side seems to 
hara bean hewn awaj. Here is an entrance 
into a hall which hae a length and breadth 
of TO, and a height of 40 feet. Before it is 
a small tmwalled garden. On the (op of the 
hill is a Mohammedan bniring-place. The 
grotto is inhabited by a Hnuulman pilgrim. 
Before the antianoa grows In abondance the 
thorn iyeiiBn nilh«niniiii, of which, u some 
hold, oar Lord's orown of thorns was mads. 
If jon pass Ihrongh Su Stephen's Oate 
out of Ihe oi^, jon find jaat opposite jon, 
on ths othsr side of the Cedron, Uie tomb of 
MsTj, eoosiating of a ehapel OTer a deep and 
rOOL or aiiiOiK wi<ls grotto in ths rook, where the Virgin 

ud her parents are aaid to lie. yon de- 
On Ihe east of Jsnisalem, separated Avm ••"^ W ths obapel bj fortj-eight broad 
i( hj the Cedron, or Kidron, Is Ihe Monnt ■"P"- J*t««" one-third of the way down job 
of OliTBS, the most conaideraWe of the neigh- •". <"> I"! "g"" '>»»^' *• ««"• "' Joachim 
bonring hiUa. Olixel is divided into thrw "^ ^^"^ ••" PMWW of Mary, and unme- 
elcTationa, of which the southern bears the 'l^*'*']' oppowl", o" te 'e^ •''^e. <li« B«™ 
name of Ihe ' Hill of Oflbnee.' See 1 Kings of Joseph. At the bottom of the grotto 
il. 7, 8. Sonth of Monnt Zion slanda Ihe til*" i^ ">" ^' "S^^ « ""•^ apartment or 
' Hill of EtQ CoqnaeL' It is beyond Ifae chapel, with two doon, within which stands 
TBiley of Hinnom, from which it rises ab- «> «!*" en""*^ •>»" <^* retling-plaoe of 
rapdywithseTeralrsngeaof rocks, in which ^e mother of Jesns. Around it saveial 
are man* eicarated eepolobroa. lis hirfiest Christian sects have erected small oralorios. 
point is lo the west, which ia about the same Of "« S"' fonnding of Jemaalem we hare 
eletation a* Zion. It has on it mine of a no certain information in the Bible. It is 
Mohammedan wely and Tillage Theae rains doubtful whether the Salem mentioned in 
are shown by Ihe monks as the pslaee of the history of Abraham is Ihe same as Jera- 
Caiaphaa, in which Ihe Jews look counsel "3™ of liter days (Ganesie iiT. 18> The 
(hence the nsme) to put Christ to death n»nie itself occurs for the Bret time in Josh. 
(Hall. mL a, i. John xl. 47—88). i- 1. "lie" Adoni-Zedok is mentioned a* its 

In a depression on Ihe eastern side of king {Joab. lii, 10), Jebns ii gi"n in 
OliTSt lies Bethany, abont an hour from the Joahuais ila more ancient name (it. 8, flS; 
eity, whenoa it ia approached, in an E. B.E. iriii- 88). In the diTiaion of Ihe Und by 
direction, by a path orcr Ihe nortium deoli- Joshoa, Jebua was assigned to the Beiga- 
Tily of the Hill of Oflknce. ntiW*. "Wd the boondary-line between Ben- 

Among Ihe o^eoU around Jemealem the jamin and Jndah ran on the sonth of Jeni- 
tombs deserve notioe (aee Bitbul). They salem, Ihroagh the vale of Hinnom. Both 
are numerous and foond on all sides. Those tribes endeaToorcd without complete success 
which are in the TalJeys fbllow one type. A to eip«l the old inhabitants, with whom they 
door in the faoe of the rock, generally small found it necessary to mingle (Joeh. it. 88. 
and without ornament, condoels to one small Jadg.1.31}. Indeed, at a later period we find 
dumber or mor« hollowed ont of Ihe rock, Ihe Jcbuaitea in sole poseeaaion of the dly. 
and for the most part of the aame height as When, after fiaul'a dsath.OaTid had reigned 
Ae door. Very rarely are theae apsrtmenu for sefen years and six months in Hebron, 
lower than the dooia. The walls are simply he condueted an army against Jerusalem, 
hswn 001 of the roek, and there are often which he Dq>lared and oalled by his own 
■tehe* Ibr corpses. nwne, though at first he would appear to 

Ko gnrnes an fonnd on ths nonh aid* of hsTs made himself maater of only the sonth- 

J E R 86 J £ R 

em part, the stronghold of Zion (2 Sam. t. tion of the temple may be found in 1 Kings 

— 0). This eyent took place somewhere Ti vii. 2 Ghron. iii. It. See Tkmplb. The 

about 1500 A.C. Haying strengthened him- palace, bmlt by Solomon, was probably an 

self in his newly-gained possession, he pro- enlargement of ' the king's honse ' of DayiS 

eeeded to bring into it the ark of tiie oore- (I Kings yii. 2 Samoel y. 11 ; yiL 2). It 

nant, which was in the honse of Abinadab, stood opposite the temple, on the north-east 

In Gibeah (2 Sam. iii. teq.) ; and when near comer of Zion, and was surrounded by walls 

the end of his life, built up an altar to Jeho- and towers which enclosed seyeral buildings, 

yah on the threshing-floor of Arannah the as * the house of the forest of Lebanon,' * the 

Jebusite (2 Samuel zxiy. 18, uq.). At the porch of pillars,' or portico, and ' the house 

time of tiie introduction of the aik, Dayid for Pharaoh's daughter,' or harem, mentioned 

had the intention of building a splendid intheScriptores (1 Kings yii. 1 — ^12. 2 Kings 

temple to enshrine the sanetnaiy, but dis- xL 19). 

tnrbanoes and wars preyented its aocom- When the exiles receiyed permission firom 

plishment (2Sam. yii.M9.), whieh,howeyer, Cyrus to return, many proceeded to their 

was effected by Solomon, under whose peace- natiye country in different carayans, under 

ful reign the city was enlarged and adorned Zerubbabel (&36 A.C.) and £zra (478 A.C.), 

with this and other fine biUldings (1 Kings and endeayoured to rebuild their city and 

▼.— yiiL). After his death, Jerusalem be- temple in the same spots, but on a contracted 

tame the metropolis of the separate kingdom scale. The work was delayed and destroyed, 

of Jndah, whose fate it shared. The "wars till at last Nehemiah, the cupbearer of Aitax- 

between Judah and Israel that ensued, ren- erxes Longimanus, was sent to Jerusalem 

dered it necessary to strengthen rather than by his master with fhll powen (445 A. C). 

adorn the city. In the period from the di- The fint care of Nehemiah was to fortify 

yision of the kingdom to the exile, Jerusa- the city against hostile assaults. Traces of 

lem had to sustain many hostOe attacks, the old walls, gates, and streets remkined 

In the fifth year of Behoboam (A.C. 970), sufficiently for its restoren to be able to giye 

it was plundered by Shishak, king of Egypt generally to the new city the cireuit and form 

(1 Kings xiy. 26), and underwent a similar of that of former days. Information regard- 

ealamity under Amasiah (A. 0. 826), at the ing its fortifications may be found in Neh. 

hands of Jehoaah, king of Israel (2 Kings ii. 12^15 ; ilL xiL 31-^40, fh>m which it 

xiy. 18, 14). At a later period, Pekah, king appears that Jerusalem then had twelye 

of Israel, and Bezin, king of Bamasous, com- gates— -the Sheep Gate, the Fish Gate, the 

bined in an expedition against Jerusalem, Old Gate, the Dung Gate, the Brook Gate, 

but failed in their hostile purposes, since the Water Gate, Ephraim Gate, the Horse 

Ahaz called the Assyrians to his aid (2 Kings Gate, the East Gate, Gate of the Valley, the 

xyi.). After the destruction of the kingdom Council Gate, the Prison Gate, probably the 

of Israel by the Assyrians, their monarch, same as the preceding. Of the exact position 

Sennacherib, fell on Jerusalem, but was de- of these in general nothing can be certainly 

feated (2 Kings xix.). At last the city was determined. The Gate of the Fountain, or 

sacked by Nebuchadnezzar, its temple burnt. Brook Gate (Neh. iii. J 5), must haye been 

its walls broken down, its king and chief near Siloam. The Ephraim Gate may haye 

people carried into captiyity (2 Kings xxiy. been on the northern wall, since through it 

xxy.p. lay the way to the country of Ephraim, and 

The writings of the Old Testament supply the Valley Gate and Dung Gate are thought to 

few particulara respecting the topography of haye stood on the west or the southern part of 

the ante-exilian Jerusalem. That the ' city Zion. The Horse Gate lay probably between 

of Dayid' stood on Mount Zion, and the tern- the temple (2 Kings xi. 16. 2 Chron. zxiiL 

pie of Solomon on Moriah, needs no speeial 15) and * the king^s house,' and the Water 

proof. The original fortifications of the eity Gate on the western side of the area of the 

were strengthened by Dayid, Solomon, and temple (Neh. yiiL 3; comp. iii. 26). As 

later kings. The walls were ftimished with the population that returned was much less 

towere and bulwarks (2 Chron. xxyL 9, 15). than that which existed jast before the cap- 

The mention of an outer wall (2 Chronicles tiyity, large portions of the city must at fint 

xxxiL 5 ; xxxiii. 14) shows there was an inner haye been unoccupied. We find large open 

one. Of the gates in the old walls there are places expressly mentioned near the Water 

mentioned, * the Fish Gate' (2 Chron. xxxiii. Gate (Neh. yiii. 1) and Ephraim's Gate 

14), < the Gate of Ephraim,' * the Comer (rilL 16). 

Gate ' (2 Kings xiy. 18. Zechariah xiy. 10), The history of Jerusalem from this period 

* Benjamin's Gate,' < the Fint Gate' (xiy. is so intimately connected with that of the 

10. Jer. xxxyii. IS), * the Valley Gate ' (2 Jews as to make any summary of it here a 

Chronicles xxyL 9), *the Hone Gate' (Jer. mere repetiti<m. We therefore proceed at 

zxxL 40), ' the East Gate' (xix. 2), * the once to the description of the city as left us 

Middle Gate ' (xzxix. 8). Among the edi- by Josephns (Jew. War., y. 4 and 5). This 

fices of ancient Jerusalem, we must distm description relates to what the city was at 

guiah the temple and the palace. A descrip- the time of ita destruction by Titos, but in 

J E R 87 J E R 

Um main it maj 1m oonaictered the sam* u iqvpetruioe, and it not distuigniahed from 
it was in the days of our Lord, and is then- the other towers and walls, bat the lower 
fore of importanoe. Generally, the aoooont part is built of large stones which appear to 
ot Joaephas, as bemg tfiat of an eye-witness, be very old, and to lie in their original 
is worthy of aooeptanoe ; bat there are parti- places. Among the Franks it is known as 
calars in which it cannot be receiTed, as it the tower of BaTid. In the lower part we 
stands in oontradiction with the Soriptores, probably haTe the remains of the tower of 
and indeed with itself. As a reealt of the Hippioas. The two other towers, Phas&elas 
inyestigations of Bobinson, Banmer, 'and and Mariamne, were also bailt by Herod, and 
others, we may giye tfie following brief Tiew. named, the first alter a friend, the second 
The whole space on which Jerosalem was after his fsToarite wife, 
built divided itself into three parts, sepa- The direction of the second wall is a mat- 
rated from each other by yalleys. L The terof importance, for on it depends the iden- 
Temple Hill, Moiiah, on the east of tfie city, tity of the present with the ancient sepulchre 

II. Immedialely opposite the temple, on the of our L<»d. The question has not yet 
west, was the hill Akx%, with the lower city, ceased to excite a strong interest; but the 
to which a gate led fh>m the western side of work of the Bct. O. Williams, entitled * The 
the temple. This hUl was dlTided from Holy City' (London, 1845), though answered 
Moriah by a bioad ralley, which was in part by Bobinson in the * Bibliotheca Sacra,' has 
filled up under the Asmonnan princes, when done something to settle the dispute in the 
they caused the summit ofAkra to be levelled. affirmatiTe. Unfortunately, Josephus has 

III. South from Akia and south-west from given but a very abort description of Hbe 
the temple, lay Zion, on which was built the second wall. The following is a translation 
old * City of David.' of his words : — * But the second well has ita 

Northward of these three parts, the city beginning at the gate that they call Oennath, 

extended itadf under the designation of wUeh is a part of the first wall. Curving 

Newtown, Beietha, which at first had no (or bending) northwardly only, it extends 

regular fortification. On the sides when the to the tower Antonia' (Jew. War., v. 4, 3). 

city was well defended by naturo, that is. This is defective and vague. Three things, 

on the west, south, and north, the fortifica- however, are moro or less definitely given, 

tion was simply a wall which ran from the The second wall began at the gate Gennath, 

north-west end of Zion, along its western, bent in a northeriy direction, and ended at 

aoothem, and eastern limits, passed the Ty- the Antonia. Its general course, thenforo, 

i ropcBon at the Bung Gate, and then enclosed must have been to the north-east Now, as 

Ophel on its western and eastern side, end- the church of the Holy Sepulchre lies in the 

ing at the eastern porch of the lemfde. On north-west of the city, the possibility of its 

the north and north-western side, the city being the ssme with Calvary becomes at 

was protected by a triple waU. The first or once obvious. This possibility Williams 

oldest began at the tower of Hippious, and has converted into a strong probability. In 

ran eastwards along the verge of Zion to the the same direction bear the investigations 

western side of the temple area, where it and convictions of Schula, Prussian consul 

reached to the western colonnade of the at Jerusalem, Lord Nugent, and the erudite 

sanctuary. In this wall wero the towers Tischendoil The publications of these very 

Phasiielus and Mariamne, and immediately competent authorities have called forth a reply 

thereon stood the palace of Herod and the from Dr. Bobinson, author of the -' Biblical 

Cystus, an open square in the extreme north- Besearches.' But the question seems to have 

eastern part of the upper city, where the peo- been brou^t nearer to an issue by a work 

pie sometimes assembled, with the bridge published since bis answer, namely, Die To- 

conducting from the upper city to the tem- pographu JerutaUnu, Von W. Krailt, Bonn, 

pie. Of this bridfls Bobinson discovered iSm, which is the result of careftil investi- 

remains. The towa of Hippicus is to be gations conducted on the spot, and in the 

sought in the north-west comer of Zion. It use of all the scattered information found in 

was built by Herod the First, and so named ancient writers. The view taken by Kraft 

in honour of a friend who had fallen in battle, we shall subjoin, and thus, with the aid of 

Its height amounted to 80 cubits (each about three views of Jerusalem, afford the student 

90 inches). It was quadrangular, each side the best means yet supplied for forming an 

86 cubits long, and for 80 cubits was built accurate acquaintance with the topography 

in a very massive way. The stones of which of the Holy City. Before stating KntKs 

it was built were very large — ^20 cubits long, opinion, we shsll finish die sketch founded 

ten broad, and five high, consisting, proba- on the authority of Bobinson and others, 

bly on the exterior only, of white marble. The third wall began also at the Hippi- 

At die same spot of Zion now stands the eus, and ran northwards to the tower Pse- 

eitadel, whose north-western tower presents phinus ; then it went in an eastern and nortfa- 

io the traveller that enters the city by the eastern direction, by what is termed the tomb 

Jaffa Gate most decided tokens of antiquity, of Helena; then to the sepulchres of the Kings 

The upper part of the tower has a modem and the Fullers' monument, where it tod- 


danly bent Bonthwards, and ended at last at holy oity. Probably a few Jews and Ohff0« 
the corner of the old wall in the yale of tians found shelter amid its rains. For half 
Cedron. This third wall was begun by the a century after its overthrow, Jerusalem dis- 
elder Agrlppa under Claudius, that is, ten appears from the page of history, until the 
or twelve years after the crucifixion of the emperor Hadrian, who was in Palestine about 
SaTiour {eir, 42 A.]>.)* in order to protect the year 190 A. D., ordered it to be formed 
the newly-built suburb ; but, being disoon* into a stronghold, in order to keep the in- 
tinned from the fear of offending the Roman auxreotionary Jews in sulgection. A bloody 
emperor, was not finished by the Jews till war was the consequence. There ensued 
some time afterwards. According to Jose- an imperial decree prohibiting Jews to ap- 
phus, the old city had a circuit of 83 stadia, proach the dty. The restoration of the city, 
about 8| geogr^hioal miles ; the present interrupted by the war, was resumed, and 
circumference is scarcely two miles and a half, Hadrian named it iElia Capitolina, from his 
for the city has been contracted both on the own fore-name and the name of Jupiter 
north and south. The most noted buildings Capitolinns, to whom he had ereetad a tem- 
of Jerusalem at this time were — I. The 7Vm- pie on the site of the Jewish sanctuary. 
pU, built by Herod (Tjbmvlb). II. The Towtr Jeruaalem now became a heathen oity. Even 
of Antania^ the work of the same prince, tfie Christians who lived there do not appear 
who gave it this name in honour of Mare to have been of Jewish blood ; and the very 
Antony. It was a restoration and enlarge- name Jerusalem passed out of use, nor was 
ment of a tower, called Baris, erected by restored before the days of Oonstantine Till 
John Hyroanus. It stood on the north side then there is an interral in its history, 
of the temple, waa quadrangular, and had The Christian ohurch in Jerasalem, 
at each corner a tower 50 cubits high, that at warned by the language of their Master, for 
the south-east end being 70 cubits in height, the most part left the city a short time before 
and commanding the temple. Within it had its downfal, and retired to Pella, which 
the space and appearance of a palace, com- Williams thinks is to be found at Tabathat 
prising rooms and halls of Tarions kinds, Fahkil, near Bysan, on the east of Jordan, 
with galleries, baths, and barracks for sol- James, its first bishop, having been put to 
diers. It was in immediate connection with death in Jerusalem, the infant church at 
the northern and western courts of the tern- Pella were without a shepherd. The dis- 
ple, into which a flight of steps conducted, eiples, however, are said to have soon re- 
It waa separated fh>ro Bezetha by a deep ar- turned to the ruined city, and to have 
tificial trench. lU. The PaUc§ cf Hirodf elected Simeon as their head. Simeon was 
on the north-west of Zion, on the spot where succeeded by Justus, of whom and of his 
the Asmonsan princes had a palace. That immediate successors to the reign of Hadrian 
of Herod was built of marble, and encirded nothing but their names are known. The 
by a wall 80 cubits high. The towers Hip- presidency of each must have been of short 
picus, Phasaelus, and Mariamne, formed a duration, since in the short space of thirty- 
part of the nor^ern wall of the splendid five years thirteen persons are reported to 
building, which contained great saloons, have held the ofllce of bishop. A mere 
numerous apartments, intersecting halls, open record of names, however, cannot under the 
squares, gaidens, avenues of trees, canals, and circumstances be accounted of much worth, 
ponds. This Herodian palace the Roman When Hadrian visited Jerusalem, probably 
procurators made their residence, and it is in the thirteenth year of his reign, he found 
here that, some think, we are to look for there a few Christians and some Jews. On 

* the common hall ' (Matthew xxvii. 27), or the conversion of Oonstantine, the former 

* hall of judgment ' (John xviii. 28. Acts increased in number. To Jerusalem, as the 
XXV. 28), and not in the lower city, where cradle of their faith. Christians in different 
tradition places it IV. Eastward from this parts of the world naturally turned their 
place, on the Cystus, Agrippa the younger eyes, so that from the third century pil- 
erected a very large palace, from whose eating grimages thither began to be more and more 
apartments he could see what went on in the firequent Even the empiess Helena, the 
temple. In order to prevent this, the Jews mother of Oonstantine, undertook (A. B. 
put up a high wall on the western side of 826) in advanced age a pilgrimage to PsJes- 
the sanctuary, which intercepted the view. tine, and caused handsome buildings to be 

Jerusalem was a beaatiftd city when it erected at Bethlehem and Jerasalem. Con- 
fell before the conquering arms of Titus, stantine himself built a splendid oratory 
who spared not to lay it waste, fulfilling, in over the holy sepulchre. These historical 
the general sense of tiie words, the prophecy facts were soon seized on by die legendary 
uttered by our Lord in the words found in spirit, and the church historians, with Ense- 
Matt xxiv. 2. According to Josephus, how- bins at their head, relate the miraculous 
ever, Titus directed that a part of the west- discovery of the true cross by Helena, as 
em wall and the towers Hippicus, Phasaelus, well as the erection of many edifices, so 
and Mariamne, should be allowed to remain, that at last, in the fourteenth centikry, not 
A Roman garrison had its quarters in the fewer than thirty churches within the limita 

JER 89 J£R 

of Palestine were ascribed to her piety, oriental Christian b the most pleasing pro«- 

Under the emperor Julian (861 A.]>.) the peots, which after his death began to be 

Jews obtained not only permission to retom darkened, and in the qaarrel which raged 

to Jerusalem, bat assistance to zeboild between his sons, the Christians suiFeredy 

their temple: miraeuloas interferences are and their sacred places were laid waste. 

said to have prevented the completion of The family of die Abassidn grew constantly 

tiieir design. Jemsalem, howeyer, began to weaker. The Egyptian Fatimidn, in 969 

rise from its ashes. The emperor Justinian A. B., obtained the mastery of Syria, when 

built there a fine church in honour of the the church of the Holy Sepulchre was burnt. 

Virgin. In 401 A.D. the dignity of the Under tiie third of tiiis dynasty, Hakim 

patriarchate was granted to its bishops. (996—1021 A. D.), the Jews and Christians 

Then eame the period of theologioal strife suffered a heavy persecution. At his com- 

in the Eastern ofaurch, and not seldom mand, efforts were made to destroy the holy 

bloody fights took place between the con* places and uproot all memorials of them; 

tending parties for the possession of the but afterwards he repented of his tyranny, 

holy city. The invasion of the Persians and granted leave to the latter to restore 

brought trouble into the Roman empire, their destroyed churches. Under the mild 

Under their king, Kosroes II., Ikey in- government of his successor, Daher, this 

Taded Syria, when the city was taken, the favour was realised, and in 1408 there arose 

churches built by Constantine, Helena, and a small chqMl over the holy sepulchre, in 

Justinian, were plundered anud burnt, the place of the former splendid basilika. Jour* 

Christians put to death or reduced to slavery, neys of pilgrims to Palestine became more 

and the true cross, which Helena has the fkequent; greater also beeame tiie persecu- 

eredit of having discovered, was carried tions they had to endure; till at last the 

away. Those who fled proceeded to Alex- endurance of Christendom had reached its 

sndria, where they found a friendly reoep- limits, and the crusades were begun. The 

tion and support ttom the patriarch Eleemon, feelings and the achievements of the crusa- 

who after a time assisted the Christians to ders havs found an undying record in the 

return and resume the rebuilding of the pages of Tasso. 

city, ^hen the churches of the Besurrection Among other spots and buildings which the 

and CalTaiy were erected on the old foun- crusaders found, was the church of the Holy 

datioms, as well as one in memory of the Sepulchre. Its roof consisted of a lofty dome. 

Ascension. The emperor Heraolius pene- so constructed that the light fell from above 

trated into Persia, and compelled the Per- into the church. Immediately under the 

sians to make peace; when the patriarch opening stood the sepulchre of the Redeemer. 

Zaoharias and the surviving captives re- When, in 1099, the crusaders took the city by 

turned, after an exile of fourteen years, and storm, they changed the great mosque into a 

Heraclius himself made a pilgrimage to Christian temple, which was denominated 

Jerusalem, where he is said to have, with Twtplum Domini, the Temple of the Lord. 

much ceremony, restored the true cross to But in 1187, Saladin made himself master of 

the church of the Besurrection. The Chris* the city, when tiie temple was once more 

tian dominion thus founded was not of long converted into a mosque. By turns, Jeru- 

duration ; for in 686 A. D. caliph Omar salem was in the hands now of the Moslems, 

appeared with an army before Jerusalem, now of the Christians, till, in 1244, the Egyp- 

In the ensuing year the city, after a long tians got possession of it, from which time 

siege, was surrendered on condition that, it seems for centuries to have lost its poli- 

in consideration of a moderate tribute, the tieal and social importance. In 1517, the 

lives and property of the Christians, their. Ottomans, under Selim I., conquered Syria 

sanctuaries and holy places, should remain and Egypt. In 1042, the sultan Solyman 

nnharmed. Forthwi^ the caliph erected built &e present walls. Thence till recent 

on the spot where the temple had stood a times its history is wanting in important 

mosque, which still bears his name, and events. In 1806, the church of the Holy 

was completed and enlarged by his succes- Sepulchre was partiy destroyed by flames, 

eors. The church of Justinian, now called when the edifice was restored by the Greeks 

the mosque el-Aksa, was converted into a at a very great cost It was finished in Sep- 

mosque. In the same period, the walls were tember 1810. Not long since, England and 

restflved and strengthened, and the edifices Prussia united to establish in Jerusalem a 

richly adorned. Thence to the period of Christian bishopric, whose office should con- 

the crusades history gives only fragmentary aist in presenting a purer form of Christi- 

and scanty notices of Jerusalem. The Mo- anity to the East, and in labouring for the 

hammedans now had their holy places in it, conyersion of the Jews. 

and the city fionrished anew. Towards the We have thus pursued the line of history 

middle of tiie eighth century, the caliphate item the earliest periods down to the present 

fell into the hands of the Abassidn. The day, not only in order that the reader should 

friendship of one of them, Haroun al*Bas- have a bird's eye of the whole, hut be led to 

chid, witii Charles tiie Great, opened to the see in bow marked and striking a manner 


tho hiaU»7 of Jndaum and of Christianity only one will on the west (scratbwtids ftom 
is written in great leading and imperishable the Jaffa Gate), south, and east ; but three 
facts. So long as Jerusalem surriTes, so on the north, where the land allowed an ex- 
long as the page of history remains, the tension of the oity. Hence also we see how 
holy oity itself is and will be a perpetual it was that all the assailants of Jerusalem 
monument and striking eTidenee of the great made their apptoaebes against it on the 
facts which lie at the basis of our h<dy reli- northern side, 
gion. The hill which Josephus first mentions 

We now proceed to give a brief statement is Zion, bounded on the west snd south by 

of the view to which we hafo refenpsd as the valley which sinks rapidly firom the 

taken by Kraffl. Jaffa Oate in a south and easterly diteo- 

Josephus deseribes Jerusalem as lying on tion. The northern boundaiy of Zion is 

three hills. Two of these, standing faee to marked by a street which, beginning at the 

face, were separated by a deep vaUey or same gate, runs eastwardly to the haram (the 

gorge, towards which die houses extended temple), and rises in a remarkable way aboye 

downwards one after the other. Of these the large plateau of the western or second 

two hills, one, which held the upper city, hill, on which stands the Holy Sepulchre. 

was much higher and in length more direct; The eilit side of Zion rises steep aboye a 

on aooount of its being a good fastness, it* was Tslley which, entering the city west of the 

called a fort by king Dayid, but the upper Damaseus Oate, and running through it 

market by us.' The other (hill), cidled Ikom nortii to south, unites, a little below 

Akra, and supporting the lower city, was the fountain Ain SUwan (Siloam), with Hin- 

eunred on both sides (like the moon between nom and Jehoahsphat 

her flrstandseoond quarter; Kraflt renders the The third hill is Mount Morish, namely, 

word, 'steep on all sides'). Opposite to this the part which now supports the mosque of 

was a third hill, lower by nature than the Omar {Kubbtt t'Sakkrdk, Dome of the 

Akra, and formerly divided by a broad val* Book), the plaee of the andent temple, a 

ley, which was afterwards filled up in the range, for the most part, of natural rock. 

age of the Asmonnans, because they wished Zion was separated from Akra by the Ty- 

to unite the city to the temple ; and they rop«Bon, which even now divides the city 

lowered the Akra so that the temple might into a western and an eastern portion. 

appear above it The valley whidi separated Hence Akra lay to the east of Zion : so slso 

the upper from the lower city, and was ealled did Moriah. Moriah was the southern and 

TyropoBon, extended down to Siloam. On Akra the n<Mthem part of the high ground 

the outside the two hills of the city were lying east of the Tyropcson. This hill was 

girded by deep valleys; and on account of the called Akra from a fortress here erected by 

steeps on bodi sides, there was nowhere an Antioehus Epiphsnes (1 Macoab. i. 88). It 

access to the place. The city was surrounded was near (86) and on the north (Joseph. 

by three walls, where not girded by inaeoes- Antiq. xv. 11, 4) of the temple. It succes- 

slble valleys, along which there was one en- sively bore the name of Bwis (Persian for 

closure. If from this aecount we proceed a fort), Acropolis, and Antonia. Krafft, in 

to consider the nature of the ground on his eageraess to survey the locality, incurred 

which Jerusalem stsnds, we find there are the danger involved in making his way into 

two valleys that cover the city on three sides, the mosque of Omar. From his report we 

namely, west, south, and east One on the learn that the buildings that join to the 

western side, called at first Gihon, which, great inner court of the haram rise on a 

rapidly deepening, pursues a southeriy diree* natural wall of rook, whieh, being from 20' 

tion till, at nearly a right angle, it breaks off, to dff high, is sundered flfom ti^e rest in 

and, turning to the east, is from that point a steep descent so as to form a lofty plat 

termed the valley of Hinnom. form. This precipice extends a considerable 

The second valley is that of Jehoshnihat, distanee from the north-west comer towards 

which, coming from the north, protects the the east, and, although lower, follows also 

city on the east, and, going in a steep de- the northern psrt of the west side. The 

scent, unites with Hinnom at the south-east ground on the north-west comer appears 

comer of the place. Towards the north, the towards the east and south like a rock cut 

high land, en the southern slope of which down by artificial means, so that Kralft was 

stands Jerusalem, gradually rises and soon oonvinoed that he here saw the traces of the 

takes a westerly dlreotion. The valleySf rocky elevation whieh Josephus reports the 

whieh deepen so mueh on the south of Uia Asmonsans to have lowered. This convie- 

city, flatten in the north more and more till Uon was confirmed by a view which a few 

tiiey pass into the elevated ground which, days sfterwards he took from the top of the 

at a distanee of an hour and a half firom houseof thePaschaof Jerasalem,whichi8on 

Jerasalem, is bounded by the deep valley, the north borders of the hsram, and indeed 

Wady Beit Hanina. This configuration of stands on the lowered eminence, the curved 

the ground, in eonjunotion with the state* basis of which, formeily stretdiing far more 

ment of the historlaiit leads us to «q>eet to the sonth-«a8t» and tfaersfors elose to tiie 




tSBipU, was el0«rly perceptible. The Alora 
thus discoTered was on the east bordered 
by the deep yale of Jehoshaphat, and made 
inacoessible. It falls towards the west To- 
wards the north it reaches to the Via Dolo- 
rosa, where the land sinks and rises steep 
in a northern direction. To one who views 
it firom the roof of the Holy Sepolehre, tfie 
Akra is still, visible as an deration beyond 
the TyropcBon, on the north of the haram, 
rising on all sides within the limits now 

The narrowness of oar space prerents ns 
from doing more than direct the reader to 
the Map for information as to tiie course 
of the walls according to Krafft Bat we 
mast give his opinions in regard to the 
spots to which oar Lord was condaeM after 
his apprehension. From Gethsemane, which 
oar author recognises as the spot where he 
endared his agony, Jesos was led to the 
hoose of Annas (John xvilL 18), on the 
southern declivitj of Zion, where the oldest 
Itinerary (883 A.]>.) places the hoase of 
Caiaphas. Here Jesas, early in the morn- 
ing, was brought before the Sanhedrim, and 
at die break of day formally coodenmed. 
Krafit inclines to the opinion that the place 
may rather have been an official residence 
of the high-priest situated at the northern 
comer of Zion. From the house of Caiaphas 
Jesos was carried to the Hall of Judgment, 
or Prsteriam (John zviii. si8), where POate 
dwelt (Matt, xxvii. 2), which stood on 
Mount Akim, at the place which at present 
is the dwelling of the governor of Jerusalem. 
Pilate sent our Lord to Herod Antipas, 
tetrarch of Oalilee, who resided in the palace 
of his father at the north-west comer of 
Zion. Herod sent him back to Pilate, who 
gave orders for his being executed. The 
hearing took place within the Pnetorium ; 
the condemnation (in order, as was required, 
to be public) was pronounced from the 
Curule chair standing on the pavement 
(John six. 18). From tbe Akra, the holy 
sufferer was harried down the Via Dolorota, 
or Via Crueit, to the place of execution, at 
Golgotha, lying near a thoroughfiffe, Just 
on the outside of the city (John xix. 17. 
Heb.xiii. 12. John xix. 20), where, when dead, 
his body was laid in a new sepulchre, in a 
garden which *was in the place where he 
was eracifled' (John xix. 41. Matt xxvii. 60). 
The Via Dolorosa and Calvary, Kraflt finds 
in the places in which the church has fixed 

All creeds of the Christian world have 
tlieir representatives in Jerasalem. It is a 
marveUous eight, and one to make a spec- 
tator thoughtfol, to see these various secta- 
ries bending over the tomb whence all their 
hopes have arisen, each believing that his 
own proud heart eontaine the only real hope 
— «ach setting his miserable yet complicated 
hemsy above the grand and simple troth of 

Christ, and exalting the notions of his sect 
above the magna eharta of the soul. By 
tfie grave of the mortal fHend we have loved 
and lost on earth, men meet even their 
enemies in peace ; but at the Saviour^s tomb, 
the Mohammedan watches with drawn sabre 
to prevent his followers tmm destroying one 
another. At this tomb, the chiefe of two rival 
and hating creeds unite for once on Easter 
eve, but it is in the cause of fraud. Enclosed 
within the chapel, Greek and Armenian bi- 
shops call down fite from heaven by the 
intervention of a lucifer^mateh. Their be- 
lievers strive madly to light their torches by 
this saned flame, while Uie prieets of other 
faiths stand soowling by, waiting until their 
tarn shaO arrive to triumph in their own 
followers' superstition. 

But according to Tischendorf (ReitB m 
dem Ortifit, 1846), the worst consists not in 
the obvious deception practised, but in the 
lieentiousnees in which all share, and which 
make these obeervances resemble heathen 
orgies. Greek prieets forget themselves so 
far as to have sympathy with Turkish der- 
vishes in a manner that cannot modestly be 
iqK>ken of. The same authority relates that 
on one occasion Ibrahim PaAa, as master 
of Syria, played in this fire-delusion the 
part that Napoleon performed at the cheat 
of liquefying the blood of Januarius at 
Naples. In the latter place the blood of the 
saint was tardy in becoming liquefied, which 
occasioned much distress among the people. 
Bonaparte bade it become liquid, and liquid 
at once it was. A similar command was 
issued by Ibrahim, when from the gallery 
of the Greek chapel he witnessed some 
delay in the performance of the cheat It 
is not surprising that, under these circum- 
stances, Chrietians should be held in little 
esteem in Jerusalem. The current phrase, 
* To say it with respect, he is a Christian,' is 
chsracteristic of the feeling entertained to- 
wards them by the Mohammedan population. 
The iSorce of the phrase becomes the more 
obvious when it is known that it is alike 
customary for Moslems to say, * To say it 
with reepect, a woman.' The Christian po- 
pulation of Jerusalem, according to the 
Prassian consul, Dr. Schulz, consists of 
2000 Greeks, 900 Boman Catholics, 850 
Armenians, 100 Copts, 20 Syrians, and 20 
Abyssinians ; besides 60 or 70 Protestsnts, 
who, except the American missionaries, are 
all Europeans. Schulz makes the entire 
population to amount to 10,510 souls. The 
most pitiable portion of this number are 
the lepers, in all about thirty, who live on 
Zion, in huts as wretched as Uiemselves, cut 
off entirely from their kind. Bom to a lot 
of contempt, in loneliness they drag on their 
existence, and die in misery. Yet, wretches 
as they sre, and sundered from Uie world, 
they inteimaxry, and so propagate the poison 
which flows in their veins. 




The SMne feeling whioh seized so power- 
ftilly on pilgrims st the moment when first 
their eje esnght s view of the holy city thst 
words are too weak for its desoiiption, must 
slso pervade the breast of the ooutemplatiTe 
stodent of history when there is brooght 
before his mind's eye the picture of the ftite 
which Jerusalem has undergone. From 
those hills, firom those walls, there speaks 
in powerfdl tones to us a histoiy suoh as 
no other plaoe, no other iqK>t on earth, eaa 
olEBr. The OTents whieh have here taken 
plaee ha?e during nearly two thousand years 
exerted the strongest ininenoe over the 
whole of eiTilisation, and will oontinue to 
grow in power and effect till time shall be no 
more ; when, and not before, wiU be known 
the foil magnitude of importance that be- 
longs to the simple but painful stoiy of tfie 
humble Teacher of Nasareth and the emei- 
fied * King of the Jews.' 

But eyen the outward history of the eity 
is extraordinary and astonishing. How often 
has it fallen and risen again; how often 
has it been destroyed and restored! In 
beginnings reach baok into prinueral times, 
when the deep shadows oif histoiy hover 
around its hiUs; its end is not yet. It 
remains an imperishable witness of the 
past; it stands not without hope fm the 
ftiture. Though it lies under the erushing 
hand of Turkish despotism, it seems calmly 
to bide its time, and to wait for the Ailler 
displays of the Divine Mercy in Jesus, who, 
once insulted, maligned, and slain on its 
heights, shall yet be King over that guilty 
but now sacred place, as well as over idl the 

<RIm, ennmed with Usht, imperial Salem, risel 
Exalt thj towBxy head, and lift thy ajca 1 
Sea, a long laoe th j apacious courta adorn ; 
See fUtuxe aona and daughten jet unborn, 
In erowdittg nnka on evexy aide ariae, 
DemandiBg life, impatient for the akiae i 
See barbaroua nationa at thy gatea attend. 
Walk in th J light, and i^ thj temple bend ; 
See thy bright altan thronged with proatrate 

And heaped with produota of Bab—n apringa 1' 

The out exhibits a shekel of the age of 
the Maccabees, bearing the epithet Kadusha, 
< the holy' (comp. Matt xxvii. 58), the epi* 
thet of Jerusalem, constantly found on Jew- 
ish money. The figures are a censer and 
a lily. The type of this coin resembles the 
half-shekel or didraohma, the tribute-money 
of Matt. xviL 24. See i. 319. 

JESUS CHRIST, the founder of the Ohrif- 
tian religion, the Son of Ood, and the Saviour 
of the world, offers a subject of the most 
profound interest, but one whioh here can be 
treated only eursorily. Considering the neu- 
trslity to whioh this worit is bound, we shall, 
amid the widely diverging opinions of the 
Christian world, restriet ourselves to suoh a 
detail of ascertained fiteta as may afford to 
the reader aid in the study of tiiie subjeet 

The name Jesus Christ is composed of 
two teims, — Jesus, Christ The first, which 
in the original is the same with Joshua, was 
in common use in the apostolic age (Col. iv. 
11), signifies Aelper or taviaur (Matt i. dl), 
snd was the personal name of our Lonl 
(Matti«A5. LukeU.dl). Christ (anotnted), 
equivalent to the Hebrew word Messiah, is 
an epithet descriptive of his office. The 
fnU tiUe is tkM Messiah, or tfte Christ, by 
which appellation the kingly office of our 
Lord was denoted (I Sam. u, 10; xii. 8. 
Ps.iL 2. Isaiah xlv. 1). By this tide itself 
our Lord was designated — as * the Christ, 
the King of Israel' (Mark zv. 82), and 
reoognised as the Messish (John i. 41), 
sometimes with an extension of implication 
— ^that is, from the Jewish to the Pauline 
idea of the Messiah— which shows a late 
state of opinion, and assigns a late date to 
the composition in which it occurs; thus, in 
John iv. 42, ' the Christ, the Saviour tf th§ 
world: The epithet <Lord ' is also joined 
to that of 'Christ,' after the resurrection 
(Acts ii. 86 ; comp. v. 81). The personal 
was of course the eariiest denomination. 
Our Lord was called Jesus before he was 
called Christ (Matthew I 16. Luke iii. 28). 
The latter term could not be used at all till 
he had put forth his daim to be the Christ, 
nor could it have been generally employed 
before that daim was generally admitted, at 
least among his followers. When used, it 
must at first have been a name of ofllce, and 
therefors was *th§ Christ:' thus * Jesus the 
Christ' (Matt xvL 16. Acts v. 42). Hence 
arose two denominations, 'Jesus' (Matthew 
xxvii. 1), and < the Christ' (Heb. v. 6). In 
course of time the artide was dropped. 
Henoe arose the nsme 'Christ' (Bom. t. 
8) ; also by the two words coalescing, ' Jesua 
Christ' (MattL 1. Bom. i 1), and, by in* 
version, ' Christ Jesus '(1 Cor. L 80). These 
several names are not used indiscriminatdy 
in the writings of the New Testament In the 
Gospels the ordinary designation is ' Jesus,' 
very rardy ' Jesus Christ,' and never ' Christ 
Jesus;' while in the Epiedes we generally find 
'Jesus Christ,' 'Christ Jesus,' or 'Christ' 
The usage which is here only partially de- 
scribed, and is indicative of Ihe progress of 
events as well as the growth of veneration 
towsrds ' the Lord' (John xx. 2), deserves 
on this account a minute investigation, the 
rather because, being oonneeled with indivir 

J E S 93 J E S 

daal peenlinitiet in the wiiten there might ipaoe and high Christian enltore. Bot, like 
arise Tsloable criteria for determining the the Teiled head of the afflieted Agamemnon, 
dates of some of their compositions. the Sarionr is mors sublime when left on* 
Independentlj of what are strictly proper portrayed by ordinary hands. As being pro- 
names, epithets sie foond applied to Jcsos bably the earliest written aooonnt of Jesos, 
which constitute too important a scriptural Matthew's Gospel mi^, in the ensuing an»- 
fftot to be here passed over, and which serve lysis, ftunish a general outline of the deeds 
to ahow the impression which he mads on uid words of the Lord Jesus, 
his first disciples. Only the most general Jesus, the Christ, a lineal descendant of 
and the least questioiied can be here set Darid and Abraham, was born in Bethlehem, 
down. ' The last Adam' (1 Oor.zr. 40) ; * Ad- of Maiy, a riigin, the betrothed wifi» of Jo- 
vocate ' (1 John iL 1 ; eomp. John xiy. 13) ; seph, under the operation of the Holy Spirit 
< the Amen, the fidthlhl and tree Witness, B^mg earned into £gypt, and baring on his 
the beginning of the creation of God ' (Ber. return lived many years in Nasaieth, Jesus 
iii 14) ; ' the Aposfle and Hi^-priest of our went into Judea and repaired to his fore- 
profession' (Heb. iii. 1) ; ' the Author and nmner, John, by whom he was baptised in 
Finisher of our futh ' (Heb. zii. 2) ; * Bishop the river Jordan. As he went up out of the 
of your souls' (1 Pet ii. 20); * Bread of water, he received a higher testimony than that 
Ood' (John vL 88); < Brightness of the of the Baptist; for the Spirit of Ood descend- 
Father's glory' (Hebb i. 8); 'Captain of ed on him, and a voice firom heaven declared 
their salvation' (Heb. ii. 10) ; ' Door of the — * This is my beloved Son, in whom I sm 
sheep' (John z. 7) ; *£mmsnuel' (Matt i. well pleased.' Thus proclaimed as the Son 
28); * First-born firom the dead' (Col. L of Gfrod, Jesus entered into conflict with the 
18) ; * Forerunner' (Heb. vL 20) ; * Foun- prince of cUrkness, whom he foiled and de- 
dation' (1 Cor. iii. 11) ; * the Head of eveiy feated, in token of that entire conquest over 
man' (1 Cor. xL 8) ; *Heir of all things' evil for which he was sent, and which he 
(Heb. L 1, 2) ; < thy holy child Jesus' (Acts would not fail to accomplish. Departing 
iv. 29, 80) ; * the Holy One of Ood ' (Mark thence into Oalilee, he opened his ministry 
L 28, 24) ; < our Hope ' (1 Tim. i 1) ; ' the by preaehing repentance on the ground that 
image of the invisible God, the first-born of tiie kingdom ofheavenwas at hand. He called 
every creature ' (Colos. L 10 ; comp. John i to his aid four men of die humbler class, 
18); 'Judge of quick and dead' (Acts z. snd perambulated Galilee, preaching in the 
42) ; * the King that cometh in the name of synagogues the gospel of the kingdom, and 
Jehovah' (Luke xiz. 88) ; * the Lamb of healhig all manner of disesses; so that he 
God which taketh away the sin of the world' drew around him multitudes fW>m several 
(John L 29); * the Light of the world' (viii. remote parts of the land. This concourse 
12) ; * Lord of all ' (Acts z. 8fi) ; ' a man alForded him opportunities for developing 
approved of God' (ii. 22); ' your Master' the general spirit of his doctrine, which 
(Matt zziii. 10) ; * Mediator between God he accordingly set forth authoritatively. 

and men, the man Christ Jesus' (1 Tim. ii. nouneing in a tone becoming the Son of 
0) ; ' a Nasaiene' (Matt iL 28) ; *our Pass- God, the nature of tree happiness, the high 
over' (1 Cor. v. 7) ; < the Besurrection and the functions of those who were engaged with 
Life ' (John zi. 20 ) ; < the Saviour of the worid' him in the work of religious reform, the re- 
(1 John iv. 14); 'the Good Shepherd' (John lation in which his religion stood to that of 
z. 11) ; ' God'a beloved Son ' (Matt zvii. 0) ; Moses and the Prophets, and the general du- 
' a Teacher come firom God' (John ixL 2) ; ties which men owed to God, societ7,sndthem- 
' the Way, the Truth, and the Life ' (John selves. In this most admirable exposition, 
ziv. 6); 'the True Vine' (John zv. 1). All the Gospel is ezhibited as the great result, 
these titles, with the ofllces and qualities the mature fruit, the final completion of 
which they imply, concur in one ' who,' to the Law ; man is set in immediate eonnee* 
cite the words of Jean Paul Bichter, ' trod tion with God, from irtiich connection ema- 
the earth, swayed remote ages, and founded nate his obligations, privileges, and hopes ; 
sn eternity of his own : gently blooming spiritual good ia made paramount to every 
and pliant as a sunflower, burning and ciher ; and as a consequence, the earth and 
drawing as the sun, he with his mild aspect tune, with all low afliMtions, all sordid in- 
moved himself, snd nations, and eentnriea terests, sll selfishness, are condemned, and 
together, towards the universal and pri- the highest place is assigned to virtues either 
nuBval sun.' But ihe simple yet most despised or neglected of men, such as meek- 
pregnsnt and comprehensive terms in which ness, gentleness, placability, the patient en- 
the Scriptures speak of Jesus, are for more durance of wrong, self-denial, the abhor- 
instractive and Ur more impressive than rence and avoidance of sin even at any cost, 
any other words. For s histoiy of die life simplicity of manners, overcoming evfl with 
of Jesus the reader is referred to die even- good, tibe silent and unostentatious praetioe 
gelists who have written it In any case, so of benevolence, secret devotion, snd heart- 
solemn an undertaking would require ample folt piety, — involving a firm and childlik» 

J £ S 94 J £ S 

nlianc* on the besfwily FAlher, diangKnl the ■cntefi bond, as of « mond natnn^ to 

of Itaponl riohea, ontiN dtrotoBant to re* be indiaaolable ; Uying his hinds, togethsr 

lififoos improvenienty ohsri^ in men's inter- with his benediotion, on the heeds of little 

eowses one with another, and nnreserred children; enfoieing on a young man the ne- 

and nnqoalified obedienee to the Christ of cessity of sarrendering all, and in partieolar 

Ood« Having in word defeloped this sab- his most cherished possessions, for the sake 

system of praetical religion, Jesus pro- of Gtod, duty, and eternal lifli ; and striving 

oeeds to exhibit it in his own life and con* to lead the se]f<seeking minds of his imme- 

dnot He heals a leper, restores to sound- diate followers to the high bat distant re- 

ness the palsied son of a eeDtorion, reUeves wards of his spiritoal kingdom, 
from fever Petef s wife's mother, ealms a Having now set his fMe towards the me- 

tempest on the lake of Galilee, exorcises tropolis of his gmlty ooontry, he seeks to 

two demoniacs, enres a msn siek of the remind his foUowers of his appioaehing hn* 

palsy; and in so doing, asserts and iUos- miliation. Bat they, ftill of die idea that he 

tratea the power he has to forgive sins, would shortly enter into his glory, manifeel 

Mingling pure and noUe teashings with a fooling of jealous livaliy for the most 

their exemplifleations, he at length an- elevated oiBoes in the Mes^Udi's kingdom, 

nounees to his dieoiples that he is to pass This grievous error he reproves^ and enun- 

through a period of sufforing whiah wUl ter- oiates another of those truths which wiU 

minste in his death, and be erowned by his eventual^ revolutioniee the worlds namdy, 

resuireetion. This announcement, which ' Whosoever iriU be the ehief among you, 

a stou n ds his diseiples and yet foils to enter let him be your servant ; even as the Son of 

their minds in a dieiinet and intelligible Man oame not to be ministraed unto, but to 

shape, is made by Jesoa in the most simple minister, and to give his lifo a ransom fnr 

manner, exhibitiiig the firmness and nu^sty many ' (xx. 37). 

of hia souL As Jesus heneeforth appears He is now near foe capital of his nalivw 

as a suffsring Messiah, so does he require land, which he thinks At to enter in legal 

aelf-denial in hia followera. They, however, pomp, thus in act daiming to be reoognised 
little prepared for the spproaehing scene of as the long-expected Christ On seeing the 
trial and anguish, begin to waver in their procession pass on to foe city, the multi- 
minds, when foey receive strength, and Je- tade are seised wifo a transient enfousiasm, 
SOS receives glory, by his transfiguration, in and hail him as foe long snd ardendy ex- 
whioh he appears as foe legitimate successor pected deliverer. ' And when he was come 
of Moses, foe representative of foe legisla- into Jerusalem, all foe city waa moved, sfty- 
toriai element in foe Mosaie polity, and of ing, Who is this? And foe multitade said, 
ite high-minded but afiUcted and persecuted This is Jesus, foe prophet of Nasareth, of 
sehool of prophets. After this symbolical Oslilee' (xxL 10). The srdour of his wel- 
transaetton, Jesus inculcates more vividly come enables him to perfoim anofoer act of 
foe spiritual nature of his religton, and, eon- Messianic anfoority, in cleansing foe tern- 
trary to all previoos ideaa and praeticee, ex- pie, his Fafoei'a house, of ite profanations. 

hibite the uiqpretending simplieity, the gen* There are, however, foose who look on fois 
tie kindness, snd foe worldly insigniftcanoe flattering scene with an evil eye. These are 
of a little child, aa qualities of foe greatest the eoelesiasticsl dignitaries (rf foe land, who 
value, and foe only requisites for foe hi|^- now begin to tske measures for wesning foe 
est rank in his kingdom. Yet, reminded by people item foe dangerous Teacher, and for 
thia beautifol illustration of foe nature of throwing around him foeir deadly toils, 
true religion, foat all foe forces of a wodd The various plans which foey adopt are one 
of violence will be broun^t to bear against after the other defeated wifo a dexterous 
foese dispositions of mind, he is prompted, versatility and readiness of mind foat exdte 
ifoile his heart melte within him, to sur- wonder and admiration, and which serve to 
roond the young in spirit wifo every protee- bring into relief foe hoUowness, hypocrisy, 
tion fost his words csn give. And, pursuing and turpitude of foe clerical rulers of Judea. 
this train of generous emotion, he enunciates When at lengfo it is ftally proved foat foe 
the grandest of sll his grand teaddngs. Divine goodness. Divine foibearsnce, and 
declaring, * foe Son of Man is come to Divfoe mercy have no elleet wifo foese 
save that whidi waa lost' (xvilL 11). This wicked men, Jesus gives utterance to his 
statement he follows up wifo illustrations virtaous indignation in reproofo of foe most 
foe most pertinent and foe most impressive ; awfiil natnre, iHiich disclose foe power of 
which combine to enforce tenderness towsids his mind and show foe depfo of foeir de- 
foe erring, leni^ snd forgiveness towards gradation. This tone of high displeasure, 
oflbnders, and timely aid to foe fallen, foe which reads by antidpation like the soleom 
ottteast, and foe forlorn. Betiring from Ga- verdiete of the judgment-day, first mdte into 
Ulee into Pema, on his wsy to Jerusalem, womanly tenderness, in a patriotie lamente* 
4ial of which a prophet could not perish, he tion over Jerusalem, and foen rises teto a 
euBtinnes bis divins instruetions, declaring stem sublimity, when,wifofoe vision of a pr^ 

a Judge, ka palnu 
to fivid eoloon ttx wo«* diM an eomisg on 
the l-fi""'— ' Uad. One etlm hanr of do* 

and Iban opana a aaana of (nachalf, mOit- 
inga, and paticniw, mch w Ibi iK«ld ean 
tMTW wiuwaa again. A aimple bat aflbMiDg 
rile, oommamoraliTB of bia nnpanllaled la*e, 
betagi^tnted, haradiMlotha deepraTine 
at Iha waiura fool of OliTSl, vhan, haTing 
(■■aed llmngh ■ m^teriooi and indeaeri- 
bable agonj ol mind, he ia aeiied by emii- 
aariai of Iha piisela, led bj a tnilonHu dia- 
dple, vtao oondneu bim bofon Ih* Sanlie- 
driiD. Han, b; robonuuioii of peijarf, 
bai^ KniTictcd of bjaaphen; and ladiCioD, 
W to oMideonwd lu deatll. ' Than did Ouj 
^pU in hla iaee and buntud biaa, and oOien 
Mnot* Urn with the padma el iheii hinda, 
itriog, Fnpbei; onlo na, thon Chrlat, who 

I, he ia al Ihia manent poUkdj 
jlf iiil t7 Pater. Er^ bowarcr, ho oan find 
Hleaee ia death, ha ha* anodiar trial to en- 
dan. The prieali ma; eandenm bat dan 
not ezaenle him. Hansa hs ia hmriad beton 
the Soman pioennlor, who, not nnwiUing 
to nataie the innooant laffivcr, i> aaaiilad 
with aiamonr, and foreed to yield to the 
fnilly deaini of a flcUe mob led by meli- 
eiiHta prieata. Hi* death being Ihni deereed, 
Hier olo^ bim with ngal pmple and pat 
on hia head a onwn of thomi, and a nad 
fbi a aeepln they place in hia ri^t hand ; 
and than thaj bow the knee before him and 
mook him, laying, Hail, Xing ot Iha Jaws I 
and Ihej apit npon him, and Uka the read 
and amite him on At head. The mocking 
la orer, when, lad lik* a lamb (0 the alanghtei, 
ha ia aneifled between two thiST**. And 

bawUdemd hearing an Ikeahmoehariea. Tb* 
Taiy Ihiairea eaat MpnadMi in hia teeth. At 
length delireranea oomea in the iDaenaibOitjr 
of daadi. And hov ia bH thia oooiplieatiDD 
of «onww bomeT Aenording to Matthew, 
the aole worda that eeeiped tiie anlbrer'* 
Ilpa an a diKnufol appeal to Ood foi ane- 

Soon, howrrer, doaa the dawn of the thlri 
dl^ bnak the eealad tomb, and witneia Ibe 
nrlral rfhlm «4iom deiih oannot hold. 

nlliea hi* diaciplei, who 
la go forth and preach 
tno guepei n ereiy oivatnTe; liter irtiieh 
Jatn* aaeandi lo the right hand of tha Ha- 
lea? on hi^, hariikg neel*ed all power in 
haaran and lil aaitb. 

The arenta of irtdah we hare now glrin 
an onlline are, it moat be eonfoeeed, dw 
moat wondBrfol and the mod aflbeting of all 
hivtorie*. EqoiUy wonderftil, aAMiog, and 
great i* the image at Jenia which they pn- 
•ent. In that image i> Ihets a rnblimi^ 
which cTery aoond mind mn*t reoogniae a* 
difinc, md a lendsmeae the forsa of wboai 
^>peal no bimian heart oin long raiiit 
What wJ*doTii in a mortal fbim t What 
power, that reoala Tigoor failo the palaied 
limb, and break* the oh^na of death ! Mor 
leai gnat i> that Ihoroogb and epotlos* 
goodneii, that untiring forbeannoc, that 
patleni endnranee, that qnenchlasi lore. 
The ahnple and miadomed narration of 
Ohriefe worda and deedi i> thaii hi|faest 
enlogy. Too aak for oridanca fliat Jean* 
wa* tilt Chriat, th« Bon ot God t Bead ' ttie 
Ooepel aesotding to Matthew.' If you riie 
bom ita penisal onconTinced, we nioal bid 
yon, before yon aeek for other proof, prepan 
yonr hcatl for ita appreciation. Yon want 
to know what Christianity iif Slady the 
lifo of it* divine Foonder. Ton are leeklng 
dia way to tmth, God, and happiness r Fol- 
low him^om Matthew depicts widionl aim- 
ing to dnw a portrait, and whom Pilate would 
haie MTed beoaoia he felt a goodness which 
he oonld neither deseriba nor imitata. Too 
need a Sarioor t Place yonnalt nnder die 
shadow of bis winga who is Abraham's and 
DaTid'i son, the Son of Ood, Iba friend of 
man, and die Tisegerent of Dmnlpotant 

This general Tiew of tha llfo of Christ, 
condetued from the aeeoant left by Ui(- 
thtw, Bgne* in sabstance with the other 
enngelical rasords, Yet in the midst of a 
anbitantlal agrwment are than lach diTar- 
genee* a* to rendm It bopeleai Out, al leaat 
within onr rastiloled space, we could pment 
a well-attealed harmony ot the toni ttair*. 


tiTes snpplied in the Gospels. We aie there- siah, inasmneh u he goes riding on an ass 
fore led to attempt no more than to set down (Zeeh. iz. 9), and, being acknowledged bj 
what appears the best-sapported view of the the multitade, excites the envy, alarm, and 
leading points of our Lord's history. hate of the Pharisees. In the eyening, he 
Jesos Christ, then, was bom at Bethle- goes out to Bethany with the Twelye. This 
hem, on some day in the month of (proba- was the day on whieh the Paschal lamb was 
bly) Febmaiy, in the year of the foundation taken (Ezod. zli. 8), and the Ohnreh oele- 
of ttie city of Bome, 760, that is, fonr years brates it as Palm Sand ay. On the following 
before the common era (Lnke L 6 — 11. day, Monday (Mark zL 12), Jesos qnits 
Matt. L 11). In the summer or spring of Bethany, and on his way passes sentence 
the year 780, A. B. 27, Jesos, now aboot of perpetnal baixenness on the fig-tree ; and 
thirty years of age, is baptised by John in having (perhaps a seoond time, oomp. John 
the Jordan (Loke iii. 21—28. Mark L 9 — iL 14—22) cleansed the temple, he again 
11. Matt iiL 18 — 17). Immediately after, retires to Bcdisny in the evening (Mark zL 
he is tempted for forty days in the wilder- 12—19. Matt zzi. 12 — 17. Lake ziz. 45^ 
ness of Jodea (Mark L 12, 18. Loke iv. 1— 48). Tuesday, the 4th of April (12th Nisan), 
18. Matt iy. 1 — 11). An interval of pro- is rich in discoorses addressed by Jesos to 
baUy from five to seven months, concerning his friends or against his enemies. Having' 
which nothing is related, leads to the ao- gone into the goilty city in the morning, he 
ooont given by John the Baptist of himself enters the temple, and, partly within its pre- 
and of his relation to Christ (John i. 19— oincts, psrtly without, utters his divine in- 
27). In February, or at the latest the begin- stroetions. On occasion of noticing the 
ning of March, 781, A.D. 28, Jesos travels temple, he is led to speak of its overthrow 
into Galilee, and remains at Capemaom and of his second coming. At the end of 
' not many days ' (John ii. 12). Jesus at- this day, he remarks to his disciples that 
tends the Passover (30th March, 781) at alter two days is the Passover, and the Son 
Jerosslero, and remains in Jodea till foor of Man is betrayed to be erooLGied (Matthew 
months before the 15th Nisan, A. D. 29, that zzvi. 1, 2). This determination of time 
is, till December 781 (ii. 18 — ^iii. 36), when confirms ihe dates here given, for the Pass- 
he retoms through Samaria into Galilee, over fell on the evening of the 14th of Misan, 
where he remains from two to three months that is, two days alter the evening of the 
(iv.). He again goes op to Jerosalem, to 12th of that month. On the same evening 
flie festival Pnrim, held on the 19th March, (Mark ziv. 1), the chief priests and scribes 
782, A. D. 29 ; and on the apprehension of hold a oonncil to consider how they may 
John (v. 85), qoickly retoms into Galilee take Jesos by craft Wherefore he departs 
(v. ; eomp. Loke iiL 1 — ^20), where, aboot from the city and hides himself (Mark zL 
the 17th April (John vi. 4), he feeds the 20— ziv. 2. Matt zzi. 18— zzvL 5. Loke 
five thoosand ; and after some months, hav- zz. zzi. John zU. 20 — 86). The following 
ing been transfigored, proceeds to the capi- day, Wednesday, 18th Nisan, 6th April, Je- 
tal, to be present at Che feast of Tabema- sos spends in calm eommonion with his 
des, Oet 12di, 782, A.D.29; so that he was disciples, one of whom, Jodas, enters into 
able to go op to the temple ' in the midst,' an engagement with the priests to betray his 
or the middle day, ' of &e feast,' that is on Lord (Loke zzii. 1 — 6. Mark ziv. 10, 11. 
(10th Oct) the ssbbath (Loke iz. 18 — 60. Matthew zzvi. 14—16). On the Thorsday, 
Mark vi 46— iz. 60. Matt ziv. 22— zviii. 14th Nisan, 6th April, Jesos sends Peter and 
John vi — ^vii 14). After teaching and at- John to make ready ihe Passover in a room 
tendiog at the feast of Dedication, in Jem- in Jerosalem, where in the evening, aboot 
salem, Jesus goes to Bethany, in Penea, and siz o'clock, Jesos places himself at taUe 
there abides till sent for by the sisters of with the Twelve. The chorch is accord- 
Lassras, when he repairs to Bethany, near ingly right in celebrating the institotion of 
Jerosalem, whence he proceeds to Ephraim, the Lord's Sopper on a Thorsday evening 
lying to the north-east of the capitaL Be- (Lake zzii 7—89. Mark ziv. 12—81. Matt 
maining here some time, he, after an ab- zzvi 17 — 86. John ziii. — zvii.). Nezt 
senoe of aboot siz months, makes his comes the eventfrd Friday, 16tb Nisan, 7th 
final visit to Jerusalem ; and siz days be- April ; it commences at sunset on Thursday, 
fore the Passover, A. D. 80, that is, on the The ensuing night is spent in the sgony of 
8th of Nisan, on a Friday, he comes to Be- Gethsemane, after which Jesus is betrayed 
thany in the evening. The ensuing day, by Judas and apprehended. Led away by 
the sabbath, he remains in Bethany. The the officers, he is carried before the Jewish 
neziday, Sunday, the 10th Nisan, 2nd April, authorities, who, being at once accuser and 
he makes his triumphal entry into Jerusa- judge, find no difficulty in securing their 
lem (John vii 14— zii 12. Luke iz. 61 — wishes by pronouncing him guilty. Though, 
ziz. 28. Mark z. Matt ziz. zz.), where he however, Uiey can condemn, they have not 
is greeted by a jubilant multitude (John zii. the power to ezecute ; and therefore, early 
12 — 19. Mark zi 1 — 11. Luke ziz. 29 — 44. in the morning, they lead Jesus to the Pr»- 
Matt zzi 1 — 11 ). He appears as the Mes- torlum of the Boman governor, Pilate, who. 




impeUed by the raging of the Jews, brings 
foilh Jesns ont of his palace, and, placing 
himself on the judgment-seat, which was it- 
self on an elevated pavement, he pronounces 
against him the desired sentenoe of death. 
At what hour ? John says the sixth (xix. 
14), but Mark asserts that Jesus was cruci- 
fied at the third hour (xv. 25). If both 
reckoned the day in the same manner, we 
haye here a discrepancy; for Mark makes 
Jesus to be crucified at nine o'clock in the 
morning, when according to John he did 
not receive his sentence till mid- day. This 
difliculty has been obviated by supposing 
that John's day began at midnight (comp. 
i. 40 ; xi. 9). Hence the sixth hour would 
be six A.M. This is a time which would 
give sufficient scope for the narrated events 
so as to allow the crucifixion to take place 
at nine o'clock a. h. Jesus, however, after 
having been scourged and derided, is led 
away and crucified (see Calvabt). Having 
hung on the cross six hours, that is, from 
nine a.m. till three p.m., he dies, and is bu- 
ried before the commencement of the sab- 
bath, at six o'clock on this Friday evening 
(John xviii. xix. Luke xxii. 40 — ^xxiii. Mark 
xiv.d2 — ^xv. Matt. XX vi. 36 — xxxvii.). Jesus, 
being buried from three to six o'clock on Fri- 
day afternoon, remains in the grave that even- 
ing, the whole of the ensuing Saturday, sab- 
bath, the J6th Nisan, April 8th, till an early 
hour on Sunday, the OUi of April, when he 
rises on the third day (1 Cor. xv. 4), having 
been not more than forty hours in the sepul- 
chre. On the sabbath, that is, from six 
o'clock on Friday to six o'clock on Saturday, 
the disciples rest, according to the command 
of Moses (Luke xxiii. 56 ; comp. Exod. xx. 
10). The sabbath being over on Saturday 
evening, some women boy spices to anoint 
his body (Mark xvi« 1), having omitted to 
do so on tiie previous day, because it was a 
day of preparation (John xix. 42) tor the 
sabbath. They, in the execution of their 
ofllce of pious love, were rewarded with the 
privilege of beiug the first to behold their 
Saviour after he had burst the bars of the 
tomb. The appearances of Jesus, the best 
evidence of his resuirection, are strongly at- 
tested by Paul in 1 Cor. xv. 4 — 8. By com- 
bining his account with the evangelical nar- 
ratives (John xx. Markxvi2 — 8. Matthew 
xxviii. Luke xxiv. ; comp. Acts i. 1 — 12), 
we find that during the forty days that passed 
before our Lord finally left the earth, be 
appeared not fewer than nine times, thus 
giving frill evidence of his being alive, and 
laying a secure foundation for his chuieh to 
be built upon : I. to the women returning 
f^m the sepulchre ; II. to Maiy Magdalene, 
at the sepulchre ; III. to Peter, the day of 
the resurrection; IV. to the two disciples 
going to Emmaus, towards evening; V. to 
Sie apostles, Thomas excepted, assembled 
in the evening (these five appearaaoes took 

place at or near Jerusalem, on the first day 
of the week, the same day on which the 
Lord arose, and which the church rightly 
commemorates in its weekly services) ; VI. 
to the apostles in conjunction with Thomas, 
eight days afterwards (Sunday, April 16th), 
at Jerusalem; VII. to the eleven apostles 
and to five hundred brethren, on a mountain 
in Galilee: YJU. to James, probably at Je- 
rusalem; IX. to the eleven, at Jerusalem, 
immediately before the ascension. Thus 
having appeared where and to those to whom 
he was best known — in Judea, in Galilee, 
and again in Judea, and thus finished the 
work his Father had given him to do— from 
the same locality where he had undergone 
his agony, and on the same day of the week 
(Thursday, May 18th), he entered into his 
glory, and sat down at the right hand of 

The'view now given goes on the supposi- 
tion that our Lord's public ministry lasted 
rather more than two years, that is (reckon- 
ing from his appearance in Galilee), from 
Feb. A.D. 28 to April A.D. 80; a period 
which becomes nearly three years, and so 
agrees with the ancient tradition of the 
church, if we add the time which elapsed 
between his baptism by John and the actual 
opening of his Great Commission. This 
representation is supplied in the main by 
following the Gospel of John, who narrates 
the ministry of Jesus with a reference to 
our Lord's journeys to festivals in the capi- 
tal : as in ii. 13, the Passover ; v. 1, Purim ; 
viL 2, Tabernacles ; x. 22, Dedication ; xii. 
1, Passover ; besides which there was a Pass- 
over (vL 4) at which Jesus did not repair 
to Jerusalem. Luke also affords important 
data for these chronological approximations 
(U. 1, 2 ; ilL 1, 2, 23. Acts i. 1, 8) ; though 
it may be doubted if the word rendered * in 
order ' (i. 8), and which has been thought 
to imply a narrative chronologically ar- 
ranged, signifies any thing more than a par- 
ticular or detailed account. 

The inquiries by which the dates of our 
Lord's birth and public ministry are fixed, 
are too long and too minute to be here gone 
into, but a few explanations seem desirable. 

The date followed in the statements above 
given rests on these facts: -I. Jesus was 
bom during the reign of Herod (Matt ii. 
1 — ^22. Luke i. 0), that is, before the month 
of April, 750 U. C, in the early part of which 
that cruel tyrant died ; this is the extreme 
limit, and consequently the ordinaiy reckon- 
ing is four years too short II. The star 
which led the Magi to Jerusalem, it has been 
calculated, shone firom February to April, 750. 
III. The taxing or enrolment (see Cybb- 
aius) immediately after the command for 
which Jesus was bom, appears to have been 
published before the decease of Herod, and 
probably a short time before the 12th of 
Mareh, 750. . IV. About thirty years (Luke 



iii. 38) from the baptinn of Jesos by John, en was Azid not before the eizdi oentoiy. 
lead as back to die oommenoement of 700. We owe it to the monk Dionysine Ezigniie 
Theie four data tend to fix the same year (henee by oontraetion Dion. Mr,). Trasting 
and the same period, namelyi the beginning to tbe tradition of the elders and the ealen- 
of the year. Henoe it is probable ti^ onr lation of Dionysins, the ehnroh has generally 
Lord was bom in the spring of 750. A. U., held that Jesns was bom on the S6th De- 
ihough it is not to be denied that his birth oember, in the year beftne die oommenoe- 
may hsTe taken place a few months eariier, « ment of oar era, and was, when thirty yean 
that is, in the close of the year 749 U. C. of age, baptised in the thirtieth of that era, 
Tbe yiew now detailed, which is in snb* on the thirty-third of which he died and 
stance an abstract of that which is given rose again. Since the time of Kepler (A. D. 
by Wieseler (ChronoUgitdt/B Sym^, 1B48), 1606), the old opinion has been sncceeded 
may perhaps be accoonted snfflciently accn* by great diversities. Bee i. 8d7. If we 
rate in general onUine, and serve as a con- follow what in trath is the best anthority, 
▼enient thread on which to range leading namely, the Scripture, we can hardly main- 
faote; bat in relation to the year of onr tain that our Ohristmas-day (Dec. 20) re- 
Lord's birth, and of coarse the great dates presents the month or the day when Jesns 
that depend on it, we can regard it only as was bom ; for then the flocks in Palestine 
aa approzunation to reality, if for no other are not by night in the open field (Lake it 
leason, for this, that when its author comes 8), bat under cover. The Talmud having 
to ezponnd the fifteenth year of Tiberius stated that * the first rain descends on the 
mentioned by Luke (see JoHH THB Baptist), seventeenth Nov.,' adds, 'then the catde 
he is compelled, in order to bring the latter return home, nor do the shepherds any longer 
into agreement with the fomer, to put for- abide in the fields.' 

ward the unsupported opinion that by the As to the length of the duration of our 

words of Luke, * the word of God came to Lord's ministry, as well as to the snccession 

John,' is intended his apprehension. In of its events, opinions are very various. 

troth, we scarcely possess data for a final With the first three evangelists, Galilee, after 

and satisfactory settlement of the minute his own temptation and the imprisonment of 

points of the evangelical chronology. The John (Matt iv. IS), is the scene of his deeds ; 

New Testament contains the elements of a where, especially in the winter months, he 

religion, not a science. Scientific chronology resided at Capernaum (Matt iv. 18; viii. 

was unknown in the days of Herod and ; zviL 24. Mark i. 21). Most frequently 

Augustas, and can scarcely be said even is he found in the romantic and well-peopled 

now to have an existence. There remain, vicinity of the lake of Tiberias (Matt viii. 

after the most careful investigations, causes 28, teq. ; ziiL 1, teq, ; ziv. 18. Luke viii. 

of uncertainty which vitiate our calcidationB. 22); also on its eastern shores in Pema 

The year of Bome which we have above em- (Matt viiL 28. Mark viL 81. Luke viiL 26). 

ployed is itself nncertain. The ordinary Once he directed his steps to the borders of 

Christian era may have begun at the con- Phcsnicia (Matt zv. 21. Mark vii. 24, $tq.). 

oeption or the birih of Christ, and its year Only once in Jerasalem do the first three 

one may have been placed eidier at the be- evangelists avowedly place him, at the time 

ginning or the end of the first fiill year, of l£e last Passover (Matt. zzi. isq, Mark 

Without a fixed point, chronology as a sci* zL seq, Luke xix. tiq»). According to this, 

ence caimot ezist, and such a fixed point is die length of his ministry may be restricted 

not supplied in ancient times. The aid of to a year ; and so short a period was fixed 

astronomy has been invoked (Smfffarih ChrO' on by many in the ancient church, reference 

nologia Sacra, 1846), and may render im- being made to Luke iv. 19 ; comp. Is. Ixi. 

portent aid, so far as general conclusions 1, teq. Some have found in Luke vi. 1, evi- 

aie concerned ; but the application of astro- dence of a second Passover as kept by Jesus. 

nomical facts and calculations to human On the contrary, John exhibits onr Lord not 

events, can be saecessfiilly made, at least only often, but generally in Jndea, whence 

as to minutis, only when certain fisrod points he travelled once through Samaria into Gali- 

in history have been previously ascertained, lee (John iv. 4; comp. Luke zvii. 11), and 

In confirmation of the view here taken, speaks of five Jewish festivals which Jesns 

we may cite the respectable authority of Dr. observed in Jemsalem. There is no hlstori- 

Bobinson, who in notes subjoined to his esl oontradiction in diis diversity. Tbe last 

'Harmony of the Fonr Gospels,' remarks, writer may supplement his predecessors. 

ihtA * the precise year of onr Lord's birth John aimed to report Jesus's words rather 

is uncertain, ad^ng, ' while onr Lord's than his deeds, and consequently places him 

birth cannot have taken place later than in Jemsslem, where it was of chief conse- 

Am U. 749, it may nevertheless have ocouned qnence that he should bear his testimony, 

one or two years eariier.' Seyibrth, to whose rather than in Galilee, the great scene of his 

work we have just referred, maintains, al- aetions. Tet John implies that Jesus spent 

most without support from modem antho- a considerable time in the latter district 

rities, that the ordinary date is coneet That (JohnviLl). The first of tbe five festivala 

J £ S 99 J £ S 

is « PflMOf«r (ii. 18) ; the second is simply Their ntmes are not giyea. In sceordance 

tenned 'a feast of the Jews' (▼. 1); the with an eoolesiastioal tradition, Salome, wife 

third was the feast of Tabernacles (yii 2) ; of Zebedee and mother of the apostles James 

the ibnrth, the Dedication (z. 22) ; the filth and John (Matt xxvii. 50. Mark xr. 40), 

(xii xiii.) was again a Passover. Besides, has been placed among the relatiyes of 

John makes mention of another Passover, Jesus. 

which look place when Jesus was in Galilee The language which Jesus eommonly 
(▼i. 4). Hence it would ensue that Jesus was spoke was not, as some have thought, Latin, 
a public Teacher during about three years : nor, as others have maintained, Greek, but 
ii, however, the feast in v. 1 was a Passover, the vernacular Syro-Chaldee or Western Ara> 
which Winer does not think likely, the time maic (a dialect of the Hebrew. See Lav- 
would be extended to three years and a half, guaob). In illustration of which statement 
The period can scarcely, on the authority of it may be remariced, that to this tongue be- 
the evangelists, be prolonged beyond two longs the word Boanerges, the name given by 
years and some monOis. Jesus to James and John (Mark iiL 17). 
Of persons related to Jesus, there are. In the ssme dialect he addressed the dead 
besides his mother Mary and Joseph, I. damsel, Talitha eumi (v. 41; see also vii. 
Mary his mother^s sister (John xiz. 2d), 84. Matt xzvu. 47). He left nothing in 
who may have been married to Alpheus or Cle- writing for the instruction of the world, fear- 
ophas, and had for sons James the less (Acts ing, probably, the undue influence of men's 
i. 18) and Joses (Matt xxvii. 66. Mark xv. too ready attachment to and reverence for 
40) ; II. Elizabeth, called in Luke L 36, the outward, especially as exemplified in the 
the eousin of Mary the mother of Jesus; externality and hollowness of the existing 
but the word employed in the original does Jewish system ; and aiming rather to arouse 
not define the closeness of the relationship ; and impel the human mind, and found a 
she was married to the priest Zacharias and great religious association, free from the 
bore him John the Baptist: III. Brothers letter, and living and flourishing in the 
(Matt xii. 46. Maifc iii. 81. Luke viii. power of the spirit of truth, guided by the 
19. John ii. 12; vii. 8, 0, 10. Acts L 14. spirit of God working in the hearts of be- 
l Cor. ix. 6), under the name of James, lievers. Accordingly he sowed the seed of 
Joses, Simon, and Judas (Matt xiii. 59. the word, threw out great principles capable 
Mark vi. 8). In these passages, namely, of indefinite application, lived and died his 
Matt xii. xiii, John ii., and Acts i, Winer own religion, entrusted ihe memory of what 
holds that real brothers are intended, since he said and did, and the propagation of his 
they are mentioned together with the mother influence, to chosen men, who proved their 
of Jesus and with Joseph (Matt xiii. 55). fitness for the ofiBce by lives of heroic bene- 
The same holds of John vii. 9. Some, volence and by martyrdom, 
however, consider those who are termed bro- Of the features of our Lord's person we 
there to have been cousins, children of Mary know nothing certain. The earliest age was 
the mother of Jesus, partly for the insuiB- too simple and unconscious to thhik of 
eient reason that the names of James and taking means for transmitting his likeness; 
Joses appearasnamesof sons of that person which was the less likely to occur to their 
(Matt xxvii. 56). It may, however, be minds, because they expected Jesus himself 
asked whether they were frill or half brothers, shortly to return to earth. At a later period, 
The latter has been held by many, in accord> ecclesiastics busied themselves with efforts 
anoe with an ancient Eblonitish tradition, to recal and fix what was for ever gODC, and 
alleging that they were sons of Joseph by a they may have preserved some fading out* 
former (some say a later) marriage. Be- lines. The portraits which have come to 
spectable authorities maintain that ti^ey were us firom the third or fourth centuries down- 
brothers on both sides. In the term ' first- wards, have a certain character in common, 
bom son' (Matt i. 25), is found a confir- which may be a dim reflection of the original, 
mation of this idea, which would make the Leaving on one side the unreliable notices 
other sons of Joseph and Mary bom after of ecclesiastical history, which are matters 
Jesus. The passage in John xix. 26 con- rather of curiosity and artistic interest than 
tains nothing against this view ; the brothers historic truth or religious concern, we add 
of Jesus may have come to believe in him that from the New Testament we may learn 
after his resurrection (Matt xzviiL 10). that Jesus was free from any bodily defect. 
Did they so believe at his death, John, as which otherwise would have been imputed 
befaig older than they and more nearly re- to him by his enemies, and the people would 
lated to Jesus in mind, may have appeared not have recognised him as a prophet In 
to the latter the most suitable to be entrasted look snd voice he must have had much that 
with the care of his beloved mother. More- was lofty, amiable, attractive, and overpower- 
over, the brothers of Jesus are found not ing (John xviil. 6). His outer msn was 
only as believers in Jesus, but heralds of the expression of the divine wisdom and 
the gospel (Acts i. 14. 1 Cor ix. 5). Sisters power that predominated within. 
of JetOB an mentioned in Matt xiii. 56. Jesus was brought up at Nasareth. Ha 

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frequented no rabbinicah sohool (John vii. fezred that he wm neTer manied. Ccmp, 

10). The title Rabbi given him (Mark z. Matt. xix. 12. 

01. John ri. 20) was applied in a vague That Jesus, in the work which he under- 
sense, as denoting * teacher.' It was no pro- took, aimed at more than a political, moral, 
fessional title, earned by learning and con- or religious reformation of his own country, 
ferred as an honour in the schools. Nor and intended to benefit and save the whole 
did these later rabbinical distinctions exist human race by making all into one great 
in his days. Strauss has no historical aup- happy family, rendering a loving obedience 
port for the conjecture which makes our Lord to his Father and himself, appears from John 
to have been a reforming rabbL Nugatory iv. 2d ; z. 16 ; from the whole tenor and ten- 
have been the attempts made to explain the dency of his doctrine, and from his deep and 
formation of his mind out of some or all of practical benevolence, which, excluding every 
the philosophical or religious elements of thing partial, embraced without distinction 
his times. These theories are either insuf- all mankind ; while, in his wish to give his 
ficient to account for the facts, or fail in his- religion a firm foothold in the world, he re- 
torical validity. If certain individual fea- stricted his own teaching to the land of his 
tures of his mind and doctrine may be found fathers (Matt xv. fiQ,tBq.) ; he commissioned 
among the Essence, the Sadducees, and in his apostles to preach the gospel to every 
the philosophy of Alexandria — as may well creature (xxviiL 19). The idea that his plan 
be the case in regard to one who had to became with the progress ofevents more clear 
operate on his own age, and, in so doing, to and comprehensive, cannot be proved, for 
indicate amid errors, mistakes, and approzi- this if for no other reason, that the first 
mations to truth, the right path — ^yet the ex- three evangelists have in their narratives 
istence of his mind considered as a whole, not followed the order of time ; while it is 
in its harmony, its oneness, its sublimity in contradicted by the uniform appearance worn 
word, deed, and suffering — the deamess of by the doctrine of Jesus in the Gospel of 
bis understanding, his elevated morals, his John. Ifhe did not at once announce himself 
disinterested love, his genial friendship, to be the Messiah (comp. Luke iv. 18, teq.), 
wise patriotism, and warm, rational, cease* this is explained by the Jewish and material 
less piety — to say nothing of his power over views prevalent on the subject, and to which 
life and death — ^remain unaccounted for by he had to avoid even the appearance of giving 
any mere earthly influences whatever. Ac- encouragement Errors and impulses arising 
cording to the prevalent custom, he may, as out of these views, which made the multitude 
Justin states he did, have followed Joseph's prone to take and try to force him to assume 
trade, at which some think he laboured even the ensigns of royalty, were reasons why he 
during his public ministry. The passage in should even forbid the spreading of his fame 
Mark vL 8, 'Is not this the carpenter f if as a worker of miracles (Matt ix. 30. Luke 
genuine (Tischendorf retains the words), viii. 06). At the same time, he strove to cor- 
conntenances this opinion. If it be correct, rect these erroneous impressions; while by as- 
Jesus may thus have in part obtained his sumingthe title 'Son of Man' (Matt zii.8), 
subsistence, which, however, was mainly and by declarations pregnant with meaning 
supplied by his adherents ; during his tra- (zi. ; xiiL 16, seq. Luke iv. 21), he turned 
vels. Oriental hospitality afforded him re- attention to himself as identical with the 
sources (John iv. 40; xi. 2). There also Christ Under these circumstances, however, 
for a time accompanied him grateftd women, it is not surprising that the people vacillated in 
who took measures for the supply of his their views ofhim,and most saw in Jesus only 
wants (Luke viii. 2. Mark zv. 41). He and a great prophet who had for them chief in- 
his attendants had in common a travelling terest in that he wrought miracles. But to 
purse (John xii. 6; xiii. 29), out of whose individuals of moral susceptibility he posi- 
oontents food was purchased (Luke ix. 13). tively and expressly proclaimed himself to be 
Jesus cannot be considered as having been the Messiah (John iv. 26 ; iz. 36, jeg.) ; also 
strictly poor or in want Such a conclusion to the high -priest at the end of his life, when 
cannot be deduced from Matthew viii. 20, or now he had published the truth, and peril 
2 Cor. viii. 9. His relatives, however, were had succeeded to suffering (Matt zzvi. 64). 
not in a prosperous condition (Luke iL 24 ; Among his disciples he found evidence and 
comp. Lev. zii.8), and he himself possessed trust in their previously acquired religious 
no permanent property (Matt viii 20). His sensibility and convictions (zvi. 13, seq, 
ordinary and favourite abode was at Caper- Lake iz. 20). The basis of his spiritual 
naum : he visited Nazareth only once (Luke qualities was lowly and obedient piety to- 
iv. 16). In eztemals he observed the cus- wards God (zviii. 19), and warm, active, 
toms of his nation ; and, far fit>m affecting practical love for man. Here was the divine 
a singular or austere mode of life, he par- power which moved his great soul, and the 
took (^ the enjoyments of society and friend ■ living source of his lofty ezcellence. The 
ship (John ii. 1, le^. Luke vii. 31. Matt zi. qualities which have their root in these 
16, atq. ; comp. iz. 14, teq,). From the si- fountains of life and in the indwelling spi- 
lence of the New Testament it may be in- rit of his Father, are so numerous that we 

J E S 101 J E S 

eannot attempt to pasB them in review. We the first three exhibit the human side, th« 
may allode to one or two. Jesns appears as latter qualities were the earlier developed ; 
the perfect image of resignation, or rather John, who presents the fonner, did not write 
acquiescence in the Divine will, which from his Gospel till the others had published 
its veiy depth became powerful in word and theirs. This diversity in the promulgation 
action when there was need to assert the does not affect the certainty of the fact, or 
sovereignty of God, the claims of truth, and derogate from the unity of ^e one Lord 
&e spirituality of religion (John ii. 16, teq.; Jesus Christ, who was no less Son of God 
Tiii. 44. Matt, xxiii. 2, uq.). SpeciaUy re- than Son of Man ; for each writer gave the 
markable are the promptitude and facility view with which his own mind was chiefly 
with which he defeats his embittered ene- impressed, and so the four (as well as Paul 
mies in their repeated efforts to ensnare and Peter) combine tooffer a ftaller, and there- 
and destroy him, and which of themselves fore more accurate as well as complete, por- 
would suffice to show that in his history we traiture of the Saviour than the world could 
have not to do with an enthusiast, a fanatic, otherwise have possessed. Since, however, 
or a deceiver ; the evidence against which those reporters whom Christians are agreed 
injurious and groundless fancies rises to the to account authorities in this high concern, 
highest value in his apprehension, trial, suf- have conjointly exhibited Jesus in both 
ferings, and death. Entirely tree from the divine and human relations, we are not at 
slightest trace of any of those ascetical and liberty to take the one and leave the other, 
monkish ideas or practices to be found in The testimony of the evangelists is valid for 
other Eastern teachers, Jesus ever appears that on behalf of which it is given, or it has 
as a man among men, living as others, only no worth whatever. It is an arbitrary pro- 
more holily, lovingly, and disinterestedly, oeeding to receive their evidence to this, and 
He teaches all who come to him in the most reject it in its bearing on that point. If they 
public spots — ^the open streets, the temple, present Jesus as boAi Son of God and Son 
the way-side ; enters cottages, tiie mansions of Man, in both these characters are we 
of the great and learned ; eats and drinks bound to receive and honour him. It may 
with sinners, and with Scribes and Pharisees also be remained that Divine Providence, 
(Luke vii. 84). How deeply does he enter whose hand in the publication of the gospel 
into and take part in human joys and sor- is very manifest, in causing these two sets 
rows (John ii. ; xi. 88) ! How affectionate, of relations to appear in the evangelical nar- 
how self-forgetftd is he in the bosom of the ratives and in the person of Jesus, made 
family, and in the safe society of chosen and provision therein for the accomplishment of 
beloved friends! How ready is he with words the great work of human redemption. As 
of pity and compassion towards any that God has set forth, so should we receive, the 
suffer (Luke vii 13) ! In these qualities Saviour of the world, the consummation of 
are the reasons why our revered and beloved whose salvation in the souls of individuals 
Master has in all ages won tiie hearts of the must depend on their faith's embracing all 
good and great, and converted tiie souls of those elements which God designed for 
title sinftd; for in him has been and is found, that high purpose. If we disown a part of 
not the greatness which astounds, or the those qualities, we pronounce them unne- 
power which humbles, but the rarest yet oessary, and at the same time impeach the 
the tenderest benevolence, the wisdom of general credibility of the evangelical narra- 
God joined to a brotfaex^s goodness, an ob- tives. If we deny Jesus to be either the Son 
jeet of profound admiration, ardent grati- of Man or the Son of God, we in truth deny 
tnde, elevating imitation, and duteous love. * the Lord's Christ,' and frsme to ourselves a 
With a reference to the whole character and Christ of our own. We are not at liberty to 
tendency of his life and doctrine should we believe as much as we will, and refhse to 
interpret passages which, taken separately, believe more. There is no middle point 
have occasioned misconceptions (Matt xii. between the reception and the rejection of 
46, $tq,; xv. 31, ieq, John ii. 4). Most of Jesus. What the apostolic testimony esta- 
all extraordinary is it that any one who had blishes, those who recognise that evidence 
an eye to read, or a heart to feel, the tender^ oblige themselves by such a recognition un- 
ness and beauty of his love towards his reservedly to reoeive. If the Jesus of his* 
mother, as manifested in the last moments toiy is false, the Jesus of speculation csnnot 
of his agony, should have fancied, much be true. When, as in regard to the two sets 
more published, a doubt as to his domestic of qualities in question, authority is equal, 
affections. The great Saviour of the worid there is no ground for preference. That 
was the most tender of sons and the most which is preferred, when sundered from 
gentie of men. what is cast aside, in losing its real charao- 
Jesus appearing in the New Testament ter, loses both its worth and its claims to 
as * the Son of God ' and * the Son of Man,' credence. Quit the solid ground of history, 
presents to the reader who considers him as and you are at once launched on a boundless 
a whole, two sets of qualities, the divine and troubled sea, with neitiier chart nor eom- 
Mid the human. In the evangelists, of whom pass. Speculation may construct philoso<i 

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phies ; it has no power to frame ao histori- hnman, while it gives effect to its purest nd 

oal religion. In the investigation of histo- hest desires. The heart of the man and the 

rical records, it may afford aid ; but if tme child is moved at the sight of the bier of the 

to the dictates of common sense, it will not, widow's only son ; and die power with which 

in the case of a witness admitted to be trust- he was invested enabled him to satisfy his own 

worthy, allow this and disallow that elass of yearnings, and afford the bereaved mother a 

testimouy. If it find reason to donbt or deligfatftil surprise, by the restoration of the 

deny the credibility of a witness, it receives young man to life. In the whole course and 

his statements cautiously or not at all ; if it tenor of his existence, you find Jesus pre- 

is led to acknowledge him to speak the truth, eminently human ; not less during his pub- 

as true will it hear and sat forth his aver- lie ministry does he appear in word and act 

ments. In short, it is clear that any attempt divine. So are the two interwoven, that you 

on the part of professed Christians to receive cannot separate them without destroying tho 

Jesus in only one of his eharaoters, proceeds texture of his life ; the human loses its ex« 

from a predisposing state of mind which is istence apart from the divine by which it is 

as illogical as it is irreligious. An honest called forth, aocompanied, or exemplified, 

man may, for want of (to him) sufficient evi- And the union of the two produces in the 

dence, fail to accept the gospel ; but no one soul of the believer emotions of reverential 

of clear understanding and unbiassed affoc- love, holy gratitode, and devout acquieso- 

tions can acknowled^ his own Christ as enee, which are as edifying as they are 

the Christ of the New Testament pleasurable, and which, with the aid of the 

It may indeed be allowed as a supposi- Divine Spirit, work powerfully flbr the sanc- 
tion, that the evangelists, while reporting tifioation and everlasting peaee of the be- 
what they believed, made statemente that liever. 

were incoirect The remark, if it has per- The opinions held in the Christian worid 

tinency here, must relate to the two sete of respecting the person of Jesus maybe learnt 

qqilities under consideration ; as for in- from the following authoritative statemente : 
stance, John believed Jesus to be the Son ' Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, 

of God, but was mistaken in his opinion, is God and man. . . .equal to the Father as 

This is, we grant, a supposable case ; but touching his Godhead, and inferior to the 

Is it probable? — probable that an apostle Father as touching his Manhood.'— illAana- 

and intimate friend of Jesus should hold to sian Crted. 

be divine in his works and words^-objecto * The Son, which is the word of the Fa- 

tbat came immediately under his senses— ther, begotten from everlasting of the Father, 

him who was only human, neither saying the very and eternal God, and of one sub- 

nor doing any thhig but what other men stance with the Father, took man's nature 

had or might have said or done ? If in so in the womb of the blessed Virgin, of her 

olear and broad a case the evangelist had substance; so that two whole and perfect 

not the power to ascertain the trudi, he is a natures, that is to say, the Godhead and- 

witness of no value, and the logical course Manhood, were Joined together in one per- 

is the disallowance of his eridence. Those, son, never to be dirided, whereof is one 

however, who admit his competency to learn Christ, very God and very man ; who truly 

and his will to report the truth, have, after suffered, was crucified, dead and buried, to 

that admission, only to ascertain, and when reconcile his Father to us,' &c. — Second of 

ascertained receive, the statemente which he the Tkirty^int ArticUt (f Rtligian. 
makes. 'God is so united to the £rived nature 

In the simple, interesting, and sublime of Christ, and does so dwell in it, that by 

narratives of the gospels, Uie qualities to virtue of that union Christ may be properly 

which we have referred appear at once most called God, and such regards become due to 

human and truly divine. One with God, him as are not due to any creature, be it in 

Jesus was also the type of human kind, itself ever so excellent' — Dr. Doddridgt. 
The best of what belongs to man was united 'With the First and Supreme Cause there 

in him with the spirit of his Father, given has existed from the beginning a second 

without measure. His benevolence was at divine person, which is his Word or Son ; 

once ttie most pure, tender, endearing, lofty, by whose operation the Father both made 

and compiehensive ; his power and irisdom and governs the world, and whom he sent 

surpassed all other disclosures of the Dirine into the world to assume our flesh, to be- 

mind. He spake as never man spake ; he come man,' &c. — Dr. Samwl Clark§, 
commanded and controlled nature as with * By nature Jesus Christ was truly man. 

the finger of God. We are required to acknowledge the 

These diverse qualities were in him inti- Lord Jesus as one who has divine authority 

mately blended together, whOe they each had over ns, and in that sense as God: we are 

and retained a separate sphere of action, bound, moreover, to put our trust in him, 

In what Jesus does and says at the grave of and to pay him divine honour.' — Baeanan, 

Lasarua, you behold the human apart firom or Soeinian, Catedusm. 
the divine, and the divine elevating the ' An extraordinaiy man • • • • whose 

JEW 103 JEW 

WM wholly potsesaed with the idea of oomlnf A. C). II. Ths Grttk^MacedoiuaM DimiM* 
from God ; who regarded himself ee clothed Hon, under Alexander and hie Boocesson, 
with divine power, and charged with the the kmge of Egypt and Syria, till Antiochos 
sablimeet work in the nnlTerse; who had Epiphanee and the insnrrection of the 
the conscioneneaa of aoataining a relation liaoeabees (83d— 167 A. C). III. War cf 
of nnezampled authority and beneficence, IndBprndene^, and epoch of free nationii 
not to one nation or age, bat to all nations gOTemment under Maocabean kings, till the 
and all times ; and who anticipated a spiri- eonqnest of Jerusalem by Pompey (167^ 
taal kingdom and CTerlasting power beyond 63 A.O.). IV. Tks Roman DMninatMn, and 
the grave Nor is this all. Jesus not only the heroic struggle of the Jews, till the de- 
was, he is still, the Son of God, the Saviour atruction of Jerasalem and the temple by 
of the woild. He exists now; he has entered Titus (68 A.C.— 70 A. D.). 
ttiat heaven to which he always looked for- 'Ilie exile had a sobering effect on the 
ward on earth. There he lives and reigns. Jewish people, who were at length taught 
With a dear, calm frdth, I see him in that to revere and serve the Great Being who, 
state of gloiy; and I confidently expect, at according to the sublime opening of their 
no dirtant period, to see him face to frioe.' — own aacied books, 'in the beginning, ere- 
Channing, ated the heaven and the earUi.' Hence- 

The following are some of the passagea forward the Israelites show more true and 

adduced to establish the Godhead of Jesua steady leal for the national faith ; for the 

Christ: — Is. vii. 14; ix. 6. Jer. xxiiL 5, 6. oolonies that quit the country of Babylon to 

Luke L 16, 17. John i. 1—14; x. 83; xiL return to Palestine, are composed of those 

41; XX. 28. Acts XX. 28. Bom. ix.d. ITim. who are most attached to the Mosaic doc- 

lit 16. Hebrews i. 8. 1 John iii. 16; v. 20. tnnes, and who are well convinced that the 

2 Theas. i. 12. unbelief of their ancestora waa the chief 

Different as are theae viewa, they eom- eauae of the national diaaatera. But their 

bine to illuatrate the love and veneration religioua ideas have by little and little been 

that JeauB has awakened in the heart of modified, under the influence of certain 

man. They are varioua utterancea of the foreign beiiefr and philoaophioal doctrines 

aaroe deep feeling of reverence, hcdy truat^ borrowed from the East. Beflection takes 

and lofty hope. They are heartfelt atteata- ita place along-aide of inapiration. Specn- 

tions to the sublimity of his character, the lation accompanies the exeroiae of Duth. 

greatneaa of his worl^ and the endleaa gioiy Beaaen gains the upper-hand over aenti- 

of his promised rewaxda. The heart of ment The new seal ia not unattended 

Christendom in all agea has been moved, by ooiruption, nor unalloyed by a naiiow 

raised, and hallowed, by the divine image of orthodoxy. Th» ceremoniea degenerate into 

the Son of God and die friend of man, whoae a crowd of minute obaervancea, and in order 

greatneaa ia in truth unaearchable, and df to attach the new doctrines and uaagea to 

whose benign rule Oiere ia neither measure the text of the ancient hooka, the aid of a 

nor end. apeoies of acientifio interpretation is called in. 

JEWBY ia in Luke xxiiL 5. John viL 1, As a consequence, there is formed a leamed 
used instead of the ordinary JtulM (Matt, it and scholastic theology. Sects arise, pur- 
1), of which (comp. * Jew') it is an old suing each a philosophical direction. The 
form, being, by exception, retained from the prophets are replaced by scribes and doctors 
more ancient English versions; thus Tyn- of Uie law. At last comes a period of gene- 
dale (1034) has * Jewxy' or ' Juiy,' and the ral degeneracy, when the Messiah appears 
Genevan (1507) has < Juris ' or < Jewrie/ and a new era opens, under whose influence 

JEWS, a corrupt form of the woid Yehou* Judaism is made known to the world, re- 
deem, which, formed from Judah, the tribe garded partly as Judaism, but ere long in 
that took the lead on the return from odle, its proper character of Christianity— 'the 
designated the Hebrew or Israelitish people spirit and power' of a new life, 
from the termination of the Babylonish cap- During the period of the pure Hebrew 
tivity. Beferring the reader to the article antiquity, agriculture was the basis of the 
headed Hbbbsws, we here cany to the time eivil polity. This iDundation now under- 
of the Bomans our sketch of the history of goes some chsnge. New tastes as well as new 
that singular and interesting people. The wants and new connections have been formed 
chief sources of our information are, the in coile, whieh lead to and &eilitate corn- 
Biblical books of Esra, Nehemiah, Haggai, meieial intercourse; and this on its part, 
and Zechariah, the apociyphal Maccabees, sustained with Assyria, Egypt, and at length 
and Josephus. with the great cities of the wes^ scatters mem- 

The history from the end of the exils bers of the Hebrew family over the whole 

to the overthrow of Jerusalem by the Bo- civilised worid, sows the seeds in polytheistie 

mans, may be divided into four periods ^— lands of a monotheistic religion, and so pre- 

I. 7^ Pernan Jhmunatimn, from the retom pares the my of Christ, 
of the Jaws to the conquest of Fhosnieia «ad By pennission of Cyrus, a large number 

Palestias by Alexander ttie Gfeat <6d6— 082 of Jews letum into their naave land, beaiw 


JEW 104 JEW 

ing wi& them much money, cattle, and the Laomedon of Mitjlene reoeiTea Palestine, 

precious things of the sanctuary, under Ze- From him the country falls under the Egyp- 

lubbahel, of the blood-royal, and Jeshna, tian Ptolemy Soter, who transplsats a great 

the lineal descendant in the priesthood, who number of Jews into Egypt, where they in part 

immediately take steps for settling the peo* people the new city of Alexandria, in which 

{He in Jerusalem on die basis of the Mosaic already are found Jews, placed there by its 

aws, and extend their influence to other founder, and where the descendants of Abra- 

parts of Palestine. The rebuilding of the ham eigoy rights equal to those of the Greeks; 

temple is commenced. This work is hin^ a circumstance which draws other natiyes of 

dered by the Samaritans, who, by appeals to Palestine to the banks of the Nile, 

the Persian Court, succeed in causing it to Placed between the two riyal powers of 

be suspended. The temple is, however, Syria and Egypt, Palestine falls under bofli 

finished in the sixth year of Darius Hys- in succession. Passing over these sangni- 

taspis (016 A. C). After more than half a nary changes, we think it more useful to 

eentury of inaction, Ezra, descendant of the remark, that from this time intimate relations 

high-priest Seraia, conducts into Palestine a are formed between the Jews and the Greeks; 

second colony, possessed of much wealth, the sciences of the latter are cultivated by the 

and, finding the condition of Jerusalem bad, former, especially in Egypt, and the Greeks 

employs himself in the task of infusing begin to know something of the Hebrew his- 

vigour into the state, adhering strictly to the tory and laws. The Egyptian Jews, while 

old constitution. Palestine becoming a field professing to remain true to the religion of 

of battle for Egypt and Persia, the progress their fathers, adopt by little and little the 

of reform is impeded. Nehemiah, cupbearer language and manners of the Greeks. Hence 

at the court of Susa, hearing of the lamenta- arises a desire to possess their Scriptures in 

ble condition of his brethren in Pslestine, a Greek version. The Septuagint comes into 

hastens thither with aid from his royal mas- existence in course of years (see Biblb). 

ter, and, in spite of opposition from Sama- Although during this period the Jews suffer 

rla, fortifies Jerusalem and increases its much from the tyranny of their masters and 

population by drafts from other parts of the the wars which they wage one with another, 

land. Poverty prevails ; society is divided yet they enjoy a large share of practicsl 11- 

into two classes, the very rich and the very berty, since Egypt and Syria are intent on 

poor. Nehemiah, by word and by example, greater objects, and in general leave things 

applies a remedy. A greater reformation is in Palestine to take their own course, pro • 

effected by him, with the aid of Ezra, in re- vided the enjoined tribute is regulariy paid, 

viving the love of the people for the Mosaio At length, Antiochus Epiphanes (see Av- 

institutions, which is effected without co- tiochus) drives the Jews to open resistance, 

operation from the high-priest Nehemiah His general, ApoUonius, taking possession 

returns to Persia, whence in a few years he of Jerusslem with a body of 22,000 men, fUla 

is recalled by the necessity in Pslestine of a on its inhabitants while engaged in their 

second reform, which he virtuously achieves sabbath duties. The streets run with blood, 

with assistance trom Malachi, the last of the The city is exposed to plunder and confla- 

prophets (ctr. 424 A.C.). In this period of gration. Immediately, the king orders the 

regeneration synagogues come into existence, religion of the Greeks to be introduced into 

in which divine worship is performed accord- all the cities of Pslestine, circumcision to 

ing to a certain liturgy, and much is done be discontinued on pain of death, the sacred 

for the consolidation of the Hebrew litera- books to be destroyed, and religious assem- 

tnre. 'The Great Synagogue,' or religious blies to cease. A Greek priest is sent to 

council of 120 Jewish doctors, around which Jerusalem to profane the temple of Jehovah, 

lies much fable, but which appears to have and to introduce therein the worship of the 

been useful in promoting education and the Olympian Jupiter. An altar is prepared, ido- 

administration of justice, may now have had latrous worship is offered, and Jews are com- 

its foundations laid. The internal govern- pelled to take part in these abominations, 

meut of the country is in the hands of the Frightful cruelties are perpetrated by the 

Jews themselves, who, under pashas ap- Syrian tyrants. An example may be given 

pointed by Persia, pay tribute to their de- in the fate of two women who, true to their 

apotic masters. national faith, circumcise each a male child. 

I The victories of Alexsnder over the Per- The boys are tied round their necks, and 

•ians having put Syria into the power of mothers and children hurled from the walla 

tiutt prince, he advances to Jerusslem wiUi into a deep ravine. 

adverse feelings, which are turned into fa- The national feeling is outraged. Centn- 

vour by the adroit conduct of the high-priest ries of foreign domination have relaxed the 

Jaddua (Joseph. Antiq. xi. 8, 3, teq.). On bonds of religion, and 'the love of many* for 

passing into Egypt, the great conqueror en* their country begins to grow cold. But the 

trusts Palestine to a governor by name An- excesses of Uie mad Antiochus rouse against 

dromaehus, who is sueoeeded by Menmon. himself the strongest flBeUngs, and mske 

On the death of Alonader (323 A. C), religion and eoontiy woida of power with 

JEW 105 JEW 

the Jews. Detpotio eraelty leadt to nationaL from Babylon become consolidated. The Pha- 

independeuoe. liseee and Saddnoees appear. Commerce re- 

In Modaim, sitaated on a moantain of the ceives an impulse. The royal power is very 
same name, near Lydda, on the road from gtetA, thoogh it is qnalilied by a senate, the 
Joppa to Jemsalem, lives a priest of the lat- Sanhedrim, * the oonncil' (Matt y. 22. Acts 
ter place, named Matthias, descendant of iy. 15; t. 21), composed of seyenly-one mem- 
Hasmon (whence ' Asmonaan*), of the sa- hers, whose learning is their qnaliiication. 
cerdotal division of Joarib (1 Chron. xxiv. This is the supreme council of the nation, 
7). Advanced in age, Matthias has five having jorisdiction in all the highest crimi- 
sons — John, Simeon, Jndas, Eleazar, and nal and administrative concerns. The Bab- 
JonathazL Each of the five receives a snr- bins speak of the lesser Sanhedrim, consist- 
name, of which the origin is uncertain. Jn* ing of twenty- three members, who satin 
das is called Makkcibi (* a club,' comp. Mar- each town for the local administration of 
tel), or Maccabee; and as he is distinguished justice in criminal causes. Civil aflkirs are 
for his courage, he becomes leader aud com- Judged by three arbitrators. On the govem- 
municates his name to the Asmonaans or ment of the country and its finances we pos- 
Maccabees. Matthias and his family sre sees little information; but the Maccabean 
bewailing the calamities of their countiy princes have royal domains and levy certain 
and beseeching God for deliverance, when imposts. 

Apelles, an officer of the king of Syria, ap- At length the Boman power appears in 
pears in Modaim and commands its inha- Palestine, at a time when a contest is pro- 
bitants to sacrifice to Jupiter. Matthias ceeding for the crown between two brothers, 
refuses, and slays a Jew who is about to the rich and warlike Aristobulus and the 
comply. Passions are roused. Matthias feeble Hyrcanus. Internal dissensions faei- 
defeats Apelles and destroys the idolatrous litate the purposes of aggrandisement enter- 
altar. Withdrawing into the high lands of tained by Pompey, who offers to receive Aris- 
Judah, the patriotic priest becomes a centre tobulus as a tributary to Rome. That prinee 
of union, and makes head against the com- has not the power to accede, and Pompey be- 
mon enemy. In the midst of success he is sieges Jerusalem. The city is taken. Twelve 
overtaken by death (166 A.C.), when he re- thousand Jews perish in the assault. In the 
signs his power into the hands of his vsliant midst of the scenes of horror the priests per- 
son Judas Maccabnus, who conquers the Sy- form divine service in the sanctuary, tran- 
rian generals sent against him, end takes quiUy expecting death. They are pitilessly 
possession of Jerusalem. He then proceeds slaughtered at die foot of the altar, and their 
to purify the desecrated temple. A new altar blood mingles with that of the victims. ' The 
is constructed, which is inaugurated (164 chief cause of grief is that Pompey, with his 
A.C.). The festival of consecration is oele- staff, penetrates into the holy of holies. By 
brated with much solemnity during eight this conquest Judea again loses its inde- 
days, end a similar festivsl is observed every pendence. The kingdom of the AsmoniBsns 
year in commemoration of the victories of is changed into an ethnarchy tributary to 
the Maccabees. Wi^ the aid of his valiant Bome. Pompey restores to Hyrcanus the 
brothers, Judas repeatedly defeats the Syrians pontificate, but forbids hhn to wear the dia- 
and delivers his country. Feeling, however, dem, and Hyrcanus has only the title of 
the need of aid, he makes proposals of alii- ethnareh (chief of the people). He is to pay 
ance with Bome, which takes the Jews under tribute and to demolish the walls of Jernsa- 
its powerful protection. Jndas perishes in lem. Scaurus, named governor of Syria, is 
war, but the struggle continues till Jonathan charged to watch over Judea. Pompey, re- 
is recognised by Demetrius, king of Syria, turning to Bome, carries with him^ to adom 
and his competitor, Alexander Balas. At his triumph, the ex-king Aristobulus, as 
the feast of Tabemades (1&3 A. C), Jona- well as his two sons, Alexander and Anti- 
than presents himself in the temple clad in gonus. 

the pontifical robes, and opens the series of At the battle of Pharsalia (48 A.C.) the 

great Asmonfloan priests. world receives a new master in Julius Cnsar, 

Jonathan falling into the hands of his who confirms Hyrcanus (II.) both as prince 
enemies, Simeon, his brother, succeeds him, and high-priest, giving him permission to 
when (142 A. C.) the Jewish people com- rebuild the waUs of Jerusslem. The Idn- 
menoe a new era. Simeon, invested with mean Antipater, to whom he is indebted, 
nearly absolute power, uses it with modera- C»sar makes a eitizen of Bome and pro- 
tion, and Judea enjoys some years of peace curator of Judea. The government is es- 
and happiness. Being trescherously slain tabliahed on its ancient footing. Cnsar, 
by his son-in-law, Ptolemy, he is succeeded having appointed his relative Sextus Caosar 
by his son, John Hyrcanus, who completes governor of Syria, sets out lor Pontns, leav- 
ihe deliverance and achieves the entire inde- ing Antipater to pursue his ambitious de- 
pendence of his country. Great religious and signs, who soon becomes the real master 
socisl changes are introduced during the pe- in Padestine. He names Phasael, his eldest 
nod of the Maooabees. The ideas brought son, governor of Jerusalem, and entrusta 

J £ Z 106 J A 

to Herod, his saeond ton, Um •dministntion The plem now bean die name of Serin, 

of Galilee. See Hbbod and BoM^jia. whioh Ilea channinifly on an elevation, from 

JEZEBEL, daughter of Ethhaal, king of whieh the plain ainka on one aide to the aea, 

the Zidoniana, and wife of Ahab, king of on the other to the Jordan. The modem 

laraeL The oondaot of thia woman and that town eonaiati of nothing more than aome 

of her daughter Athalia (aee the article), aoore of haif-fkllen hooaea, with few inhabi- 

eiemplify the depraving effeeta of the foima tanta and litde tiaoe of aneient daya. It ia 

of idola^ by which the Hebrews were aor- foond between Ledaehnn (Megiddo) and 

rounded, and show how needAil it was to Betfaaan. Somewhat aouth of the place ia 

prohibit intermarriage and other means at the fountain rukmui, now AinDschalud, that 

intereonrse between the two. Being herself ia Ooliah'a fountain, probably * the fountain 

a Yotary of Baal and Aatarte, ahe, leading i^eh is in Jeireel,' mentioned in 1 Samuel 

&e weak Ahab as die pleaaed, eanaed him zxiz. 1. 

to ereet a temple in honour of theae idols, Esdraelon waa iirst seen by Bohinson on 

and was Uie true cause of the ill whioh befel an aacent near the modem village Kufeir. 

her huaband (1 Kings xri. 31, My.; zxL 26). ^*^**^»wg its top, he was suddenly gratified 

Her devotion to her paternal superstition with a wide and e^orioua view, extending 

made her a bitter enemy to Hebrewiam, eape- aeroaa the lower hilla to the great plain and 

eially to the prophets who were the source the mountsins of Naaareth beyond. * The 

of its vigour (zviiL 4), and to ElQah, their impreaaion at first almost oveipowered me. 

chief (ziz. 2). The ^orts of this national. Just below us, on the left, was a lovely little 

patriotic, and religious party, Jeaebd, with basin or plain, a recess shut in smong the 

her daughter, who was mairied to Joram, mountains, and separated on the north ih>m 

king of Judah, made every effort to with- the great plain only by a alight ridge. I 

stand, the more so because they seem to looked eagerly for the round aummit of 

have formed the plan of uniting in their Tabor, but it was not visible ; the little 

family the crowns of the two kingdoms. Hemion roee in desert nakedness between. 

The prqject not only failed, but brought and shut out Tabor wholly firom the view, 

ruin on those who were concerned in it (1 Further west, the mountains rose boldly slong 

Kings ziz. 16. 2 Kings is.). Jezebel came the north aide of the great plain, and the 

to a miserable end. When in her extremity precipice S. by E. of Nazareth, to which an 

she had tried to allure the conqoering Jehu, ecclesiastical tradition gives the name o* 

ahe was by his command thrown ftom a die ' Mountain of Precipitation,' waa conspi- 

battlement and ridden over by the victor. ouous, bearing N. E.' 

JEZBEEL (H. ieed of God), or, accord- The plain of Esdraelon is skirted on its 

ing to a later form, Eidraoion and Stradolaf southern side by low hills nmning from 

a Canaanitish city, about ten miles north Jenin (Ginssa of Joeephus) in a N.W. di- 

of Samaria, lying on a hill near the brook reetion, until they unite with an extension 

Kishon, west of Mount Hermon, assigned of the ridge of CarmeL Further aouth, these 

to the tribe Issachar (Josh. xviL 16; xix. hills become higher and form the mountaina 

18), and not to be confounded with another of Samaria. It is this extension of Carmel 

Jezreel, that belonged to Judah (Josh. xv. 06. towards the 8. £., consisting of a low ridge 

1 Sam. XXV. 48). The city lay in a frnitftil or range of hills, which separates the great 

plain — * the plain of Jezreel ' — and was in soudiem plain ^ong the coast from that ot 

consequence, in David's time, one of the Esdraelon. *From the knoU on the west 

most considerable places of Palestine (2 of Jenin,' Bohinson states, * we could look 

Sam. iL 9), and made by Ahab of Israel his out on this part of the plain and the adja- 

residence (1 Kings xviiL 40; zxi. 1). cent southern hills, which sxe very much 

More celebrated than the citj waa the plain lower and less bold than those on the north- 
in the midst of which it lay. This plsin, em side, around Nazareth.' 
watered by the Kishon, stretches in a weat- J0A8H (H. who dnpavn ; A. M. 4672, 
eily direction to the promontory of Carmel, A.O. 876, V. 884), son of Ahasiah, eighth 
and mna eastward along a smidl river by tha king of Judsh, whom Jshosheba, his aunt, 
side of Bethsan to the Jordan. Thua inter- saving firom the murderous hands of Atha- 
secting the whole of Palestine on this ude lish, his grandmother (see Atbaliah), hid 
the river, it is the most considerable plain in a aeeret part of the temple, whence, after 
of the country, being some forty miles long, six years, sad at the age of aeven, he waa 
and between four and thirteen miles broad, raised to the throne of his ftuhers by the 
Travellers agree in praiaing the extraordi- hands of the high -priest Jehoiada, who 
nary Ibrtility and deUghtfal pleaaantneea of availed hims^ of the influence thus gained 
the district, which without culture produces in order to strengthen the interests of reli- 
nearly all the fruits of Palestine. Like other gion. Idolatry was ftxr the most part put 
open spots, favoured by nature, this plain has down, tiie ritual and services of the temple 
been abused by man for purposes of mutual wars revived with splendour, and ao long aa 
destmction, the rather because Judea is a Jehoiada lived, obedience and prosperity 
land of hiUs (Hos. i 4). prevailed. On his death, the M. idolatrotia 




leftTBn gained the upper-htad at eoort, and 
brougfat on a train of disastera which in- 
foWed the eaptnre of the metropoliB by the Sy- 
rians, whom the king unwisely bought ofl^ 
and hia own aaaaasination, in oonaeqaenoe 
of a conspiracy made by servants of his own. 
He was not allowed to be buried in the royal 

Joash, who was a king when he was a 
child, appears to have been a child all the 
time he was a king. Virtaona only while 
led by a strong mind, he oifers an instance 
of that weakness of character which in itself 
is eiBoient only for evil. His infirmity and 
corruption may have mainly risen from the 
infelicity of his position. Nursed in the re* 
cesses of a temple, he was during childhood 
and youth under the control of sacerdotal 
authority, yet flattered and indulged as an 
Oriental monarch. Here was a combination 
of adverse influences which sufficed to un- 
dermine a strong character, and could not 
ful to debase a weak one. Elevated station 
is a peril rather than a privilege, and those 
who hold it are objects of commiseration 
oftener than of envy (1 Chronidea iii. II. 
3 Kings zL 2, uq. 2 Cfaron. zxii. 11, 9tq,), 

JOB {JL ths muek4i^ur§d wian, a name 
that may be symbolical of the subject of the 
book) presents a subject on which, notwith- 
standiog the lengthened inquiriea, learned 
disquiaitions, woidy controversies, and inge- 
nious conjectures which it has occasioned, 
our real knowledge is very limited; while 
the few facts which appear on the surface, 
constituting all that can now be known, 
have in part been misunderstood or co- 
loured under preconceived opinions and 
the prevalence of deaire over conviction. 
The work, in the form of a highly artificial 
didactic poem, relates a portion of the per- 
sonal history of probably an Arab chief or 
emir, who, while in the enjoyment of great 
worldly prosperity, was on a sudden smitten 
with disease, bereaved of his children, and 
stripped of his property. In the consequent 
distress of mind he is visited by friends, 
who, arguing with him on his suiTeringB and 
on the dispensation of weal and woe to man, 
maintain diat his aflUctions are the merited 
punishment of his misdeeds; to which in 
substance Job replies, that he has not by 
any flagrant sins brought these woes on 
himself, and expresses the wish Oiat the 
judgment of the All- Wise could be awarded 
in the case. This judgment is given; for 
God appeara in a whiriwind, and, wiUiout 
taking part in the views of either Job or his 
friends, awakens a sense of his impotence 
and shortsightedness in the heart of Job, 
who in consequence humbles himself under 
ttie mighty hand of his Creator. This eon- 
duct is approved, while the three friends are 
severely condemned. Becompence is made 
to Job. A social feast ensues; after which, 
Job Utsb liO years, in gnat abundance and 

hil^ npate. * He had also seven sons and 
three daughters.' ' And in all the land were 
no women found so fair as the daughters of 
Job* (xUi. 13, Id). 

It thus appears that the Book of Job ia 
in substance a disquisition on the much- 
debated question of the origin of evil. The 
sulgect is discussed with subtle ingenuitf, 
but without eliciting new light ; and the dis- 
cussion is terminated by the intervention of 
God, who, referring the whole matter of hu- 
man suflbring to his Sovereign will, blames 
both partiea alike so far as their debate waa 
concerned, and ia conciliated towards Job 
solely by bis submission. Hence the lesson 
taught la, that sufl^ering is God's ordination 
Ibr his own good pleasure, in tiie endurance 
of which pious acquieaoence alone is ae- 
ceptable in hia sight Men are not to rea- 
son, but to endure; a conclusion not out of 
place in the writings of an Arabian sage, 
but of a different <£araoter from what waa 
taught by him who disclosed to the world 
tiiat God is a Father, and every obedient 
creature a child. 

With the exception of an introduction 
(L ii.) and an epilogue (zlii. 7 — 17), which 
are in prose, the entire book is poetic in 
form end spirit, containing passages of great 
beauty and even grandeur, which the faults 
of a bad translation cannot conceaL The 
whole of the otjurgatory address of the Al- 
mighty is, for both conception snd expres- 
sion, in the highest style of Oriental poetry. 
Other portions of great beauty may be found 
in iv. 12 — 21; iz. 1 — 11 ; xiv. zxviii. xxix.). 
Among several passages of equal excellence 
we give the following, in Noyes' translation : 

' Canst thou bind the iweet Influenoet of the Plel- 

Or looten the bands of Orion t 
Canst thou lead forth Mazsaroth In its season, 
Or guide Arcturus -with his sons f 
Knowest thou the ordinances of the heavens f 
Hast thou appointed their dominion over the 

Canst thou lift up thv voice to the elonds. 
So that abundance of waters will cover theef 
Canst thou send ibrth lightnings r Will they get 
WiU they say to thee, <Here weaie't* 

The extent to which the work is artificial 
in structure can be known only on a careftil 
perusaL Such a perusal strongly suggests 
the view we have given, that the work is a 
didactic poem, not a narrative of actual 
events. Indeed, the piece partakes of a dra- 
matic character, and bears a reaemblance to 
that sternly sublime poem, the *8amsonAgo- 
nistes' of Ifilton. From first to last* action 
characterises the book. First comes a brief 
prefsce in prose, which introduces the readec 
to Job in the enjoyment of his personal and 
social felicity. From the tent of an Arab 
chief we are transported to the courts of 
heaven, and are made auditors of a conver- 
aation between God and Satan, which calla 
to mind the 'MephistopheleB' of Goelhet 

JOB 1( 

B«n, liwralag thxt Mluutt; i* to beU and 
trj the happj emir, m tit brought ID eutb, 
mi mids (o vitnnB the heivj blows b7 
whicb ha ii Ibrown wailing to the groand. 
Thro ws are introdafled M hi* wife, who, 
imtead of giving bim comfort, adTiui him 
to cone Qoi and clis. Smitten, bDwerar, ai 
he ii with a loslhaome diuue, he slill pi«- 
■BiTH big intagrilj, Ihoagb aigoa of the pa- 
lace for whieb he hu sKdil we do not 
dlaoeni (oomp. James t. U, when ' pa- 
tiencs' ahoQlil ba ' endaraDee;' lea 3 Cor. 1, 
6). M«it appear on the aUge three tt-ienda 
wbo, banng heard of Jab's aSietiona, have 
ooms to comfort him. Tbej And bim on 
the OQtaide of hit Unt, 'among the ashes j' 
and haring wept, rem their mantles, and 
■prinUed dail an their heads, take their 
■eat on the gronnd bj hii aide, where they 
remain with him, in silent and sjmpathetio 
mouming, for strsn dajs and ssTan nif^ts. 

8 JOB 

(sxiii. -:-ni*UI.), vlio is noit skDfblij 
brought forward in time and manner, foU 
of pretension, so as to widen and deepen 
the contrast between man and Ood. Elibn 
baring finished his long oralian, which 
leaehea nothing, and the inleresl of the dis- 
cnssion being ralaed to the highest pilch, 
bnman wisdom has done its best, jet is uo 
solndoD gained; a tempest ariaes, and Ood 
bimseU appears. HesTen once more takes 
pait in the grand drama, and having ori- 
ginated, sneneda in eipoandlng the plot. 
Job throws himself prastrale before the Di- 
vine leaoher. No longer carsing his daj,be 
of Omnipolence, and 

ward. The p. 

lal satisfaction, religione 
eipialions, and aooiat jajs, aeenring to the 
inslTDoted chieflatD an old age, poetie in its 
duration as well as its charaoter. 

In this onlline maj be reoognised the es- 
•enlial featares of Eastern poetr;. Thepiece 
is moral, religions, disqnieitional, narratiTe, 
and dramatic — an idealised transcript from 
real lih, intended, not fbi amusement but 
instmDtion, and riling into the highsat re- 
gions of imaginative art. 

While, however, it is in form fletttioos, it 
is full of realitj. The snlgect chosen is a 
real and a verj painftil one. The aentimenla 
uttered, thoagh, as proceeding from several 

not to be cited without eare, nor meived 
without qualiflcaduD, are eipressions of real 
opinions entertained in the daj when thrj 
were ntlered, and still retain genna of im- 
portant and everlasCii^ instmciion. The 

It lesi 

1 of tt 

The pTologne thas being terminated, Job be- 
gins bis lamentation, in a lone of language 
more laodable for its literary than its monl 
excellence. Having eoned the daj of bis 
birth, and so given occasion for opening the 
question of the cause and object of aofiering 
among men, he is answered by Elipbai (iv. 
*.), who receives s reply from Job (vLvii.). 
A second gpeiker, Bildatl, takes up the eab- 
Ject iviii,), whom in return Job addresses 
(ix X.). A third friend, Zophar, speaks 
(li.), and is followed by Job. Thus ends 
tha first act, consisting of a prologue, an 
opening, and three speeches on eaoli side. 
The second act, commencing with so ad- 
dress by Eliphai (it.), goes on to its teimi- 
nalian (xii-) in the aame lorm and manner 
as the prcoediug. Tbs third act, similar in 
the main la the two pieeeding, is bmngbl 
lo ft (umination bj > new speaker, Eliha 

wondertnllj bold and snoceasftit a manner, is 
MW die couateipail of which every thought- 
finds reprodnoed in his own mind 
loned by his own experience. And 
the general tendency of the poem is to ele- 
*att the leadsi's soul, to M it with pions 
•we, anil to strengthen It for the endurance 
of the ills whifji flesh is heir (o. Viewed in 
this light, tfae Book of Job is a solemn Toiee 
out of the depths of a boar antiquity, coming 
from Ikllow-man to na, to bid eaioh fear, love, 
and serve Qod, while we tranquilly await his 
will, and look chiefly (o a hereafter tor the 
solution of present diSotJtics. 

For such a testimony we sbonld be deeply 
gralefnl, and by no means the less so be- 
canae Providenoe has in relation to the book, 
aa if to exemplify its grand lesson, hidden 
from onr fight many things whicb we should 
be glad lo aee, bat in relation to which we 
most not, thnmgh piety more ardent than 
wise, imitate Job's iodisereet fHsods, tai, 
pretending to s knowledge which we do not 
possess, ' speak wickedly for Ood' (xiii. T). 
It may, however, be asked whether there is 
not at the bottom a diflbrenl reality to that 
of which we have spoken, namely, that Job 

JOB 109 JOB 

mind, but a real person. If to, little ie entertained by the Israelites on the eabjeets 

gained nnless we are famished, as ondoubt- treated ofl In particular, the character and 

edly we are not, with an outline of his his- attributes of God are such as are set forth 

tory. Whether or not a name was once in acknowledged Hebrew writings. Besides, 

borne by a human being, or had no other the beauty, strength, and fblness of the laa- 

' loeal habitation ' than the cieative mind of guage, the exactitude of the parallelisms 

a religions poet, is a question of little conse- (see Pobts), and the natural ease of the 

quence to as. If Job really existed, he has dialogue, forbid the idea that the work is a 

left no other traee of himself than we find translation. The union of these two fea- 

in the poem under consideration, possessing tures in the poem, namely, a Hebrew origin 

which we possess all that we can possess, and an Arabian scene, suffice to account for 

whether for information or spiritual profit- its peculiar qualities. True to his conoep- 

ing. It must, however, in truth be said, that tion, the writer puts Job in the midst of 

we have no evidence which proves that a Arab influences, paints Arab manners, and 

man named Job, the subject of this compo- describes Arab scenery. For the same rea- 

sition, once existed. Reference Is, indeed, sou he abstains from introducing facts and 

made to certain Scriptures that mention usages from Hebrew history; and yet, much 

Job(Ezek.xiv. 14. James v. 11), but whether as he throws himself into the mind of an 

as an individual or a character is undeter- Arab chief, he exhibits a degree of religious 

mined. Job, as much as ' Hamlet, Prince culture, and a reflectiveness of mind, which 

of Denmark/ may be an example without could probably be found nowhere save in 

having been a living, breathing man. Palestine. 

The view which makes this book a fiction Who was the author of the book, is as lit- 

finds support in ancient authorities. In the fie known as who was its subject. Beyond 

Talmud it is stated that Job is not an histo- the fact that the first was an Israelite, and 

ileal person, and that the work which bears the second a poetically created emir, nothing 

his name is a tnatchal, or instructive poem, can with certainty be declared. In regard to 

In the Apostolical Constitutions also it is its age, some refer the poem to the times of 

placed among the philosophical and poetical the patriarchs, accounting it tlie oldest book 

books. in the world. This is sufficiently confuted 

The theatre of the events is the land of by the fact, which is exemplified in many 

Uz (Job i. 1), which as a place is mentioned passages (ii. 2; ix. 8, teq.; xii. 17 — 21; xxii. 

in Jerem. xxv. 20. Lam. iv. 21. From the 24 ; zzvill. xxix. 9, 10), that the work dls- 

first passage it appears likely that Us lay plays a tone of thought and a condition of 

between Egypt and Jadah, probably south- civHlsation far more advanced than what 

east from Uie latter. The second passage prevailed in either Arabia or Canaan dnr- 

ahows that Edom and Ui were eonneeted ing the patriarchal period. In particular, 

together. From the wealth that Job pos- one leading idea, namely, that of a legal 

sessed, we must fix Uz in some land capable process and adjudication (v. 8 ; ix. 15 ; xlv. 

of tillage as well as pasturage. Let as turn 8 ; xxiii. 8 — 6), could have been used in the 

to the places whenoe came his fHends. £11- way of popular illustration only in a state of 

phaz was from Teman, a distinguished city society in which the forms of law were custo- 

in Edom (Amos 1. 12). Zophar was from mary and before people's eyes. Such a state 

Naamah, a town in the southern part of did not present itself to the sight of an Is- 

Judah (Joshua xv. 41). Shuah, the native raelite till after David had settled the foiin- 

plaoe of Bildad, belonged to Arabia, since dations of the Mosaic polity on a firm and 

Shuah was a son of Abraham by Keturah lasting basis. It was an essentially He- 

(Oen. xxv. 1, 2; comp. 6). Elihu is called brew belief that happiness was the reward 

the Buzite. Buz, according to Jerem. xxv. of virtue, and that iireligion brought disas- 

88, was in Arabia. A note appended to the ter and misery. This belief never entirely 

version of the Seven^ represents Job as vanished fit>m the Hebrew mind, but pre- 

dwelling at Ausitis, on the borders of Idu- vailed with great force in the early periods 

nusa and Arabia. All these authorities of Hebrew history. Now, in the Book of 

agree in placing the scene of the poem in Job this conviction is controverted, and a 

Arabia; and we seem authorised to declare state of mind is betrayed that betokens a 

that Job was a rich emir belonging to the period of individual and national suffering, 

agricultural Arabians, and dwell in the once in which good and ill happen Indifferently 

well-watered and fruitful district south-east to all (xxL xxiv.). This sUte of feeling 

from the Dead Sea and Mount Seir, between finds its causes in the period of the Babylo- 

Idumsa and the Arabian Desert With this nlsh captivity, the influence of which is visl- 

conelusiou the local implications fouod in Ue in the laiaguage as well as the moral 

the book are in accordance. tone of the poem. That national calamity 

The poem, however, is of Hebrew origin, would incite the mind of pious Israelites 

This appears not only from the language in to the general question herein discnsBcd, 

which it Is written, but from its substantial namely the origin of evil, which was less 

agreement with the thoughts and opiniona likely to be entertained in any period of na* 

JOE no J OH 

IIomI proiperitj. OlMBter begeto niaottoa Tht oeeoion of the delifery of Uiia britf 

M fwU as mftUnehoIy, two states of mind oraelo was a dsTastating and unheard -of 

whieh prerail throoghont the composition, (L 2^ visit of locusts (sea Gbasshopfbb), 

and din>w a sombre shade OTsr its pages, which is set forth mider imagery borrowed 

On Uie whole, therefore, we are disp<Med from an invading army. In the first chapter 

Id look to some period after the forma- the prophet describes this dreadftd calamity, 

tion of die two kingdoms, if not to the pe- The second opens with an iiyonction that» 

riod immediately succeeding the exile, for in conseqoence, a solemn fast should be 

die time when this admirable and highly- obserred, for a yet heavier evil is at hand,-~ 

wrouf^twork proceeded from the pen of a die invasion of the ChaldAansf (iL 20), 

thou^tfdl Israelite, who, with the aid of an which, bonowing his figures from the plague 

imaginary Arab chief exposed to bitter trisl, under which the people were solfering, he 

but saved by his piety and rewsrded for his paints in moat vivid colours (ii. 0). In 

submission, endeavoured to teach his af- the twentieth verse of the chapter, Joel an- 

iieted feUow-patriots how to view and turn nounces deliverance from the foe, and a 

lo account the national and individual dis* period of gladness and religions enthusiasm, 

asters brought on them by the hands of with a special reference (32) to 'the day of 

their Assyrian tyrants. Jehovah,' when persons not of Hebrew blood 

* Job's tears,' so csUed flrom its crystsl- shall be converted to Jehovah. Comp. Acts 

looking fruit, is a pretty grass brought from ii. 16, mf* In the third and last chapter, 

the East Indies. Its connection with the the prophet promises that the captivity of 

Buffering sheikh is not very i^parent The Judii) shall be led captive, and retribution 

names cSf many plants sie linked with pious visited on the enemies of God's people ; 

remembrances, and soihe of them doubtless who, being purified from idolatry, shall in- 

were related to superstition. Tet, since the habit their own land in peace and prosperity. 

Saviour in his instructions saw fit to ally Passages which are at least compatible with 

various objects of nature with sacred thought, the idea that the prophecy was composed at 

and has bid us gather instruction from birds a late period, that is after the exile, may be 

and flowers, there most be a right use of re- found in ii. 18, 28, jty. ; iii. 4---14, 17 

ligious feeling in sssociation with them. (where it appears that foreign armies had 

'WelxMttof eleaxer light; yet u^, ^"^ ^ Jerusalem). The style is forcible 

Hath idenoe in her lofty pride, and graphic — a series of pictures, giving rea- 

Pot evenr legei^ swept away, ^^ to think that the writer drew from what 

Somebett«r, holier truth .uppUedf ^„ ^^^^ ^ ^y^3 (i^ lg_20) or deeply 

Besides Job's tears, we owe to reUgious felt in his heart (ii. 12—17). Henderson 

emotion the * Gross-flower,' ss the Htde milk- (* The Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets,' 

wort was celled, the *8tar of Bethlehem,' p. 91) remarks, « he has no abrupt transi- 

the ' Holy Oak ' (hoUy hock), the * Passion- tions.' If so, his poetic worth would be far 

flower,' &c. inferior to what it is. In truth, Joel has 

JOEL (H. h$ that unlU), one of the twelve many very abrupt transitions ; few writers 

minor Hebrew prophets, standing in the are more bold in flying from point to 

Bible next to Hosea (that is, cecond in the point of the lofty heights of poetry. Tet is 

list). Of his parentage we know nothing, he singularly perspicuous; and in the whole 

except that he was the son of one Pethuel, treatment of his subject displays a cultivated 

who as being merely mentioned may be pre- mind and a well-practised pen; from whieh 

sumed to have been some person of notoriety doubtless proceeded much that has not come 

and distinction. With an entire disregard into our hands. 

of self, the prophet enters on his subject at JOHN, in Greek Joannet, from the He- 
once, and without waiting to communicate brew JoAatuin, * grace of JehoTah,' is the 
particulars respecting himself or his age. name of several persons of the Biblical hia- 
This omission has occasioned great diversitf tory, as John Mark (see Majik), John the 
of opinion as to the epoch when he prophe- Apostle, and John the Baptist 
sied, some placing hhn early, others under The last, receiving his name from the rite 
Manasseh, others as late as the Maccabees, by which he is distinguished, was, according 
All that appears certam is, that the prophet to Luke (i. 5, ss?.), son of a priest by name 
lived at a time when he had before his eyes Zacharias, and of his wifo Elissbeth, also of 
the service of the temple with the officiating the race of Aaron, and a relative of the mo- 
priests in Jerusalem, the capital of Judah, ther of Jesus. They lived in an unnamed 
to which of the two divided kingdoms he city (periiaps Jutta, 89) of Judah. John's 
may have belonged (i. 18, sif. ; ii 16—17), early history is whoUy unknown. We find 
if we suppose him to have lived before the him a abort time befon the beginning of 
exile Oii* 1)» m some have inferred from ChristTs public ministry, engaged ss a teach- 
the fact, that among the enemies (iii. 4, 19) er of the people, endeavouring to produce a 
of his counny he does not mention the morsl renovstion, and prepare the way for 
Assyrians, though it is not impossible he the great spiritual change to be begun and 
maj allude to them (U. 1; comp. iii. 6). carried forward by the Messish in the king^ 

JOH 111 JOH 

dam of God (ICatihew UL 1, teq. Unk i. 4. • lepante ezistenoe» aod may b«f8 bo« of 

Iioke iii. 8, Jty.)* As tmoDg tiie Jews ape- aemoe in bringing minds np to the eondi- 

eial derotement to a moral aim draw atten- tion in whieh tfaey would be leady and dis- 

tion to itaelf by abstinenoe from oidJnary pooed to reeeivB Jeans Christ (Acts z?ilL 

external enjoyments (Jndg. ziiL 0. Zeeh. ftt; six. l,9eq,). 

xiiL 4 ; comp. Numbers yrL 2, t$q.), so John John's oareer, howsrer, was broo^t to a 
the Baptist restricted himself in apparel to sndden, if not prematura tenninatlon. HaT- 
what was absolately requisite, and subsisted ing, with a total disragard of personsl oonse- 
on the spontaneoQS prodnots of the earth, qoenees, reproTed Herod Antipas for living 
Henoe we learn that his ideal stood more on as her hosband with Herodias, the wife of his 
the ground of the Old Testament, and was brother Philip^ who was alive, ttiat potentate, 
more of an outward kind than that of Jesus ; urged by his paramour, fint imprisoned and 
and aooordin^y, John's disciples were more then beheaded the bold and troublesome mo- 
rigid than those of Jesus in observing the ral reformer (Matt xiv. 8, fey. ). Theciroum- 
litoal of the law, with probably ' the tradi- stances connected with John's death an 
tiona of the elden' (Matt ix. 14. Mark iL narrated by Josephus, whose account agrees 
18. Luke V. 88). It was in accordance with in substance with that of the New Testament 
this position that John presented himself as (Antiq. xviiL 5, 2). 

merely the harbinger of the great end long- Thus perished a truly good, and therefore 

expeeted Messiah, and gave utterance to his a great man. His excellence consisted not 

testimony that Jesus, who was not to be pre- so much in his being before his day, as in 

Tented firom receiving baptism at his hands, his fidelity to his own ideal. Though ' the 

in order that he might pay due homage to least in the kingdom of heaven ' was in oon- 

eveiy divine ordinance, was sppointed to die* eeption ' greater than he,' yet, by being faith- 

eharge the dutiea of that high office (Matt ftil to his principles, he was * a burning end 

ilL 16). With a self-denial which bespeaka shining lamp,' in whose light men were long 

the genuineness of his own mission and the ' willing to rqoioe' (John v. 85). 

greatness of his mind, John, disowning the Truth has an attribute of immortality, 

title of Messiah, turned the many eyes that Even still, in Mesopotamia and Persia, a 

were fixed on himself, to the great personage sect is found, known by the name of ' John's 

whose shoe-tie he was not, he said, worthy disdples,' who, however, have added to hia 

to undo. But all his disciples were not ao- principles so many inferior notions, that it 

tuated by the same spirit Probably, having is as difBeult to trace in their creed the ele- 

tasted the sweets of distinction, some of ment which binds them with the Baptist, as 

them became ambitious of being at the head it is to find in a corrupt Christianity the 

of a sect, that, under the credit gained by aimple and sublime religion of Jesus Christ 

the new and popular teacher, they might (see Baptism). 

share, if not surpass, the credit of the some- The time when John received, his call to 

what similar £ssenes. Such an inclination the ministry of repentsnce is defined by 

would unconsciously make them incredulous Luke (iii 1) in these words : ' Now, in the 

of the claims of Jesus, and indisposed to fifteenth year of Ae reign of Tiberius Gnsar 

join his ranks. Hence John might well be (Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, 

desirous of placing them in the way of re- and Herod being tetrareh of Oalilee, snd his 

oeiving firesh and constraining evidence of brother Philip tetrareh of Ituroa end of the 

the Messiahahip of Jesus. Nor is it impos- region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the te- 

sible, considering the Jewish complexion of trareh of Abilene, Annas and Caiaphas being 

John's riews, that he might, when cast into the high-prieste), die word of God came unto 

prison by Herod, and felt himself in dsnger John in the wilderness.' This cluster of dates 

of his life, and when, therefore, he would is very important. No fabricator would have 

look on the prospeote of Jesus with a dark* ventured on such a stotement Only one 

Mied eye, begin himself to doubt whether who wrote near the time, and was well ae- 

or not Jesus was realising his expectations quainted widi the political condition of Pa- 

and proving the long-expected Prince. That lestine and ite relation to the Boman empire, 

John's ideas of the Messiah were of a Jewish could have been free from serious erron. 

east may be iaJenred from what has been The leading definition of time is the fif- 

said, as well as from Ae express declara- teenth year of Tiberius. Hence we learn 

tion of our Lord (Matthew xi. 11). These by dear implication that the event spoken 

eonsiderationa combined afibrd a sufficient of took place during the period of the Roman 

reason why John, i^m his prison, sent die- dominion over Judea. To mark time by the 

ciples to inquire whether or not Jesus was reigns of a foreign potentate, is an admission 

in truth the Messiah (Matt xi. 8. Luke vii. of his sovereignty and of the wide spread of 

10). The answer whieh our Lord gave, hia influence. Augustus died on &e 10th 

how satiafaotoiy soever it mdy be now, was August, A.U. 767 (Sueton. Octav. 100) ; so 

probably of too high and apiritnal a oharae- that the fifteenth year of his successor, Tibe- 

ter to remove all doubt Certainly John's rius, lies between 10th Aug. 781, and the same 

adMOloootiniudfalteast in part, to maintain time in 782. Henoe we see that the fifteenth 

J OH 112 J OH 

year of Tiberias ftdlflwithin the period of the When these views and statements htm 
life of Christ (see Jbsus Chbist). Equally been put together, it will be found that eaeh 
do the other dates bear a general corre- of the particular definitions of time given 
spondenoe with the facts and implications by Luke corresponds with historical facts, 
of the gospel history. Pilate, under whom and the whole is in accordance with other 
Jesus died, was removed tram his post be- chronological data that fix the life and min- 
fore the Passover, 789 A. U., after he had istry of Jesus as ensuing immediately after 
held the office ten years, that is from the the death of Herod the Great, and in the 
end of 778, or the beginning of 779, to 789 reigns of Augustus and Tiberius. If, how- 
(Joseph. Antiq. zviiL 4, 2). His ten years ever, fh>m this general view we attempt to 
of rule embraces the period of John's and descend into particulars, and to fix the exact 
Christ's ministry. Herod (Antipas) received year of the birth of either John or Jesus, wa 
his tetrarchy after the death of his father encounter great, if not insurmountable, diffl- 
Herod (Nisan 750), and was dispossessed culties. See Jbsus Chbist. 
in the autumn of 792 (Antiq. xviiL 7, 2). JOHN (H.) was the son of Zebedee 
FhiUp entered on his government on the and Salome,- and younger brother of the 
death of Herod the Great (Antiq. xvii. 8), apostle James the Elder, who suffered mar- 
aud died in the twentieth year of Tiberius tyrdom under Herod Agrippa. His father 
(786). Both Herod Antipas and Philip was a Galilean fisherman on the sea of 
ruled during the whole time of our Lord's Gennesareth. The ancients have sometimes 
public ministry. In regard to Lysanias taken a pleasure in describing the family of 
there is a difficulty, since the Lysanias John as very lowly and indigent; but the 
whom Josephus mentions as having been lake of Gennesareth abounded in fish, and 
deposed by the intrigues of Cleopatra, lived ftimished those who dwelt on ita shores 
some sixty years before the time defined by with ample means for canying xm a flou- 
Luke. It appears, however, that a part of rishing trade, nor was the business itself 
his territory was not given by Antony to either despised or unproductive. As Zebe- 
that selfish woman. This part remained to dee employed hired servanta as well as his 
Lysanias, whose dynasty seems to have con- own sons (Mark i. 20) ; as these sons appear 
tinned in the' government of it; to which to have been partners in the same pursuit 
Augustus, having conquered Antony, and, with Simon Peter; as John's mother, Salome, 
as master of the East, gained control over was subsequently one of the Galilean wo- 
the country held by Cleopatra, added that men who accompanied Jesus and ministered 
previously abstracted portion. The land unto him of their substance ; as Salome at 
came under the power of Herod the Great, a later period is seen among the females 
at whose death the Romans, jealous of large who, after the death of Jesus, purchased 
empires, made It one of the four governments precious spices (Mark xvi. 1) in order to 
into which Herod's dominions were distrl- embalm his body ; as, finally, John himself 
bated. Abilene, which appears to have been intimates that he possessed a property, ' his 
previously tributary to Herod, though under own home' (John xix. 20, 27), into which 
its own prince or his representative, now he received the mother of our Lord, entrusted 
acquired a kind of national independence, to his care by his dying friend, — we seem 
' owning no other master than the emperor warranted in concluding that the family of 
of Home. This representation rests on a Zebedee belonged to the substantial class of 
combination of historical particulars into the Galilean fishezmen (John L 86, $tq.). 
exposition of which we cannot here enter. The apocryphal writings represent the 
But when taken in union with the re- family of John as nearly related to that of 
marks already made in the article Abilsbb, Jesus. According to some, Salome was the 
they may serve to make it at least probable daughter of Joseph by a previous marriage ; 
that Luke, whose accuracy we have ascer- according to others, she was his first wif^. 
tained in ihe three previous cases, is not in Some relationship may have existed between 
error in regard to the tetrarch Lysanias. the two families, since the ambitious re- 
Such a name, certainly, was found by Po- qnest of Salome for her sons, that one might 
cocke inscribed on a Boric temple at Abila, sit on the right and the other on the left 
fifteen miles from Damascus, and is said to hand of Jesus in his kingdom, is on this 
be still in existence on a coin. supposition more easily explained, and we 
Ths last definition of time is this—-' An* thus better understand how it was that Sa- 
naa and Caiaphas being the high-priests.* lome belonged to the companions of Christ, 
Beferring to the articles on these two names, and that Jesus committed his mother to 
we add, that the term high or chief priest was John's special care after his death, 
not peculiar to the personage who actually The family of John appears to have be- 
held the office, since it is used in the plural longed to those who, through the usual ao- 
(Matt. xxviL 1. Mark xv. I. Lukexxii.66), quaintance with the Old Testament writings 
and appears to have been borne especially which the instructions given in the syna- 
by the nasi, or president, of the Sanhedrim gogues communicated, partook in the hopes 
(Acta iv. 6, ; ?. 17^ 21, 24, 27 ; xxiii. 2--^). of the age in relation to the Messiah with 

J OH 113 JOB 

peculiar depth and force. Of the father we moiintaiii, none but John, James, and Peter 

know nothing; bat Salome, either before or were witnesses (Matt. zrii. 1). These three 

alter her husband's death, gave up her time also are thej who are with Jesus when, in the 

and substance to the furtherance of the aims garden of Gethsemane, he removed himself 

of Christ, and doubtless had no small in- from the rest, and ' began to be sore amazed 

fluenee in awakening and sustaining in the and exceeding sorrowed unto death ' (Matt 

mind of her sons their attachment to his zzvi. 87). In agreement with the prefer- 

sacred cause. once which Jesus appears to have manifested 

John appears to have attached himself to for him, he names himself in his gospel as 

the cause of the Baptist, the foreruuner of * the disciple whom Jesus loved ' (John xiii. 

Christ, being probably present when the 28). This was a purely personal attachment 

Baptist gave his testimony to Jesus and pro- He who loved all was not, as a real and true 

claimed him as the Lamb of God. Soon man, ashamed to love with special regard 

after this meeting, Jesus expressly called that one among his disciples whose character 

John and his brother, with Peter and An- was least unlike his own. John at the last 

drew, their companions, while engaged in meal lay on the bosom of bis Lord. The 

their calling, to the great work of following rest, even Peter himself, treated him as the 

him as learners and teachers of the gospel, object of their Master*s special confidence. 

According to Luke, this call took place be- In the hour of death, Jesus consigned his 

fore the Lord had yet performed a single bereaved mother to John as to a friend who 

miracle. But tlie mind of John had been would behave towards her as a child. John 

prepared alike by the influence of his mo- repaid this love and confidence by special 

ther, by the general tenor of the preaching fidelity and attachment He may, indeed, 

of the Baptist, and by the explicit testimony with the others, have fled at the apprehen- 

which the Baptist bore to the Messiahship sion of Jesus. He is nothing higher than 

of JesuSk One who had been a disciple of a weak human friend. But he soon reco- 

ihe harbinger of the Christ would easily be- vered himself, and, together with Peter, fol* 

come a disciple of the Lord himself. lowed his Lord up the road of sorrow to 

When John began to follow Christ he the palace of the high-priest, and was, as it 

must have been very young. It seems to appeals, a constant witness of the last sad 

have formed a part of our Lord's plan to events. We find him with the women and 

choose only young persons for his apostles the mother of Jesus beneath the cross ; and 

— such as were passing from youth into after the death of Jesus, he it was who, at 

manhood. Accordingly John, like the rest the information of Mary Magdalene that the 

of the apostles, presents a youthftil and im- eorpse of her beloved Loid had been re- 

pressible disposition, corrupted by no rab- moved, hastened to the tomb, together with 

binical or sectarian erudition. But both he Peter, whom, impelled by the ardour of his 

and the rest have their minds pre-ocoupied affection, he outran. The history of the ap- 

by the popular pr<gudices of the day. The pearances of the risen Saviour which we 

school of the Baptist was only preparatory, find in John xxL is not without difficulties ; 

It gave no perfect understanding of the New but if it has any truth it is this, that the in- 

Dispensation. Accordingly, constant travel- timate personal relation of Jesus with his 

ling with Christ was the necessary discipline favourite scholar remained after his resor- 

for the enlightenment and cultivation of the rection. 

aiK>stle's mind. As he was by nature more The special friendship of Jesus for John 
susceptible than the rest of his companions, directs towards the apostle a special regard, 
and as his entire being stood nearer than This regard has its truth and its illusion, 
theirs to his Master, so also the spirit of Who is not moved in thinking of the fa- 
Christ required from him, as from diem, a vourite disciple, the friend of the Lord ? 
new birth — that be should die unto his for- We feel that we cannot conceive of him as 
mer life, and live again in a new and better devoid of distinguished qualities both of 
state of moral existence. The special cir- mind and heart This is well ; but let us 
cumstanoes which marked and promoted guard against pictures of the fancy in histo- 
thls great change in the apostle are not on rioal events. If there is any value in study- 
record; but, besides the quickening influ- ing the character of him whom Jesus loved, 
ence in general of his daily intercourse with it must be impoitant to know with accuracy 
Jesus, he, in conjunction with Peter and his what were the grounds on which that attach- 
brother, was honoured by our Lord with ment rested. 

nearer intimacy and special confidence, and It was the friendship of a teacher for his 

thus became witnesses of the most remark- disciple. For this a pure disposition, a 
able events and circumstances in the life of truthfal soul, sufficed. But what in tiiis 

die Saviour. He only, with Peter and his particular distinguished John before the 

brother, is present when Jesus recalled Jai- rest, even before Peter and his brother ? 
rus' dauf^ter to life (Luke viii. 51). Of Peter had so decided a fitness for the work 

the wonderful and mysterious transfigura- of an apostle, that Jesus declared he would 
tion which our Lord underwent on the build his church on him. But we find no 

Vol. n. H 

J OH 114 JOH 

trMt of a penonal friendahip on the ptat of this tnd similar expressions of inopetnosity, 
our Lord towards him. Any mere ontward that Christ gave to the sons of Zebedee the 
and corporeal beaaty cannot haye enchained snmame of Boanerges — sons of thunder 
the holj one of God, who looked on the (Mark iii. 17). It was John, in company 
heart and knew what was in man. In the with other disciples, who came to Jesus de- 
writings of John, we mesn particularly his elaring he had hindered a man who, not being 
Gospel and his First Epistle, there is seen a disciple of Jesus, was yet casting out de- 
a certain spirituality and depth of emotion, mons in the name of Christ. What was his 
a religious ezcellenoe, which certainly does aim ? He considered that he had deserved 
not exclude intellectnal activity and moral commendation. But so narrow and severe 
strength, and yet is different from these qua- a spirit drew nothing bat blame from our 
lities. Such a character implies the oontl- Loid. EquaUy characteristic is the request, 
nual presence of religions ideas in the mind, preferred indeed by his mother, but doubt- 
and Uie steady appUcation of the spirit to less shared in by her sons, that Jesus, when 
religious thoughts. The religious element seated on his throne of power, should raise 
predominated in the chancter of John. John and James to the highest offices he 
This he had received as a gift from nature, would have to bestow. You see the aspiring 
and to this, as cultivated and expanded by and ambitious eagerness of their souls. How 
himself, he owed the peculiar complexion early this character may have shewn itself 
of his character. We may dius understand in John we know not— probably in his youth, 
how it was that Jesus, the founder of a new since it is in keeping with the impetuosity 
religion, felt himself specially drawn towards of his temperament, as well as with his early 
the i^stle John. Oihers might be more convictions. Beyond a question this youth- 
practical, more dear, more powerftil, but fol vehemence was softened and ennobled, 
John's depth of soul was possessed by no in process of time, through the power of 
one else. Thus did he become the friend Christian love. But even at a later period 
of Christ But we must not forget that the mild and tender qualities of the Chris- 
John, like all his fellows, was a sinftal, im- tian character show themselTes much less 
perfect man, and needed the influence of than that deep and fiery love which, con- 
God's Spirit in order to pnriiy and elinoble nected with a lively conviction of the truth 
his soul. Like the rest of the qpostles, he of the gospel, led him to assert its daims 
gradually and dowly freed himself from the and maintain its prindples with no small 
prejudices of his time and nation. He him- keenness, if not severity, 
self confesses that often he did not compre- After the ascension, John almost disap- 
hend the Lord ; and only by degrees, and pears among the rest of the apostles ; and in 
when his mind had been raised into a higher attemptuig to paint his character in his his- 
sphere of thought, did he scixe the meaning tory, we are thus relieved from entering as we 
and comprehend die scope of the words and have hitherto done into details, since such as 
works of Christ He appears to have be- the Scriptures present add very little to what 
longed to that dass of character in whom we have previoudy learnt of him (Actsi. 13 ; 
the spirit of love has the more to contend Iii. 4, 11; iv. 18, 19; viiL 14, 25). Enough, 
with a natural vehemence, the deeper and however, is known to show that he was ac- 
the warmer it is. The softness and gentle- tive and earnest in endeavouring, conjointly 
ness which have been usually ascribed to with the other apostles, to plant Christianity 
him, though without spedal evidence of the in the world. And he is expressly men- 
existence of these ami^e qualities, lay more tioned by Paul, in his letter to die Gdatians, 
in the generd principle of Christian love as being a pillar of the churdi. 'James, 
which he had seised with specid depth and Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pil- 
truth, than in his own indiridud tempera- lars' (ii. 9). For a long time he remained 
ment By nature John appears to have been at Jerusdem ; and during his stay in the 
impetuous and choleric. When, on one oo- eit^, while he laboured fbr the friitherance 
casion, the inhabitants of a certain Sama- of the gospel, he, in common with Peter and 
ritan village were unwilling to reoeive his James, scrupulously observed the Mosaic 
Master, he, with James his brother, broke law. At length came the destruction of Je- 
out angrily in these words : ' Lord, wilt thou rusdem by &e Boman army, and then the 
that we command fire to come down from apostles held themselves fireed by Providence 
heaven and consume them, even as Elias firom dl regard to the temple worship, with 
did V (Luke ix. 04). On which Christ re« its ritnd observances; and on that occasion, 
plied, rebuking them in his own gentle man- if not before, John left the holy city never to 
ner — ^*Ye know not what spirit ye are of; for retcun. Asia Minor was the sphere which 
the Son of Man is come not to destroy men's he chose for tiie exercise of his apostolic 
lives, but to save them.' And this event ftmctions during the remainder of his life, 
took place, not in the commencement of his In Ephesus and its vicinitf John is re* 
disciplediip, but on occasion of the Lord's lated to have laboured till the reign of the 
last journey to Jerusdem. Nor is it dtoge- emperor Tr^an, who assumed the puiple in 
ther improbdde that it was in refSnenee to A. D. 96. The death of the apostle is fixed 

JOH 115 JOH 

hy Ensebiiu in A. D. 100. The prolosga- that wm lost, old m fa« wb, ahmmiiiy no 

tion of his life is of special importance for troahle or danger. He found the object of 

the eanse of the gospel, since he connects his search, indaced him to quit his evil com- 

Jesos and his times with the commencement panions, uid, bj the gentle persuasions of 

of the seoond century, when witnesses begin Christian lore, brought him to sincere re- 

to aboond, and when the religion of Jesos pentanee and a new life in communion with 

Is from heathen writers known to hare had a Christian church. To what an extent 

a firm footing in the world. John's ardent temperament becsme cooled 

There appears a proTidential wisdom in at the last, and how gentle and tender hia 
this employment of John's latter days; for spirit was, is shown also in another tradition 
the Asiatio ehuiches were not only the most which we owe to ecdesiaatical history, and 
Tigoroua and influential, but also most e>- which beyond a doubt conreys to us the im- 
posed to danger, and therefore required die piession that his churacter and virtues left 
immediate influenoe of an apostle'a presenoe in the memory of the early church. In his 
and teaching. Special danger aocmed to old age, when, through the weight of years, 
this part of the Christian church ttom. the he could appear in the temple of public wor- 
preTalence of opinions that prepared the way ship only when borne by the pious hands of 
for the system which at a later period le- his disciples, and was no longer in a oondi- 
oeiTcd the name of Gnosticism, the essence tion to give utterance to a continued dis- 
of which oonsisting in a certain ffJae and oourse, he was wont to say on all occasions 
aflbeted spiritnality, denied great historical nothing but these words — ' Little children, 
fiusts which lay at the foundation of the gos- love one another.' At last some persons, 
pel, such as the real humanity of Jesus being dissatisfied at always hearing the 
Christ; and in a vain attempt to do honour same things aaked him — * Master, why sayest 
to the Sariour, and bring his religion into thou always this ?* He answered, * Because 
harmony with a fancied superior knowledge it is the command of the Lord ; and when 
and aspiring philosophy, undermined the this is done, it is enough.' 
ground on which it stood, and endangered How immeasurably inferior to Jesus hlm- 
its safety and continuance. These were self do the least imperfect of his disciples 
eiTors which Paul had laboured to expose^ appear when placed side by side with iLeir 
but which suirived the efforts of both apoa* Master ! Who can suppose that they in- 
ties, beooming eyen more gross and more vented that excellence of his which they 
baneful when their living voice could no were unable not only to reach, but even to 
longer utter its fSuthfol warnings. See Co- conceive t How is it^ except they had the 
LossiAjra, Efhbslajts, PhiXiOsopht. reality before their eyes, that they have drawn 

Of John's manner of life in this part of so high, so holy, so consistent, a truly per- 

the church we possess fow particulars that feet character t 

deserve relianoe. It is related of him that. And is not the sacred personage whom 
finding himself on one oeoaston in a public they have thus unconsciously portrayed 
bath with the heretio Cerinthus, he inune- and faithfully set before our mind's eye, 
diately quitted the place lest the building worthy of our devout reverence, our ardent 
should fiU on them, as he considered Cerin- gratitude, our stoadfisst snd unwavering obe- 
thms an enemy to die truth; a stoiy which dienee 7 Must he not be allowed to daia 
is more congruent with the character of the our homage and deserve our love, who clearly 
apostle in Us younger days, and migf poa- appears to have had a divine origin and to 
aibly have grown out of lus ill-judged seal speak to us the truth of God, from the sim- 
in wishing to invoke the anger of hea* pie fact that he stands so far above all the 
Ten on the inhospitable Samaritans. More characteni with which he ie surrounded in 
worthy of beliei^ more charaoteristie of the the historical picture t Yes ; not clearer is 
aged apoaile^ is another narrative. On one it that James, John, and Peter, those pillars 
occasion, behig engaged in hia apostolic du- of the church, were, with all their virtues, 
ties, he saw a young man distinguished for ordinary men, than that Jesus, who was so 
bodily and mental endowments, whom, on much greater than they all, stands on a 
leaving the place, he commended to the higher platform of moral being, and exe- 
speeial care and oversight of the biahop. cntes ftanctions divine no less in their nature 
At first, no pains were spared to inform the than they are ui their tendenoiea. 
mind and enrich the soul of thia pupil; but JOHN, THE GOSPEL OF, stands as the 
when he had undergone baptism, the bishop fourth historical narrative in the present 
utterly neglected him. In consequence, the arrangement of the New Testament. Like 
youth became more and more estranged its predecessors, this Scripture is rather an 
from the Christian life, foil a prey to temp- argument than a history. Certainly, it is a 
tadon, became chief of a band of robbers, history only in virtue of its being an argu- 
all of whom he outdid in bloodthirsty snd ment If we term it an argumentetive bio- 
cruel deeda. After some time John returned, graphical sketch, we shall not be far distant 
learnt the sad fate of his favourite youth, ttom a correct description. And if we have 
and at once set out to aeek and save him learnt that the argumentetive element pre- 


dnmitulM in thii gospel u wall u in the 
otliera, wt ihill htva mu«d to exp«e( Ihit 
miDaU and anlir« ■grsaninil iu fkot, dauilt, 
and eluoiiDlog;, which htrt beco looked for 

in tho goipcli, and die piorad abienae of 
which hw foiiiiihed modem unbelief with 
ita chief waaponi of Mfanlt. False HBiimp- 
tlona, leading of neeeni^ lo falie oooolu- 
Bioua, hiTs in thia cms eaiued enemiea to 
find difttcnltiev where none exiatad, and oo- 
OBiioned In the minda of fKenda fean even 
for the tiltty of the foandationa <A the 

The ^oper wkj, howivar, to Moerlain 
what in ualb tfaii writing slaima to be and 
i«, we hold to ba, a eantol inTeatlgatioa of 
its eontenta. Some reanlta of aneh as in- 
qoiij an hen ael down. 

The goipel «aa written b; an ere-witnAaa 
and companion of Jeena. Thna the aalhor 
■peaks of hsTing seen the Ohiial (L U), and 
hsTing aem and borne reeord of the laaae of 
blood and water from (he pisioed side of 
JeniB (xii. 85. See OBTrcifiiios). 

The writer knows the exact hour, pe- 
riod of the di7 and spot at which sventa 
took plaoe, — ■ species of knowledge whieh 
Done bnl an eje-wltneas ooald well bave 
posseased. Aecordinglf, John's two diaci- 
ples baring been desoribed as abiding with 
Jasas that daj, the writ«i in eiplanatioa of 
the fact Bubjoins, ' tor It was abont the tenth 
boor,' or four in the afternoon (L S9. See 
*ii. M; riiL SO; I. 32,40; xLe, 18; lU. 

16 J OH 

Remarks an naile which weai die q^ear* 
snee of haTing fallen from one who had 
•aeh knowledge aa only an ere-witnese and 
tntnialer of the word eonld hare posseaaed 
(t. 18 j ri. 60, 64,66; »li. fl;Tiii.30, 37; 
xtUL 3, 9; comp. ziil. 80. HatL xiri. SI. 
John XTiiL IS, 20 ; lU. 5, 38, 42 ; a. 3, 1, 
8—10,14—18). Tho whole nai™a« regMd- 
fng the famil; of Laianu bespeaks the pen 
of one who aaw that of which ha wrote, so 
mhinle, oicoiimstantiBl, and nalaboared an 
thaiemarka (iL; zii. 1—11; espeoiallT il. 
11, 38—40). The daaeription in ij. 80, 
•n the worda of one who waa wldi Jesos 
when Ihaj fell from his lips. 

The aothor of the gospel waa one of Iha 
Hebrew noa. Thia appears from hia de- 
aerihlag As Word aa dwelling ' among Jtaf 
oomp. " Wi beheld hia glorj' (L 14) ; from 
hia speaking of the sacred writings of the 
Hebrewi as ^mplj ' the Boriptuna,' and re- 
ferring to thero as of aalhorilr in Telioion 
(t. 89). 

That flie anihoi was a Jew appears from 
bis famillaril; with Jewish historr, eostoma 
and manneia. The s^a of argiimenl, aa 
deaignsd for men of heathen blood, la tti 
leaa HAraistio than that of Matthew. Tat 
■he iulhiencs of Jewish birth and adaeation 
fails not to appear In this particnUr, ss may 
be seen En ail. 97 — 41, which is pecoliariT 
■coordant wllh the mode of reasoning onr- 
nnt among the Jews in the first ctabjrj. 
Comp. iiiiL 9,' xii. 86, ST. 

The gospel was not intsnded for Jews, 
and, if not lor Jews, it mnst hare been spe- 
oially addressed to persons of heathen origin, 
whalerer general reception it ni^i seek or 
find. The tmlh of this remark appears from 
maaj passiges ; as from the foRnsl manner 
in which iotai the Baptist ia broa^t on the 
scene — ■ There was a man sent from God 
whose name was John' (comp. ix. 11); 

qnired for Jews, who well biew who ' John 
Ihs Baptist' (oomp. Hattbaw iii. 1} was. 
■ John the Bqitist ' was the Jewish deaetip- 
tion of the foreronner of Christ. In this 
^spel, the local tenn Bqitist ii 

and we hue him 


man sent born Ood.' To the s 

being ' bejond Jordan ; ' in patting down 
which the writer eontemplatad non-Jewjgh 
leadera (i. 28). Hebrew words a 
lated intoOreek, as for Heathen n 
'rabbi' rendered 'master,' rath 
(i.38);'Hes8ias,' the Jewish te 
tatedinto ' Christ;' the Greek (42) ' i 
whlob is bj tnuislstion ' Fetros,' I'ster, a 
atone (13). When Philip is inlrodaoed, iha 
writn, as having foreigners in Tiew, add*, 
■ »ow Philip was of Bethsaida, the dtj of 
Andraw and Peter,' irtiohad jnit befon been 
mimtioned (44). Cana is not nwrelj msn- 
titMied, but the readei is informed that it ii 

JOH 117 J OH 

in Oalilee (u. 1; oomp. Ui. 38). So we mentioned the incident (eomp. xii. 8), he 

hftTe *• ci^ of Samaria which is called lets his readers know what Maiy he means, 

Syohar' (It. 5) ; * &e sea of Galilee, which by saying it was she who anointed the Lord 

is the sea of Tiberias' (vi. 1); *the pass- with ointment (xi 2; see Matt zzTi. 7). The 

over' is characterised as 'a feast of the narrative regaridlng the few last hours of onr 

Jews,' a piece of information which could Lord's life could scarcely have come from 

not have been meant for men of Hebrew any one but an eye-witness of the events* 

blood (t1. 4. See also ix. 7; xix. 13, 17). and an auditor of the lengthened discourse, 

* The Jews ' are spoken of in a manner there recorded. We give references to parts 

which shows that the writer, if a Jew, wrote deserving special attention (xiii. 4 — 17, 2], 

for other than Jewish readers. At the feast 28, 24—80, 31 — 36 ; xvL 19 ; xvii. xviii.). 

at Cana the water-pots were set * after tht The passage found in x. 1 — 8, may have 

manner of tht funfying tf the Jewt* (ii. 6V been penned in a state of things when the 

In the same way and to the same effect is many false Christs predicted by Jesus 

the record, ' the Jews' passover was at hand' (Matthew xxiv. 23 — 28) had already oome 

(13). Repeatedly ' the Jews * are spoken of (1 John iv. 3), and, by the dissensions 

so as to indicate tiiat the contemplated read- ihej occasionec^ recaUed vividly to the wri- 

ers were not Jews (18, 20 ; iiL 1 ; v. 1 ; vL tei's mind what his Master had said on the 

02 ; vii. 2 ; viii. 22 ; xL 19). point Whence we are led to the condnsion 

To the same effect is the pool at Jerusa- that tfie gospel was not composed till a late 

lem spoken of ' as called, in the Hebrew era in the first century, 

tongue, Bethesda' (v. 2). The passages The passage in v. 2, 'There is at Jemsa- 

which exhibit the manner in which the lem a pool,' seems, indeed, to imply that 

Jews are spoken of suggest the Idea that Jerusalem stUl stood when these wo^s were 

the writer, in so speaking of them, had in penned; but (comp. v. 1, *was') the pool 

his mind a contrast with the disciples or remained after the destruction of the city, 

the Christians. This antithesis, which runs If even these words were penned while yet 

throughout the writing, confirms the opi- the city was undestroyed, it does not fol- 

niou that it was originally intended for the low that the whole gospel was composed at 

church as much as for the heathen world. the same time ; and the statement in v. 4, 

Explanatory remarks ot a general nature that ' an angel went down at a certain sea- 
are interposed, showing that &ie gospel was son,' supports the late composition of the 
designed for persons of heathen lineage, and gospel. 

rendering it probable that it was composed The glorification of Jesus is identified 

long after the recorded events. See iL 21, with bis sufferings, death, and resurrection. 

22, 24, 20; iiL 28, 'wm much vrater;' 24; This was a view which could not be taken 

iv. 2, 8, 9 ; xviii. 14, 40. Decisive is the while his disciples, full of Jewish notions, 

passage describing the descent of an angel understood not (xii. 16) the true import of 

as the cause of the curative efficacy of Uie events in their Master's history, and, through 

Pool of Bethesda; which certainly proves the want of pure spiritual affections, looked 

one of two things, namely, either that the from the cross as from the Messiah's humi- 

anthor wrote for pagans or men of a later liation, to his contemplated throne in Jeru- 

day Uian the fall of Jerusalem (v. 4). salem, as the scene of his glory. The writer 

In xL 18 it is said, * Bethany was nigh of our gospel had been led by evento (xiv. 

nnto Jerusalem, about fifteen furlongs off.' 26) beyond this Jewish view, and saw that 

This implies that the gospel was not written the real glory of Jesus was in bumbling him- 

for Jews, nor probably till after Bethany had self to death, even the death of the erosa 

suffered, at the hands of the Romans, the (xii. 16, 23, 28). To the same effect is 

same fate as Jerusalem itself. it that the period of judgment is fixed. 

The way in iriiich the family of Bethany not in the near or the remote future, but in 

is spoken of gives countenance to the idea the hour of Chrislfs passion (xiL 81). This 

that the author had a view to Christians fact also ftimishes evidence that the gospel 

(xL). It is deemed enough to characterise could not have been composed after the first 

Lazarus as of Bethany, and Bethany itself oentoiy, when the opinion began to prevail 

is described as 'the town of Maiy and her that < the judgment' was not to be expected 

sister Martha.' Unless we have here the till some distant epoch, termed ' the end of 

error of explaining the unknown by the the world.' 

more unknown, Mary and Martha were per- Some parts of ' the Gospel according to 

sons with whom the intended readers of this Samt John' seem as if penned expressly as 

Scripture were well acquainted. Who, then, supplementary to the other evangelical nar- 

but Christian disciples could they be t For ratives. For instance, the three synoptical 

these names could not have become oele- gospels relate the enthusiastic reception 

brated among pagans. The same passage which Jesus received frt>m the people when 

also shows that the writer supposes his he approached Jerusalem for the last time 

readers acquainted with the general facts ot (Matthew xxi. Luke xix. 29. Mark xi.), bnt 

the gospel histoiy; for witlutut having yet they report nothing as to the immediate 

JOH 118 JOH 

ctaie of this weloome. Matthew, indeed, the mir of eelf-pnise. The aetaal msnner 

teDflw (10,11) thftt < an the city was moved,' of writixig suffices to fix the aathonhip of 

and iluik the mnltitade said, ' This is Jesus, the gospel on < the beloved disciple.' An 

tiie prophet of Galilee ;' but how they came ezpxess statement to the same effect appears 

by this ooBvlction is teft nnezplained, and to be made by the writer in zzi. 24; comp. 

the explanation is not made more easy by 20. Hence we arrive at the important con- 

the Iket that Matthew eonfines his account elusion that the gospel is the work of a com- 

pravions to this era, to i^at Jesus had said panion and intimate friend of Jesus. What 

and done in the northern part of the land, ms name was is a question of less moment 

J<rfm, however, makes all dear, by expressly But of the companions of Jesus csn we leam 

assigning as the cause, the raising of Laza- which was the beloved disciple? Three of 

ruM fnm the dead; and does this in so them there were who were honoured with 

marked a mamwr as to suggest the idea that special intimacy. These were Peter, James, 

he did it with express xelinenoe to omissions and John (Matt xvii. 1). Peter cannot be 

on tfie part of tide previous evangelists (xiL ' the beloved disciple,' fbr he stands with 

10 — ^19, partieulaily 12, 17, 18). A similar and in contradistinction to him in passages 

idea is suggested hf the fact, that large por- already cited. James snd John are spoken 

lions of tills gospel have nothing correspond- of in this gospel in the same anonymous 

ing to them in die other evangelists. manner, as simply ' the sons of Zebedee ' 

If we put together the several conclusions (xxL 2). This confirms our previous con- 
to which we have been led, we are justified elusion. Now, James was slain a few years 
in making the following statement : The after the crucifixion (A.D. 44, Acts xiL 2), 
gospel which bears in its title the name of and could not, therefore, have written this 
Jc^n, was written by an eye-witness and gospel, which is of a much later date; whence 
oompanion of Jesus, or an apostle, who was it ensues that John was its author. The 
by birth a Jew, and wrote the piece with a conclusion is confirmed by the fact that 
special view to persons of psgan origin, not John and James were of an affectionate na- 
without a refbrenee to professed Christians, tore, as appears from their being always 
ftt sn advanced era in die first century, and mentioned together in the gospels ; thus, 
not improbably with other gospels before ' James, and John his brother' (Matt xviLl), 
him which he may have wished to supple- 'James and John' (Mark ix. 2), 'James, the 
ment With great force of evidence does son of Zebedee, and John, the brother of 
the proposition come forth that the gospd James' (lit 17). John, therefore, was of a 
is the work of one who saw and heard what character well fitted both to conciliate the 
he reported. It maybe remarked as we pass peculiar love of Christ and produce such an 
on, that tiiese conclusions well agree with account of his beloved and revered friend 
the received opinion dial the gospel came and Lord as we find in the fourth gospeL 
firom the pen of the apostle John. There is The sffbctlon which John had for Christ 
in die composition yet more decisive evi* would make him bold in danger, for love 
dense on this important point gives courage as well as power of endurance. 

One of tiie disciples is in th^ gospel de- Accordingly, we find this anonymous disci- 
scribed in a peculiar mannei^— as 'the disci- pie, now ascertained to be John, boldly going 
pie whom Jesus loved,' ' who leaned on his mto the palace of the high-priest when Je- 
bosom' (xiii. 28, 25; xx. 2; xxL 7,20, 24); sub was on his trial, and see the reason 
also as * another disciple,' who is moreover why it is said that he was known to that 
described as known to the higfa-priest (xviii. functionary, since John appears to have en- 
5), and appears in close connection with tered the place with a view, if possible, of 
Peter (xviii. 10 ; xx. 2 ; xxi. 20), and at the giving Jesus succour (xviii. 16 ; comp. 16, 
foot of the cross, iriiere he receives from the and xx. 2, 4). Doubts have been thrown 
dying Saviour a charge to prove a son to his on the genuineness of the last chapter. If 
weeping and bereaved mother. Who is this it may be taken as a part of the gospel, it 
unnamed disciple ? One of the most trusted contains a passage (xxi. 24) that adds con- 
of the band he obviously was. Why is his firmation to our belief that the apostle John 
name concealed? Unless he is the writer wrote the gospel. The words contain a 
of the narrative, what possible reason could statement £at the disciple whom Jesus 
there be for this concealment? The author loved wrote these things, that is, this entire 
does not scruple to mention other apostles Scripture. An attestation is subjoined from 
by name. The concealment seems to have others: 'We know that his testimony is true.' 
been dictated by modesty; especially as the Who these were may have been well known 
disciple in question appears in a position so in primitive times. 

Ikvoured, and receives at the cross of his There is a peculiarity in the fourth gospel 

Master a testimonial of endearment so dis- which determines it to have been written by 

tinguished. Well may the writer have shrunk the apostle John. Two persons by name 

from the egotistic J or toe, when he must have John appear in the evangelical history, 

spoken of himself in connection with actions namely, John the Baptist and John the apos- 

to teiy mentioii of whidi would have worn tls. Iliess coqld bs known from fiiob 

JOH 119 JOH 

odier only by ft dlBtinetlTe ntnie. Sacth eriiieism be daahed in pieces on this roekj 
name is giren by the three synoptical writ- than this rock under the hammer of criticism 
era. The author of the fourth gospel omits I, however, am of opinion that it is God's wHl 
the distinctlTe epithet Why T Becaose he these two should exist with and by means 
felt that no one could confound himself, the of each other, as gifts of one and Uie same 
writer, with John of whom he wrote. Henoe Holy and Wise Spirit' How destitute of 
the omission implies that John the apostle foundation is the opinion of Bruno Bauer to 
wrote the fourth gospeL In every writer which we have just alluded, may be gathered 
some sppellation to distinguish between the fkom the general tenor of our previous re- 
two Johns was indiqiensable. The synop- marks, and from tfie following testimony of 
ties find that distinction in sn epithet, ' the Credner, whose learning and experience, as 
Baptist ;* the writer of the fourth gospel in well as die tendency of his mind, in theologi- 
a fact, namely, that he was himself one of cal sulgeets, give an assurance Uiat he had 
these Johns — the other John, that is, John satisfsotory evidence for these words :^-^ The 
the apostle. For the fdU comprehension of entire treatment of the subject in the gospel, 
the force of this argument it is only neces- and a crowd of particulars which are distin- 
sary to add, that when the books of the New gnished for great exactness, are of such a 
Testament were first put forth, the authorship kind that they could have proceeded only from 
of them was in general matter of public noto- an eye-witness. To assume in relation to 
riety with the readers for whom they were these detsils the existence of fUsification and 
in each case specislly intended. deeeption is inadmissible, since the greater 
Till towards the end of the ei|^teenth oea- part of them are unessential and incidental, 
tury the authenticity of this gospel was gene- the obvious products of a man who, as an 
rally acknowledged ; only the Alogi in eariy eye-witness, narrates in a simple, inartistio 
times contested it on dogmatic grounds, manner. Indeed, for one who calmly studies 
Evanson led the way in raising doubte which the gospel, there is not a trace of intentional 
have since been made into positive denials, fklseness ; and only the most nnnatnrsl per^ 
especially in Germany, where Bruno Bauer^ verseness, only an arbitrary one-sidedness 
following Strauss, has at length gone to the which laughs historical criticism to scora, 
extreme of pronouncing ito snbUme nanw- ean find in it an appearance of improper 
tives to be known and intended fabrications, purpose ' (Das Nme TetUuMnt, i. 888). 
Among the Germans, the first distinguished We must not here omit to call to the 
assailant of John's gospel was Bretsohneider reader's attention the bearing which these 
(ProbabiUa)f who has since revoked his ob- facte have on the theory of Strauss. To that 
Jections, and employed his learning in de- theory an unanswerable reply is given when 
fending the position that John the apostle it is shown that a gospel like that of John 
was ite author. Most of the olgections were proceeded firom the pen of an apostle ; for we 
derived from the gospel itself; on which ae- are then assured that it is an historical, not 
count we have given it a careftil renew, and a mythological, foundation on which repose 
from ito own contente have been led to a full the facte and truths of the Christian religion, 
conviction of ite authenticity. Indeed, this The author of this gospel has himself as- 
gospel more than any other carries ite his- signed the object with a view to which he 
tory in ite own bosom. On this account wrote it His object was twofold : I. that his 
chiefly we adopt with confidence and satis- readers might believe that Jesus is the Christ, 
faction the wcvds of perhaps the most fair the Son of God ; and II. that, believing, they 
as well as carefixl and learned of ite exposi- might have life through his name (xx. 81 ). 
tors, Lilcke, who, in the Preface (voL ii.) to In agreement with this aim, special stress 
the third edition of his Cmnmmitar (Bonn, is laid on faith in Christ as die divinely- 
1843), observes, ' Critical inquiry regarding appointed means of salvation (iii. 15, 16, 
the gospel of John is not yet terminated, and 86 ; v. 24 ; xvii. 8 ; xx. 27, 29). This double 
I have self-criticism enough not to suppose otgect accords with the kind of double aim 
that I have solved all the problems. New that we have found in the gospel, which 
developments in the church and systematic seems to have been intended both to rectify 
theology will bring new questions and doubte, the eonvietions of professed Christians and 
whilst those that have arisen in the actual extend the boundaries of the kingdom of 
state of our knowledge will not in all cases Christ One point in which correction of 
be removed. In the frree development of opinions existing in the church appears to 
criticism, however, I see an ordinance of have been intended was, the low Jewish no- 
God which man must not destroy. But tion of the visible second appearance of the 
whithersoever inquiry may turn, of one thing Saviour as an event on the eve of taking 
the almost daily perusal of this gospel for place. But the tenor of the thoughte shows 
more than twenty years has fully convinced that the writer had a more general aim. 
me, namely, that so long as the church is That aim was, to glorify Christ by exhibiting 
in the world, the gospel of John, with the him in the intimate relations which he bore 
three others, belongs to the rocks on which to the universal Father (xx. 17). Other 
the Lord has built his ohuroh. Sooner will evangeliste had said little on this important 


J H 120 JOB 

theme. With pnrely Jewish yiews they had, Father, he hath declared or set hhn forth 
in their oonceptioo of Jesus the Christ, not (i. 14, 18). Corresponding with the two 
risen above the type of the greatest of all the states of mind to conciliate which it was 
prophets. Matthew and Luke had, indeed, composed, the gospel has a twofold charac- 
shown that his birth was miraeolons (does ter, being a union of the rational and the 
John mean to deny itf See vi. 42). But mystic elements of the human soul. Bat 
there was yet a far higher Tiew. And that these two elements, if dereloped in their wid- 
▼iew was such as was suited for and de- est applications, are evolved from a single 
mauded by the state of mind with a special fact That feot is, the union of the mind of 
regard to which John wrote. In the first Ood with the universe as manifested in the 
place, the low notions prevalent in the ehureh creation and redemption of the world, which, 
needed correction. In the seoond, persons with Providence, form in John's coneep- 
of heathen lineage, especially the cultivated tion one continued act This manifestation, 
and philosophicid, were not likely to be con- moreover, is viewed tiom one sinf^e point, 
ciliated by such a representation of the Son- namely, that phase of it which is found set 
ship of Jesus as would remind them of the Ibrth in the Hebrew Scriptures. John is not 
fables respecting the intercourse of gods with a Greek philosopher speculating at large in 
men, and the half divine, half human off- the boundless region of thought, but a Jew- 
spring which were held to have hence sprung, ish apostle who conducts his argument with 
The miraculous conception brought no con- the Old Testament in his mind. Yet was 
viction to their minds. As little could they it necessary to find some ground common to 
appreciate the force of that argument which Hebraism and philosophy. Without a con- 
made Jesus a descendant of Bavid, or even oeption admitted on both sides, the argu- 
of Abraham. His cures of the demoniacs meut could not be constructed. The required 
was equally of little avail with them. These common idea he found in the Logos. This 
points John, therefore, leaves on one side, term with the Greek signified reason and its 
not because Uiey were without truth 'and manifestation, speech. As reason, the Logos 
force, but because they were unsuited to his was the original type and formative principle 
purpose. It is no local argument that he of the nniverse. As speech, it was the instru- 
meant to propound. He addresses the mind ment by which all that was actual came into 
of the world ; his proof must be general in existence. Reason, or wisdom, conceived, 
its bearing and philosophical in its essence, devised, ordered ; speech gave the command 
What is local he must decline, in order to and executed the determinations of the Di- 
bring out the universal in its due promi- vine will. But this was the view given, only 
nence and full force. The state of mind in facts rather than description, by Moses in 
which he has in view is not, in the ordinary his sublime aooount of the creation. There 
sense of the term, a heathen one. A ra- are found the Spirit of God and the Word of 
tionalistic tendency had taken possession of God, both in contact with matter, and pro- 
a large class of thinking and cultivated per- duoing the entire universe. The operation 
sons, who in consequence had renounced of the same devisory and executive powers 
the fables of the prevalent idolatry, and were were seen throughout the Hebrew history, 
seekmg, without being able to find, light which was a record of God's dealings with 
and peace in philosophy. Such, however, man, and was beheld in a special display in 
was the spirit of the day, especially as ma- the person of Jesus Christ Now the Logos, 
nifested in Aaia Minor, where John's influ- or reason, intelligence, or wisdom, is the very 
enoe seems chiefly to have lain, that with essence of God, who is mind. Hence the 
this rationalistic was blended another ele- Logos is not merely divine, but God, for it 
ment, which, coming from the still famous is God's essence. God may be considered 
philosophy of the East, had attracted and and termed Logos, or intelligence, as much 
charmed the minds of thinkers with a mys- as love. The Logos, therefore, viewed^ as 
ticism that promised to raise the believer constituting God, is God. But God's mind 
into the very council-chamber of creative made its behests known by his Word. The 
wisdom, and thence to give him the means expressions of what is divine must them- 
of solving the great spiritual mysteries of selves be divine. Hence the Word, or Lo- 
the universe. John had then to meet, sa- gos, viewed as God's uttered will, his instm- 
tisfy, convince, and win over to the church, ment, Is with himself equally divine. And 
men of these two oombined tendencies. He in this its instrumental character, the Logos 
wrote with a view to philosophical states of was with God before it was put forth. Thus 
mind, and therefore penned a philosophical there arose before John's mind two concep- 
demonstration, proving that divine truth, tions — the internal Logos, or essential wis* 
the loftiest knowledge, true blessedness, and dom ; the uttered Logos, or instrumental wis- 
etemal life, were all to be gained in Jesus dom. Both are divine ; both are God, but 
Christ, in whom the infinite reason or Word under two difierent aspects. This view of 
of God was made flesh ; so that while no man God and his relation to the world, John, hav- 
hath seen God at any time, the onfy-begotten ing developed it in the first thirteen verses 
Son which is (now) in the bosom of the of the proem to his gospel, brings to bear 

J H 121 J H 

•11 the great quettion before him by deeltr- 17). LeAving to the reader the office of 
ing (14), * the Word was made flesh, snd foUowing oat in detail the thoughts whieh 
dwelt among as, ftiU of graee snd trath.' John develops in the eonrse of his nana- 
The remainder of the book is oooapied in txwe, we subjoin a fow referenoes tending 
establishing and illustrating this position ; to show that the idea of Jesus oifered I7 
whieh thus makes good the Uieme that Jesus this SYsngelist is of a mueh more elevated 
is not onlj the Christ, but ifae Son of God, kind than what is found in Matthew's gos 
belief in whom gives true light and endless pel. Compare John viiL 46 with liatt xix. 
liHe. Here, then, was sn argument which 17; and in illustration of John's conception, 
was firee from all that was Jewish, partial, consult i. 1 ; iL 24, 25; z. 80; xiv* 9; zx. 28. 
and temporary. Here was a view which Matt, zzvi 88, uq,, with John ziL 27, 28 ; 
plsoed Jesus the Christ in immediate union Matthew zzvi 06, with John zviii. 10 ; Matt 
with the onadve Ifind of the universe. Ab- zzvL 47, with John zvi 88— zviii. 11 ; Matt 
soluts truth must result firom absolute wis- zzvii. 46, with John zis. 20, ttq. 
dom, and absolute wisdom is looked for Speciidly diflerent from that of the synop- 
nowhere but in the absolute and all-crea- tieal evsngelists is the tone of John's gospel 
ting Mind. John, standing on Hebrew respecting the period of suffering and death 
ground, raised Christianity into tne absolute which ushered in the resuirection. Through- 
and universal religion. The Logos, which is out, indeed, we find Jesus in the first a no- 
Ood, was made flesh in its founder, who» ble but suffering, and to some eztent de- 
having oome from Ood, had now returned jeoted man, *the man of sorrows;' in the 
to God (ziii. 8), and prepared places in his second, he is from the first the Son and 
Father's house for all his faithfrd followers image of God, assailed by, but superior to, 
(ziv. 1 — 8). sll earthly powers, over which, so far as they 

The essentisl aim, then, of this gospel, is sie evil, he gains an easy conquest, and on 

the manifestation of the glory of Jesus (ii. whieh, so far as they are one with God and 

11) as displayed in his estsblishing a reli- himself^ he conilBrs endless blessings. Even 

gion which, spiritual in its nature, universsl the hour of his darkness and humiliation is 

in its spread, and everiasting in its opera- home like a conqueror, for it is emphatically 

tion end eflects, should supersede Judaism the period of his glory, inasmuch as it ezhi- 

and every form and relict of Judaical nssges bits and proves the greatness of his soul, and 

foid notions. This aim is pursued in a re- LU intimate union with his heavenly Father, 
gular and systematic arrangement, which The cause of this difference may be found 

implies a longer duration of our Lord's min- in the tenor of the observations now made 

istry than is of necessity involved m the (see Gospsls). John had sn argument to 

synoptieal govpels. See Jssus Chbist. conduct very different from that which is 

The subject-matter may be rsnged under maintained by the other evangelists. Their 
two heads : water and bread. The first, as view hsd been given. His followed. Both 
a purifying element, is introduced by the they snd he wrote with specific oljects, and 
bi^tism of John, ezemplified in the water- of oourse wrote so as to secure their purpose, 
jugs at the marriage in Cana (ii.), mentioned In such a ease differences were unavoidable, 
as essentisl in the new birth (iil. 0), pre- sndthe natural consequence of ciroumstsnces. 
sented in the < much water ' found at iSnon But for the causes of these diversities we 
(iii. 28), in the well of Syehar (iv. 0, t«q.), should probably have had only one gospeL 
where Jesus himself gives to it an allego- The sflluenceof our means of Imowing Jesus 
ricsl and typical import, and lastly at the arises from diversities in the ohurob, and 
Pool of Bethesda (v. 2, fsg.), at which our ftom. vsrious wants of the sge in which the 
Lord manillBSted his glory in tfie cure of the gospel was published ; snd similar varieties 
impotent man. The second leading idea, in men's minds and feelings mske the ez- 
that of bread, is illustrated in its spiritusl istenee of several gospels still desirable, 
import and application in the feeding of the Unity in diversity here, as in all other de- 
five thousand (vi. 0»M9.; see 26, 27), in the partments of the universe, is God's plan for 
exhibition of the true manna or heavenly the Airthersnce of human good, 
food (vi. 81), which is Jesus himself oonsi- The peculiar msimer in which John has 
dered in his doctrine and spiritusl influence ezhibited his argument, was no doubt in part 
(80, My.), and in the last supper (ziii.). determined by his own character, which. 
Bread, the staff of life, is thus prssented as being speculative, transceudentsl, ideslistie, 
a type of the substantial nutriment afforded devout, and loving, carried his thoughts to 
to the soul by the great householder. In the summits of the universe and into the 
union with water, it is intended to ezhibit essence of things; leading him to scrutinise 
the sufllcienoy of the gospel for sll the pur- with reverence the depths of the Divine Mind, 
poses of q»iritual life, in opposition to ' the to trace out its connection with matter snd 
beggarly dements' (G&l.iv.9) of the Jewish human intelligence, and so to draw a tacit 
law and a Jndaising Christianity; for those psrallel between the old creation recorded 
elements are only ' a shadow of things to by Moses, and the new creation effected by 
eome, bat the body is of Christ' (Col. ii. Christ A writer having those qualities 

J H 122 J O H 

oonld do no other than prodaoe • portrait miUioi'b lift. From iL 18, however, it would 
of Jesoe Terj different from that drawn by appear to have been written wfafle yet theiw 
* Matthew the pabliean/ Yet, though differ- lived those who had personal knowledge of 
ent, the four portraits fonnd in the erange- Jesns from the beginning, 
lists have enoogh in eommon to assnie us The general aim of the letter is dedared, 
that they were taken fhrom the same dinne In y. 18, to be, to instmet and confirm be- 
original, and they have also so mneh that is lierers in the true doctrine tonehing die Son 
traly homan and tnily diiine as to warrant of Ood, so tfiat they might obtain eternal 
the oonTietion that it was a reality fkom life. Henee it appears tfiat the occasion 
whidi the artists severally drew ; and sneb a was twofol d tf i e ezislsnoe o# error, and a 
reality, so great and sublime, as they of them- shortcoming in Christian perfection. The 
selves conld not even have eoneelved, mneh peeoliar emphasis with which, in the begin- 
less portrayed. ning, the writer insists on his own perscaial 

JOHN, THE FIRST EPISTLE OENE- aequaintanee with tiie Saviour, points to 
BAL OF, was nniversally leeeived In the speonlalion as tilie sonree of the enors ha 
ancient ehnreh as the work of the apostls woold coneet The phraseology, too, hers 
whose name it bears. This ontwaid tasti- used shows that he had to combat visionary 
mony is in fall aeeordanee with dear indi- notions. Jesns idiile on earth was a real 
eations contained in the letter itselt The man— an ofeject heard, seen, contemplated, 
opening words snflloe to show tfiat it pro- and handled ; and not one of the liuicied 
eeeded firom one i^o had had petsonal ae* Aons, or seeming men, of the cnirent philo- 
qnaintance with the great personsge of whom sophy (iv. 5), which in denying that Jesns 
it chiefly speaks. Comp. iv. 14. Indeed, die waa in trath a man, was antichriat (iL 23 ; 
epistle so much resembles the gospel in Ian- iv. 2), a seducer (iL 26 ; iii 7), and a liar 
gnage, phraseology, forms of expression and (iL 4). In opposition to whom, John statea 
ideas, that the two obviously had one author. Uie grand truths of the gospel (L 1 — 8 ; iv. 
The apostle John is a peenliar writer. His 1, ts^.), urging evidenee to diow that Jesos, 
thoui^ts and his forms of utterance have no as the Christ, received testimony no less pal- 
parallel in the Scriptures, so that we find pable than high and convincing (v. 6-^10). 
here a trustworthy ground of assnranee that The fUse teachers, however, mahitained their 
the epistle was written by the author of the caase against ttie apostle (iv. 1-— 8), specially 
gospcL So extensive and minute is the ao- alleging that his views were novel (iL 7) ; 
cordancelietween the two, that we can only and when they oould not prevail, they left 
make a few references, leaving the verifi- the church (iL 19). Onwhicfa John declares 
cation of our position, in the main, to die that his doctrine reached back to the eailiest 
reader^s own industry. Compare < littte ehil- periods (L 1 ; iL 7, 18, 14, 24 ; iiL 11 ), but 
dren,' used aftctionately in xiii. 88, with yet had a new aspect, so that ' the true light 
1 John IL 1, 12, 28; *lay down life,' x. 15, now shineth' (iL 8) ; since the Logos, the 
17, with 1 John iiL 16; 'the wodd,' i. 9, 10, exhibition of which in relation to Christ!- 
29, frequently with 1 John ii. 1ft— 17; fre- anity oonstitnted the great peculiarity of his 
qnently ' flesh,' L 18, 14, witili 1 John iL 16, dooteine, was only a revival and application 
iv. 2, 8 ; ' the true Ood,' vii. 28, xvii. 8, with to the gospel of trudi whieh waa as dd as 
1 John V. 20 ; * (he light,' L 4, 5, 7—9, with die creation in whieh it was first displayed. 
1 John L 0, 7, iL 8 ; •everlasting Ufa,' iii. 15, • Tk» S§eond EputU of Johm* was written 
86, iirequently with 1 John 1, 2, ii. 25, &o. ; by one who styles himself * the Elder,' to a 
< the tmth/ v. 88, with 1 John L 6, 6, Ac. aingle individual, whom the author terms 

The letter is addressed to Christians (L 4, < the elect lady,' or * die noble Kuria' (18). 

5; iL 1, 18; V. 18) in part converted from Knria, it appears, had children, some of 

heatheidsm (v. 21), and intimately con- i^om were walking in the truth (i. 4), and 

neeted with the author (ii. 18, 19, 21, 24), a sister, also having children (18), with or near 

BO as, apparendy, to form with him one com- whom probably Kuria's children were, and 

mnnity or church. Uniting this with the from whose place of abode the author seems 

fact that John lived the latter part of his to write. This brief epistle wears the ap- 

Itfe, fkt>m about 70 to 100 A.D., in Asia pearanee of a private communication, its 

Minor, and mainly at Ephesos, we come to object spparenUy being, to give Knria infor- 

the conclusion that it was designed for mation respecting her own children. What 

the Christians in that part of the worid, ithasof a doctrinal character may have been 

who had enjoyed the benefit of the apos- inddentaL The tone of thought and forms 

tie's personal ministry. From its aiming at of expression in general resemble those of 

a wider circle of readers than was affoMed theaposUe John ; but the sentiment found in 

by any one church, it seems to have acquired v. 10 is too harsh to have proceeded from 

the epithet of General or Catholic, a word him when advanced in the Christisn life, 

which is sometimes misused as signifying and the term 'mercy' in the ssiutntion (8) 

canonical. The tone of mature and mellow is not in John's manner. 

Christian love with which it is leavened, Irenmis, early in the second century, is 

refers the epistle to a late period of the diought to oils from this epistle as being the 

J O H 123 J H 

ffodnotioii of John the ftpottle. But it was tfie WTeu ohtuohes, typified by the seten 

HOC neeiT«d into the Syriae canon, and En- candlesticks (i). Then en sues a letter dic- 

aehina plaoes it among the Antilegonwna, or tated to ite chnrch of Ephesos, in which, 

books which some ngeoted. That it was com* wifli commendation of its endnranee, specisl 

posed near the taiminatiott of the first een- mention is made of its haring detected some 

tnry, or the eommeneement of the seoond, who falsely claimed tobe apostles, and * hated 

appears erident from the errors to which it the deeds of tiie Nicolaitanes.' Blame is, 

makes reteenoe. It is eqnally clear that it howerer, pronounced in conseqfnenee of its 

eame either ftom Jcrihn or one like-minded having left its ' first lo^' (IL 1 — 7). A com- 

witfa himseil Now, there was another John, monication is then ei\)oined to the chnrch 

distingoiahed as ' tiM Elder,* or < Presbyter,' in Smyrna, who, while beset by the syna- 

the very title prefixed to these lew Torses, who gogne of Satan, that say they are Jews and 

resided at Ephesos near the end of the first are not, are enoooraged to be faithftd onto 

oentnry. If we may safely Mlow Pspias, a death. At the termination of this letter, 

eontemporary or sneoessor of the sposUes, as mention is made of the second death as that 

given in Evsebios (iii. 80), in considering Ikom which true bellerers should be exempt 

Presbyter Johannes as a disci|rfe of our Lord, (8 — 11). Next comes an epistie to the 

tlien the statement of Irsnvns is consistent chnroh in Pergsmos, who are represented as 

witii the idea tiiat this * Elder,' or < Presbyter,' dwellmg where is Satan's seat, unmored by 

was the author of the epistie, since Iren»us persecution and the martyrdom of Antipas. 

does not use the terra * apostie,' but * disciple Tet they are reproved for eating things saori- 

of the Lord.' And if the letter was known fieed unto idols, snd committing fornication, 

to hare proceeded flrom Johannes Presbyter, according to tiieir former Pagan customs, but 

and not John tiie apostie, this snfflcientiy eontraiy to the decree of tiie apostolic synod 

accounts for its not being at first considered (Acts xv. 29). They were also infected with the 

9M of apostolic or canonical authority. doctrine of the Nicolaitanes (11 — 17). The 

What has hers been observed respecting church in Thyatira next comes on the scene, 

the snthorship of the Second, may in the whose woAs and improvement are lauded, 

main be applied to the same point in regard but severe admonition is administered in 

to ' the Third Epistie of John.' eonsequenoe of some idolatrous tendencies 

If Horn these general fbcts we attempt to (17 — 29). The church in Sardis is then se- 

deduce the exact place iHiers, and the exact verely admoni^ed as merely having a name 

time when, tiie letter was written, we may to live, yet in it are a few who have not de- 

easily be led to enone o us conclusions, or filed their garments (iii. 1 — 6). Praise is 

indulge in coi^ectnres. It is therefore better now bestowed on the church in Philadelphia, 

to leave our information in tiie state in which who did well in tiie midst (rf temptotion sris- 

we find it left by Divine Pr ovide nce. ing Ikom the synagogue of Satan. In the 

JOHN THE DIVINE, THE BEYELA- immediate prospect of the advent of Christ, 

TION OF, belongs in substance to the class ite members are exhorted to persevere, on 

of prophetical books, having for ite founds^ the promise that tiiose who did should have 

tion die predictions of Jesus found in Matt written on them the name of the city of God, 

xxiv. XXV., and being doeely eonneoted with the new Jerusslem, which cometh down out 

the prophecies of the Old Testsment, espe- of heaven from Ood (7-- 18). Finally, a re- 

cially those of a later period, as is seen in the buke is administersd to the Laodieeans be- 

prevalence of symbolical language. The fol- cause they were neither cold nor hot (14 — J 8 ). 

lowing is sa outline of the eontente of the Then follows aconclusion to this the first great 

Apocalypse. division (i.-*iii.) of the book. The conclusion 

After a brief introdoetion declaring the contains warning, encouragement, and invita- 

eirenmstsnces under which the Bev^rtion tion. The second act (iv. — ^xi.) in this sub* 

was made, the writer proc e eds to state what lime drama carries the seer snd his reader into 

he saw and heard. Being in the spirit on heaven, where the former in a vision (* in the 

the Lord's-day in the Isle of Patmos, he spirit,' iv. 2) beholdsathrone,andone that sat 

heard a great voice eommanding him, in the on the throne, around which were twenty el- 

nsme of Alpha and Omega, to write a book ders sitting, dotfaed in white, and seven lamps 

to the seven churches ot Asia Minor. He of fire, the seven spirito of God, a sea of glass 

turned to see the speaker, and beheld seven slso, four beasto ftiU of eyes before and be- 

golden candlesticks, in tiw midst of which hind, having each six wings, which sing the 

was one like the Son of Man, or Messiah, praise of God continually, and are accom- 

laaving in his right hand seven stars, and panied in this worship by the elders (iv.). 

out of his mouth went a sharp two-edged In the right hand of tiie occupant of the 

sword, who, declaring himself to be him tiiat throne is a book scaled witii seven seals, to 

* Uveth and was dead,' and as having ' the keys break which none is ftrnnd save the Lion of 

of hell and of death,' bade him write what tiie tribe of Juddi, who appears as a Lamb 

he had seen, as things wiiieh would shortly that had been slain, having seven horns snd 

tske place ; at the same time expounding seven eyes. On taking the book he is bailed 

the wtma tters as the (goaidisn) angels of vrith a universal Jubilee of praise ^v.). When 


the Lamb has broken one of the seals, a and taken to hearen. At last the sewiidi 
white horse appears with a rider, having in angel sounds, when voices in heaven deohu* 
his hand a bow, who reoeives a orown, and that the kingdoms of this world are beeome 
goes forth conquering and to conqner. The the kingdoms of Christ With a sublime 
second seal is opened, when there is seen * halleliqah this second act is brooght to ft 
red horse, whose rider, receiving a sword, is termination (xi.). Immediately, Uiere ap- 
empowered to take peace from the earth, pears a great wonder in heaven — a woman 
The opening of the third seal displays a clothed with the snn, and the moon under 
black horse, whose rider has a pair of bi^ her feet, and apon her head a crown ot 
lances in his hand. A voice declares, * a twelve stars, who travails In birth. Another 
measure of wheat for a penny/ On the wonder appears — a great red dragon, having 
fourth seal's being broken, Death comes seven heibds snd ten horns, and seven crowns 
forth followed by HeU, and he reoeives power on his heads, stands to devour the woman's 
over the fourth part of the earth to kill with child. She brings forth a child who is to 
sword, &o. The fifth seal is opened, and rule all nations with a rod of iron, and flees 
the prophet beholds the souls of them that into the wilderness. War in heaven ensues, 
were slain fbr their testimony, who received Michael casts out the dngon, the great de- 
white robes, and are bid to wait for their ceiver. This conquest calls forth jubilant 
fellow-martyrs. At the opening of the sixth rqoicings. The dngon, however, being thus 
seal, ' lo, there was a great earthquake, when cast to earth, persecutes the woman, who 
the sun became black, and the stars ot hea- receives wings to fly withal into the wilder- 
ven fell to the earth.' After this, four angels ness (zii.). Another change of scene exhl- 
take their stations on the four comers of the bits a beast rising out of the sea, hiving on 
earth, holding the winds and having power his seven heads ti^e name of blaspbimy, who 
to hurt, who are commanded not to hurt till reoeives his power firam the dragon, both of 
the servants of God sre sesled in their fore- which are worshipped. This beast makes 
heads. There are then sealed 12,000 in each war with the saints. Another beast appears, 
of the twelve tribes of Israel ; alter which an having two horns like a lamb, who deceives 
anthem is sung to Ood and the Lamb by an by means of mirades, and causes all to re- 
innumerable multitude, dad in white, and hav- ceive on their foreheads his mark. His num- 
ing palms in their hands, who are they which ber is 666 (ziii). The prophets eye now 
have come out of gnat tribulation, and now turns to Mount Zion, where stands a Lamb 
serve God day and night in his temple (vii.). with 144^000, having his Fathers name 
Finally, the seventh seal is broken, when, written on their foreheads ; when a new song 
after sUence for half an hour, seven angels arises firom these, the first-fruits, unto God. 
stand before God with seven trumpets, and Another angel is then seen flying in the 
another angel, who with a golden censer of- midst of heaven, having the everlasting gos- 
fbrs the prayers of saints. Having cast his pel to preach to all the inhabitants of the 
censer, witli fire of the altar, on the earth, earth. He declares that the hour of God's 
there are voices, and thundezings, and light- judgment is come, and Babylon is fallen. A 
nings, and an earthquake ; when each of the third angel follows, proclaiming wrath to the 
seven angels sounding in torn, seven por- servants of the beast, and bliss to the dead 
touts follow, which grievously afflict the earth who die in the Lord. The Son of Man also 
(viiL), chiefly idolaters (ix., especially 4, 20, is seen, having in his hand a sharp sickle, 
21). At last, the seventh angel comes down with which the esrth is reined (xiv.). Here- 
from heaven, having in his band a little book, upon another dgn in heaven — seven angels 
who swears that time (or dday) shall be no having the seven last plagues. Then appear 
longer. The scene having thus changed to those who have gotten tibe victory over the 
earfii, the seer, after the manner of the an- beast, standing on a sea of glass, and hymning 
cient prophets (Ezekiel iii. I), on being so to their harps the high praises of God. The 
commanded, eats the little book, to prepare temple of &e tabernade of the testimony in 
him to prophesy before many peoples (x.). heaven is opened, and the seven sngds come 
He then receives a rod wherewith to measure out with their plagues, till the fiilfilment of 
the temple of God (comp. Ezek. xl. seq,); which no one can enter the temple (xv.). 
but the outer court is not to be included. These leagues, as seven vids, are poured 
' for it is given to the Gentiles, and the holy out on die earth, causing terrific woes, espe- 
city shall they tread under foot forty and two cially to great Babylon (xvL), whose jndg- 
months.' Two witoesses are to prophesy ment, with the description of her chsracter, 
1260 days, clothed in sackdoth. When their ensues. The seven heads of the beast are 
testimony is finished, a beast ascending out seven mountains, on which the woman dt- 
of the bottomless pit ' shall make war agdnst teth ; the great city which reigneth over the 
them and kill them, and their dead bodies kings of the earth (xvii.). The next scene 
shall lie in the great city which is spiritually exhibits the Call of this Babylon in language 
cdled Sodom and Egypt, where also our most vivid and forciUe, in which you cannot 
Lord was crucified.* Alter three days and a mistake the model afforded by Isdah (xviii.) 
hali^ these two witnesses are restored to life There ensues a grand dtird rqoicing, ia 

J O H 195 J O H 

vhieh p«rUke « great mtilUtade, the fonr- its writer in general wae to enconrage the 

and-twentj elden, and the four beasts. The churches, speciaUy those of Asia Minor, in 

bniden of the hymn is» that the marriage of which, from abont the last third of the first 

the Lamb is come and the mairiage supper centory, lay the strength of the Christian 

Ksdy (oomp. MatL zxii. 4, teq.). On this, cause, in the pure worship of the Ood and 

the seer is on the point of iUlixig at the feet Father of the Lord Jcsns Christ, as distin- 

of the angel from whom he has receiTed the gnished from idolatry without and errors 

revelation, bat is forbidden, on the ground, within their own body, and their natural 

< I am thy fellow-servant;* adding, * the testl- consequence, disobedience, sin, and Tice. 

mony of Jesus is the spirit of the prophecy.' For this great end another had to be sought. 

Thus terminates die third act (zii. — ^zix* namely, to strengthen those who suffered for 
1—10). The Iburth and last act opens with the cause of Christ This aim is expressly 
The Word of God on a white horse, clothed declared in the words, * the testimony <^ 
la a vestnrs dipped in blood, followed by Jesos is the spirit of tA« prophecy* (xix. 10); 
heavenly armies on white horses, dothed * in that is, the import or bearing of ^ese pro- 
fine linoi, white and dean.' A war ensues, phetie instructions is on the testimony borne 
which ends in die discomfiture of the beast, to Jesus by his confessors and martyrs, 
the kings of the esrlh, and the false pro- These aims an in general sought by the ex- 
phet Next comes an angel down firom hibition of a great judicial and penal pro- 
heaven, who binds Satan a thousand years, cedure, iriiich, under the most gorgeous array 
Thrones are then seen, on- which sit the of images, partly borrowed firom the prophets 
souls of those who have been beheaded for of the Old Testament, exhibits in heaven, 
the witness of Jesus, and they reign with earth, and hades, the overthrow of the idola- 
Christ a thousand years. The rest of the trous, and the triumph of the faithftil followers 
dead, however, live not again till the diou- of the Lamb. The exposition of these figures 
sand years are finished. This is the first in toVL would require a volume. Two cities, 
resurrection. At the end of this period, however, are distinctly intended ; and these 
Satan is to go forth to deceive the nations, two, the representatives of the power hostile 
Another conflict ensues, which ends in the to the gospel. First, Sodom (wickedness), 
final defeat of the devil, the beast, and the or Egypt (bondage), by which old Jerusalem, 
frdse prophet, who, being cast into the lake or Judaism, i» mesnt; second, Babylon, or 
of fire, are tormented for ever and ever. Borne. These centres of antichrist are su- 
Thcn comes the judgment of the dead before perseded by the holy Jerusalem; not the 
Ood, when those who are not found written in nominally holy (for Jerusalem was teimed 
the book of life are cast into the lake of fire, ' the holy city' by the Jews), but truly so, 
together with death and hell. Then ensue a the new Jerusalem, the bride of the Lamb, 
new heaven and a new earth, and the pro- the city without temple, the church which 
phet, naming himself as * I, John,' sees the is the tabernacle of Ood and Christ 
city, the holy new Jerusalem, coming down The writer names himself. It is John 
firom heaven as a bride adorned for her hus- (John L 4, 9 ; zxiL 6). Such a proceeding 
band. Tbe tabeniacle of Ood is now with is vefy unlike the suthor of the gospel, who 
men; there is no more sorrow or death, studiously remains anonymous. As, how- 
Only the wicked suiFer the second death. ever,thewriter thought it enough to describe 
After a minute description of the true holy himself as * John,' he must have been well 
Jerusalem, the book terminates with an ex- known to die persons to whom he wrote, 
hortation to Isith and obedience, on the Many clear indications manifest that this 
ground that its contents are on the point of John was of Jewish origin. Now, there were 
being accomplished (xix. 11-— xxii 1 — 7). two persons of this name well known to the 
The whole terminates with a foimal oondu- seven churdie»— John the aposUe, and John 
aion, in which, with a partial return to die the elder. Had die audior been the aposUe, 
plain and lltertl language of prose, the writer he would probably, after the manner of Paul, 
makes to the churches (of Aaia) an applica- have designated himsdf as * the aposUe.' So 
tlon, the substance of which is, that diey far as the tide has vdue, its evidence is 
riiould worship Ood, observe holiness, and against the apostolic origin; for 'John the 
keep from idolatry, for the Lord Jesus cometh divine,' or theologian, is an itiforior appella- 
quickly (xziL 7—21 ; comp. L 1, 8 ; !▼. 1). don to 'John the aposde,' and not likely to 
This advent, as appears from the whole tenor have been given to one to whom the latter of 
of the book, is conceived in a Judaical point right beloi^B;^. If, however, we turn to indi- 
of Tiew. It is, in consequence, very divene c^ons contained in the Apocalypse itself, and 
from that which prevails in the gospel of compare the thoughts, views, and style of its 
John, and gives evidence that the Book of writer widi those which appear in the known 
Berelation was written before the capture of writings of the evangelist, we are ftiinished 
Jerusalem by Titus. See the article Junes, with reason to deny that the latter was its 

The condusion of the wonderibl and sub- author. Some points of agreement between 

lime poem (for poem it is in essence, though the two there are, but not more than can be 

pioeaio in form) shows that the object of explained on die ground of their being alike 

J H 136 J H 

•eboUn in the oommQn mImoI of Jmqs, both were ciitoipleii of JmoM, Had tho opip 

Points of divenitj howerer eiist, which, ze- aion of Jootin bten that of tha ehnvch geno- 

garding fiindamtntal ooneeptione, prore that tally, thia writing would hate met with imi- 

he who wiote the Goapel and the First £pis- yeraal reoeptioD, wheraaa it waa not admitted 

tie of John, did not write the Bevelatlon. into the Syrian Peaohito, and other aneaeal 

The evangdiat, for inatanee, eontemplatea anthoritiea either doubted or denied ita apoa- 

the onion of all men generally in the king- toUe anthority. 

dom of the Mesaiah (s. 16 ; xi. 62 ; xiL S^ Thereeeptiott of the Apoealypee by JnatiB 

1 John ii. 2), but the apoealypUat only a ae- aa the work of the apoede J<&, aoiBoea lo 

leotlon of ail the tribeaof earth (ziii.8; zrii prove that it moat have been in eziatenee 

8 ; zx. 16), with which are connected a fltat before the end of the first eentmy. BtiU 

and a second rssnncction ; while a diffBiant fiirther back within that centuy is the book 

view is fonnd in the gospel (▼. 21. seg.). eairied, if we may in this rely on an aUeged 

Entirely diverse are the respeotive views opinion of Papiaa. In the Bevidation iiaelf 
of the appearance of Chriat which the even- ia found eridnice which fiiea the point at 
geliat zcpreaents in ita idealiaed, and the which it waa written, before the deatnietiott 
writer of the Bevelation in ita Jewish and of Jemaalem (A.D. 70), and §X the end ot 
aensoooa fonn. Especially to be noticed in tiie reign of ^e emperor Nero (A.D. 67). 
the latter, aa quite oontraiy to the spirit of The agreement of these two independent iA- 
John's Ooapel, ia the retributory and revenge- dicationa of time aflbids a atrong reaaon for 
taX tone that prevaila. In the Goq^ what fixing the eompoaition of the Iwok a abort 
ia univeraal in tone and bearing preponde* time before the year aeven^. But are tha 
rates over what ia Jewish. In the Apoea- indicatioaa dear ? Jerusalem is represenisd 
lypse, what ia Jewieh pieponderatea over aa stiU standing (xL 1, 8), but about to be 
what is universaL In the first, the Jew ia trodden under foot (2), afllioted and punished 
sunk in the man. In the aeeood, the man (18). The tenor of the book ahewa it waa 
ia sunk in the Jew. The Apoealypee goea in written during a period of peraeention. Such 
spirit little beyond the propheta of whose a period was the Utter end of the reign of 
writings It makea moat ample use. The Nero, who in the year 64 of our era gave 
Qospel auipaasea eveiy aaored writing in expzeeaion to his own cruelty and die pre- 
eomprehensiveness, and is the graat charter- vJsnt hate against the Christians by a bloody 
book of human kind. These and other di- persecution, lAidi extended iiaelf from Borne 
versitiea are so dear, and relate to mattera to other parts of the empire. On every side, 
so essential, that if they aniBce not to indl- alarm, trouble, tears, and death prevailed ia 
cale two sepsrate writers, we have no gmunds the churches of Christ Already may Nero 
for confiding in internal maika of author have been regarded aa the expected anti- 
ahip, and muat reaign the hope of establish^ diriat; for firom SneUmius (40) we learn 
ing from ita eontsiits the anthentioi^ of any that he had reodved ttom magidaaa a pro- 
ancient writing. miaa diat, after having loat die throne of 
Wethuaseem thrown on pfeebyterJohn»whe Borne, he should posseaa the empire of the 
waa a diaeiple of Jesus, and bidiop of Ephe- East, with Jerusalem fior ita centre. In the 
aua In the time of the iqpoatle J<^n, luning midat of hia erimes Nero sud den ly disi^ 
repaired to that oily, probably, before the peered. Henoe aroae doubta of his deadi. 
i^osde, who appeara not to have left Jem- Theae grew into positive opiniona. He had 
aalem till ita final overthrow. The terma retired into the Eaat Having assusMd his 
employed by the apoealyptist to deecribe power, he would retom and punish hia ene- 
himsdt; < your brother and companion in mice (Tadt. Hist iL 8; I>ia Caaa. Mv. 9; 
tribulationt' apply with greater propriety to Suetaa.Nero,57). This genenU impression, 
the presbyter than the apostle. Another par^ of which deceivers availed themselves in 
tieulsr respeoting himsdf given by the author order to forward their pretensiona, and which 
ia, that he * waa in the ide that is called Pat- added greedy to the conftuion of the times, 
mos' (i. 9). But this aids us not in deter- took in the Christian church, then atrongly 
mining the authorship of the piece. Nor agitated and deeply grieved by the perseon- 
do we know what the oocadon was which tion just okdured under the crud monster 
carried the writer thither. Most authorities, who when dead oontinned to disturb and 
aa wdl those of ancient as those of mo- afflright the world, a form which was of ne- 
dem daya, have assumed that John was eessity shaped in part by its predominant 
banished to the island. The notion borrows feelingSi Nero waa accordingly represented 
some, though small, support from the words, as having retired beyond tibie Euphrates, 
* for the word of Qod end for the testim<my whence he, the great antadiriat, would ahordy 
of Jesus Christ' (9). eome. The expectation waa ao intense and 

The earliest dear external teatimony we widdy qwead, thai it prolonged itadf for 

possess, that of Justin Martyr, makee John many years. 

the apoetle the andior of the Apocdypee. In this troubled etate of mind, both in 

Thia opinion may have arisen from the fad the world and the church, i^peared the 

that both persons were named John, and Apocalypse, whidi in its generd tone of higli 




•Mitamant md vkdent agitation baan traaaa 
of ita origin. Rome, aa the centre of heathen* 
iam, appeara in thia writing aa a beaat having 
aeven heada — the aeven Boman emperora 
who were to role before antiohriat came. 
Of theae heada Nero ia marked oat as 
woonded to death, but healed; to whom 
Satan gave great power (ziii. 1 — 8). The 
retnming emperor Nero» whom aome thought 
dead, ia the beaat who ' waa and ia not, and 
yet ia' (xviL 6), and ahall aaoend oat of 
the bottomleaa pit (xnL 8). The water of 
the Enphrstea ia dried ap (xtL 13), in order 
to make a way for him who, wiUk hia ten 
kinga of the East (aatrapa, the ' ten homa,' 
ziii. 1), ahall eaptore and boxn Babylon 
(Bome), <that great eity' (zrii. 10—18), 
' the woman arrayed in porple and aearie^' 

SK>n whoae forehead waa a name written, 
ytimy (xiiL 1 — 5), and who waa ' drank 
with the blood of the martyra of Jeana' (6; 
eomp. vi 9). A right underatanding of the 
paaaage in zrii. 10, 11, will oonflrm the 
▼lew now given. The worda ran thoa: 
'There are aeven kinga (of Bome); five 
are fallen, and one ia ; the other ia not yet 
oome. And the beaat that waa and ia ^ot ia 
the eighth, and ia of the aeren.' The en- 
suing aketeh preaenta s eoomient on theae 

1. Auguftnt 
1. Tiberius 
t. CaliguU 
4. Claudius 
6. Nero 

6. Chdte (A.D. 68), one Is 
y. Otho ( A.D. ea), tho other not jet 
t. Nerob letumod, and is of the seven, 
unnely the fifth. 




From theae atatementa we are able to fix 
tfae exaet date for the oompoaition of the 
Apoealypae. It most have been written be- 
tween the aizth (A.D. 68) and the aeventh 
(A. D. 69) emperor of Bome. 

From the book itaelf we hsfo, with the 
ftid of hiatoiy, endeavoured to aaeertaln thoae 
thinga whieh it ehiefly ooneema oa to know. 
The eourae puraned ia the only one that can 
lead to a aatisfaetory reault For the most 
part, the Apoealypae haa been grievoualy 
miauaed. Every new ezpoaitor haa arb^ 
trarily aet up hia own theory, and then aou^t 
to bend the fiaota ao aa to make them aflbrd 
tibe deaired anpport In order to expound 
the propheey, theologiana have turned pro- 
pheto ; end inatead of oonflning themaelvea, 
aa the book direeta, to the eariieat agea, have 
found ita eventa in eaeh aueoeeaive epoch 
4own to the present day. Were it poaaible 
foir Itoatiftiam to periah while paaaion and 
Ignorance eurvive, the conflicting theoriea 
Ifaat have been advanced would by thia time 
ha;ve ahown that all are equally false and 
vnaupported which relate to any period or 
peraon not to be found in the eariT daya 
within which the acope of tiis work ia ex- 
pressly lestrielsd. 

Bleek (fic<li^ tur Evang, KrHUt, 1846), 
smong other excellent observations on our 
subjeet, haa the following: 'I am convinced 
that though both writings (the Ooapel of 
John and the Apoealypae) have much that is 
kindred one with another in their manner 
of thought and even language, yet are they 
too diasimilar in their entire character to be 
the work of one author, even if eompoeed at 
diflbrent timea, and apeeially aa the work of 
one and the aame apoatle. If both are the 
prodnctiona of native and Palestinian Jews, 
the writer of the Apocalypse displays an 
altogether different tone of thought from 
that of the evangeliat, and a proneness to 
Babbinieal and Cabbaliatie learning from 
which the evangelist is far removed, and 
whieh, aa appears from Acts iv. 18, the 
apostle John waa by no means likely to 
poasess.' The aame learned and judicious 
divine gives the result of a careftd investi- 
gation in theae worda: < The Apocalypse does 
not prove itself to be the work of the apostle 
John ; much rather do its alluaiona regard- 
ing the seer and its author make it probable 
that he waa a diflerent person, bearing the 
name of John, but not belonging to the 
number of Chriat^s immediate diaciplea; that 
for the moat part and pretty early, at least 
fkom the mid^e of the second century, the 
ehurch aseribed it to the apostle John — a 
foot which is explained naturally if the book 
eame not from the apoatle, but preabyter 

JOKTAN, son of Eber and desesndant of 
Shem (Gen. x. S5), waa the forefother of 
aeveral Arab tribea aitnated in the aouth- 
weat of Arabia, and oaUed by the modem 
Arabiana Joktanidm, who were aeeounted of 
pure Arab blood. In the provinoe of Yemen, 
whieh ia aaid to comprise the country south 
fnok Meoea to the extremity of the land 
lying along the eaat of the Bed aea, ia a 
iKatiiot bearing the name of KadtUm, the 
aneient Joktan, with a oity called BtUekaU 
JakUm. Thia district, in oonseq[uenee of the 
productiveness of the soil and the proximity 
of the sea, waa the abode of a large popula- 
tiosi. See Abasia. 

JONAH (H. a dsof), the son of a certain 
Amittai ( Jonsh L 1 ), of whom nottiing more is 
known. In 3 Kings xiv. 80, we finds Jonah 
mentioned as a servant of Ood, the eon of 
Amittai, flie prophet, of Oath-hepher (in 
Zebulun, Josh. idx. 18), iHio announced a 
victory to Jeroboam IL (835—784 A.O.). 
Of this prophet no ianhm information is 
given ; nor do we possess the orade which 
he delivered on the recorded ooeaaion, 
though, ainee he ia apoken of as well known, 
he esn hsrdly have failed to utter other pro- 
phetic words. Here we have anoAer proof 
that it is but a portion of ttie fine Hebrew lite- 
rature that haa been preaerved. The loea ia 
aa much to be deplored aa it ia irreparable. 
Ws are, howsver, hsnes taught by Providenes 

JON 128 JON 

itself that the Seriptore, m U existed at first, gtrard T ' Tes,' is the reply. ' How mnoh 

«Dd as it was designed for man's edacation, more, then,' is the rqoinder, < should I spars 

was not an absolute and unehsngeable i^ole. the great oity of Nineveh t* In the oonelnding 

The absence of some portions should make words of the book we find its lesson and its 

us more highly appreciate what remains. aim. The work was obviously designed in 

There is little positive evidenoe oonneet- the main to teaoh the Jews that Ood's merey 
ing the person of whom we have just spoken was not eonfined to them, but extended to 
with * 4onah the son of Amittai,' respecting the heathen nations whom they hated. In 
whom we find a brief narrative among the sgreement with this purpose, Ood is de- 
minor prophets ; though it is not impossible scribed as the sovereign cause and arbiter 
that the unknown author of that account of all things — life and death, weal and woe (i. 
may have intended his statement to refer to 1, 4, 17 ; ii. 10 ; iv. 6, 7, 10, 11), in the allot- 
the Israelite prophet of Jeroboaitf s reign, ment of which be is guided by infinite good- 
At the same time, it csnnot be denied that a ness (ill. 10; iv. 2, 10, 11). The lesson is 
late writer msy have employed the distin- tMght &e more strikingly and eflfectually, 
guished name of the ancient Jonah in order inasmuch as it is ezhiblted in the history of 
to make it the nucleus of a narrative whose an andent prophet, and in relation to the 
diief purpose, being didactic, would, like the great enemy and enslaver of the Israelites, 
parable of the trees choosing a king (Jndg. Uie people of Nineveh. That prophet even 
ix. 8, se?.)* the rich man and Lazarus (Luke was not spared severe trial and punishment 
xvi 19, tq»), and the Good Samaritan (x. in consequence of the indocility which he 
80, ieq.), assume an historical shape. And displayed to the Divine will, whether in re- 
to tile fact that Jonah the prophet is the fhsing to visit Nineveh because he knew 
subject of the narrative, may it have been Ood's gracious intentions (iv. 2), or in ac 
chiefly owing that the document was received qniescing in the mercy which Ood shewed 
into the Jewish canon, a result which would to its inhabitants when they manifested true 
be facilitated by the religious tone of the repentance (iv. 1, 4, 9). 
work, and the worthy ideas of Ood which it This great moral lesson, the nature of 
implies or sets forth. Other grounds for its which refers the date of the book to a period 
admission do not make themselves promi- when the firozen bands of Jewish exolusive- 
nent; for excepting Jonah's prayer (ii), the nees began to give way under the genial 
piece is written in prose, and is rather a warmth of the approaching Sun of Bighteous- 
brief history thsn a prophecy. ness, received from the author an investment 

That history relates that Jonah, the son conformable to the spirit and tendencies of 

of Amittaif being directed by Ood to go to- his age. The miraculous in the narrative, 

wards the East, in order to utter his prophetic which has been a stumbling-block to the 

warnings against Nineveh, disobeyed, and fled devout and an occasion of profane jesting 

towards the West, taking ship at Joppa for to the irreligious, belongs to the period in 

the remote shores of tiie Mediterranean, which it took its origin; the great truths 

While thus flying firom duty, he is overtaken around which these miracles are thrown, 

by a storm. The ship is in peril. A pro- remain a permanent possession for man. 

pitiating victim is sought for, and the fn- Ordinary expositors, however, have strangely 

gitive Jonah is cast into the sea. A calm confounded the natural and the supematoral 

ensues. By the express act of Jehovah, a in these events. Thus Coquerel, in order, 

great fish swallows the prophet, who remahna as he supposes, to save the miracle involved 

in its belly three days and three nights (L). in the preservation of Jonah by the fish. 

There, however, he ofibrs up a prayer to Ood, declares that Jonah was in a state of insen- 

in oonsequence of which he is * vomited out sibility during his stay in its belly (comp. 

upon the dryland' (iL). A second message Jonah ii. 1). Henderson also, with others, 

bids Jonah execute the Divine mission, has taken pains to determine the exact plant 

Jonah obeys. The people of Nineveh, with intended by the gourd. The latter identifies 

its monaxi^, repent and are forgiven (iii). it with the Rieinut Communis (linn.) com- 

This pardon offends Jonah, who even begs monly known by the name of Paima Chritti, 

Ood to take his life. Being reproved of Ood * This plant,' he says is indigenous in 

and apparently doubting that the threatened India, Palestine, Arabia, Africa, and the 
overthrow of Nineveh might still ensue, he East of Europe, and on account of its sin- 
seats himself on the east of it under a booth gnlar beauty is cultivated in gsrdens. It is 
which he has made, ' in order to see what a biennial, and usually grows to the height 
would become of the city.' Here Ood causes of ih>m eight to ten feet The collective 
to rise as a shelter over him a gourd (Icifcayoa), shade of tibe leaves affords an excellent 
which pleases JoatJi, but of which in the shelter from the heat of the sun. It i* of 
morning he is deprived by a worm prepared esettdingly quick growth and ha$ been known 
of Ood. Then a vehement east wind beats in America to retuh the hoight even of tAir- 
on his head, so that the prophet wishes for teen feet in Uu than three months: Yes, but 
death. Ood interposes and asks Jonah if it Jonah's kikayon was a sudden and imme- 
is right tiiat he should <be angry for the diate growth; an extraordinaiy production. 

J P 129 J P 

b> liK>k for whiBh amoug tfaa oidhurf pUnli to build 4 (tHtifloUion then. In lUar timei 
of the eirth. Bhewa ■ stnnge gonfluioii of Joppa, for IDM17 centuries, was », bialiop'i 
ideiB, if not ■ lend^Dcjr lowuds (he leul see. Tiut ms restored bj the onutdns, 
tentlile proesBs In sitreme ntioniliam. The uid Ibe towD bssatified. Al piaseiit it oon- 
wrilei intended lo ssnllw the kikagim to the tuns trom &n to seTen thooiuid inhtbi- 
sole operation of QdiI'b eitraordinsrj work- Isnts. It iiea in ■ productiie md bMaliTul 
iag, which, ■■ b«ing eitnordinuj, cannot Ticinity, sffordiug fine Tiawa. 
be hrought into the categotj of ordinsrj ' The morning dawned oD a long low 

Uw* uidprooMBes. Thewoimno leu than ludy ihoie, teimiiulMl hj ■ siaall 'proDian- 
the gonrd, ind the great Bih ai well, are tarj, on which Blood Jiffs among iu gi««ii 
exhibited aa apeciallj and for the pnipose ga^ns, looking cool, pleasant and webMiii- 
' prepared ' of Qod. Thej cannot, theretora, log, contrasted with the snrroimdiiig desert 
come within the animal or vegetable king- and the foaming sea. Its liarboiu is a 
dom of natore, and theii credibiUQ^ most bs miserable little enetesurs of rocks, whieh 
judged of u Ibej appear in themselTes, aud breaks the force of lbs Ifedlterrsoeao waivs, 
in their relationa to the hi^ spiritnsl truths and Jtiat enables one to disembaik. The 
which thej aosompaniT' ^^ ^""^ ^u' ^o" town is a labyrinth of khans, oonTents, nat- 
whodeajthepoasibilit]>ofmiraolaa,Banmaia- row Unas, deserted ruins, and wlat* pUcaa, 
tain that it was bejond the range of God's with a few diDgy streets leading kom one 
power to prepare these extraordinary inatm- wretched qoarter to anotfaer. 
menta for inilmcting hia people. ' Tn the ersning I went oat to enjo; the 

JOPPA, in the Hebrew Japho, now Jaffk, eool brceM npon the house-top ; and, look- 
a Ten ancient Philiatian city, baTing an ele- log oier the flatioofed city, eaw its larions 
Tatsd position on the coast of the Hediler- surfaces all aliTC, and sprinkled with gaily- 
rinean, from ten to fifteen booia north-weat dreased Syrians. The superior of the coa- 
of Jerusalem, three from Bamah, in the lant aal with me for aome time, and pn>- 
tenitory of Dan, wilh a harbour cclebraleil faaaed lo point out the faoose-top whersoD 
in ancient sndmodenitimeB (Josh, iix.4{l), Peter prayed and saw the great Tiaioa of 
wbioh from ita pioiimi^ was of great tue aiid tolerance. 

impoiluice to the metropolis of Palestine. ' The town looked moeh better tfiia mom - 

ing; the baiaara and maAets asemed fBU 
of business, and looked very ga; with Syrian 
. -- ~ . TT silks and fining arms, and a profUsian of 

fruit, flowers, and Tegetables. The gueway 
was filled with Turkish soldiers, and opened 
on a vacant spaee between it aod tbe drait- 
bridge, pressnting a icry piBtnresqne appeaiv 
anca : in l^ont ia a handsome marble ItHU- 
lain, cngraTcd with many Arabic insviptions, 
whidi reeommended ue traveller, M be 
qaafl^ the stream, to Uesa the giver of It. 
An armde of Ihlokly eloatering vines shaded 
the enoloBurs, ronnd whieh wers reosssss 
thronged wilh a gowned and bearded nal- 
titnde, smoking and chattlDg gi«ve)y, or 
playing chess as intandy ss in that snUiniB 
sketch td Betich's where man gambles liir 
Tj.' tiis Bonl to Satan. QroDps of piotoresqiM 
^ and dark-eyed girladiiplayed the mOsE grooa- 

fnl atlitnilea as thej bent to M their water- 
jars, or balanoed them daintily on tbeii veiled 
bead*. A broad sandy path leads froia the 
faiwn thiongh rich gsidens, shadsd I9 ^ 
presses and mimosas, and hedged wift gj- 
'Near hers, isya, St. Jerome, 'I aow ganlic oaeEss, to sDOIhai hsndsome fDontma, 
the remains of ths chain wherewith Andro- and an opsn space ahsltarsd by palms, nndar 
meda woa boODd to the rock, nntU delivered which ssversl portiaa of bavallers, with their 
bjPersenabwoi the sea monster.' To Joppa kneeling camela and their liula fires, wars 
Hiram sent oedar* <4 Lebanon for the bnlld- luorioBaly reating. AOar aoms Ihres Bile*, 
log of the temple (2 Chron. ii. IS) 1 here the road opened upon the wide plain of 
Peter mw flte vision of things oomiBon and Sharon, spimUed wilh (he itia, wild tolift 
mslean ; and here Tabitha was raiasd trom aud almost every flower, except its rose. 
Oie dead (Acts ix. SS— A3; x. iL). Tn the The hiU conutry of Jadea lay before o* in 
Boman war the place waa deatroyed by a Itial bine ridge; the plains of Asealon 
Ceaiioa, but waa reatored. Its inhahilanta euendfld on the right 1 the high tswM of 
being addicted to piisey, eaosed Vespasisa Oooileh fgtwi is the dislaaes; and tb« 
Vol, U. K 

J OR 130 JOR 

next evening we were to rest at Jerasalero.'— lippi) and Tell (see Div) also oommnni- 

Warbnrton. cate supplies. These two fountains rise 

JOBAM (H. elevated; A.fif. 4661, A.C. near together. The entire lengdi of their 

887, V. 896), ninth king of Israel, son of streams is five or six miles. In regard to 

Ahab and Jezebel, sneoessor of his bro- the opinion of Josephns, Robinson thinks 

ther Ahaziah (2 Kings L 17; iil. 1), was that, in accordance with popular usage, the 

somewhat less wicked than his parents historian limits the name of Jordan to these 

(2, 3). With the aid of Jehoshaphat, king shorter streams, leaving oat of aoconnt the 

of Judah, he defeated a confederacy of tfie longer and larger Hasbany. In thns giving 

Moabites (4 — 7, 9, seq.). He put down the preference to Uie less considerable, the Jews 

worship of Baal, but was zealous in favour may have been influenced by national pre- 

of the image-worship that had been intro- judice. The Jordan was their only river, 

duced by Jeroboam. In Joram's time fills the national and saored stream. They may 

the prophetic ministry of Elisha, by whose therefore have felt an interest in making it 

eo-operation the king succeeded in making wholly their own, and have thns chosen to 

a stand against the Syrians of Damascus ; find its sources at Banias, within their own 

but in a battle against their ruler Hazael, borders, rather than in the Hasbany, which 

being wounded, he was put to death by his came fix>m without their territory. Josephus 

subject Jehu, whom Elisha had caused to thought that the Jordan had its source at 

be secretly anointed king over Israel (2 Kings Banias, and what he terms the lesser Jordan, 

iii. — viii. 24). at Tell el-Kady. Another stream might put 

JOBDAN(H.,from a root meaning to,/2ino), in a claim, perhaps, to the supersession 

the only considerable river of Palestine, of the Hasbany; for the Hieromax, which 

whose chief source, according to the Rev. comes into the Jordan below the lake of 

W.M.Thomson (Bibliotheca Sacra, iii 9, Tiberias, is very much longer than the former, 

p. 184, $eq,)t is the fountain of the Hasbany, Without, however, entering into minute par- 

which Ues N. W. from Hasbeiya. It boils up ticulars, we are safe in saying that the sources 

from the bottom of a shallow pool, and even of the Jordan are found in the southern ex- 

in the dry season forms a considerable stream, tremity of the great Lebanon range 

It meanders for the first three miles through From the lake Huleh the Jordan flows 

a narrow but very lovely and highly colli- through a narrow valley over a rocky bed, 

vated valley. Its margin is protected and and after a course of about three hours falls 

adorned with the green fringe and dense into the sea of Tiberias. Passing out of the 

shade ofthe sycamore, butn, and willow trees, southern extremity of the latter lake, the 

while iimumerable fish sport in its cool and river, inclining first to the west, then to the 

crystal bosom. It then sinks rapidly down east, and receiving some small tributaries, 

a constantly deepening gorge of dark basalt passes on till it disappears and is lost in 

for about six miles, where it reaches the the Dead sea. 

level of a great volcanic plain extending to The valley of the Jordan is a part of the 

the marsh above the Huleh. Thus far the larger valley of the Arabah. This long 

direction is nearly south, but it now bears fissure of the earth may be said to extend 

a little westward, and in eight or ten mUes from Banias, at the foot of Jebel es-Sheikh, 

falls into the marsh about midway between to the Red sea, comprising the lakes el- 

ihe eastern and western mountains. Punu- Huleh (Waters of Merom), Tiberias (sea 

ing a southern direction through the middle of Galilee), the Jordan, the Dead sea 

of the marsh for about ten miles, it enters (Lacus Asphaltites). The northern half 

the lake Huleh not fur from its N. W. comer, is watered by the Jordan, which daring its 

having been immenselyenlarged by the waters course expands into the two fresh -water 

from the great fountains of Banias, Tell el- lakes just mentioned, and is at length lost 

Kady, el-Mellahah, Derakit or Belat, and in- in the bitter waters of the Dead sea ; this 

numerable other springs. The Huleh may latter occupying the middle point of the 

be eight mUes long, and the river, after it great valley nearly equidistant from its two 

issues from the like, preserves the same extremities. From the lake of Tiberias to 

southerly course until it falls into the sea of the line of cliffs some three hours south of 

Tiberias. Although the channel immediately the Dead sea, the valley or great chasm 

above the fountain of the Hasbany is during bears among Uie Arabs the name el-Ohor ; 

most of the year dry and dusty, yet in the above and south of the offset of those diflb, 

rainy season a great volume of water rushes and so to Akabah, it is known only as 

down from the heights of Jebel es-Sheikh Wady el-Akabah. Its breadth at Jericho is 

above Rasheiya, a distance of twenty miles, from 10 to 12 English miles; at Ain Jiddy 

and unites with the water of this foimtain. it is rather more. From the pass of Nemela 

The stream is then so formidable as to re- to Ain el-Weibeh, in the Arabah, it is nearly 

quire a good stone bridge, which is thrown the same as at Jericho, while at Akabah it 

across it a few rods below the fountain. is contracted to about half that distance. 

While the Hasbany is the main source The waters of this valley lie much below 

of the Jordan, Banias (see Cjcsabaa Phi- the level of the Mediterranean. There are 




two deseents, one from the north, the other 
from the south, of whieh the latter is the 
longer end the greater. The ghor between 
tlie lake Tiberias and the Dead sea is in 
itself a desert, except so far as the Jordan 
and occasional fountains coyer small portions 
of it with exuberant fertility. On the south 
of the Dead sea, where instead of the Jordan 
we find only during ihe rainy season the 
torrente of el- Jeib, the surface of the Arabah 
is almost uninterruptedly a frightful desert 
Not the least remarkable circumstance in 
regard to the great valley lying between the 
Dead and the Bed sea, is the fact, tiiat until 
the present eentury ite existence remained 
unknown to modem geographers. In the 
Hebrew Scriptures, the Imowledge and the 
name of Arabah go back to a high antiquity. 
The Hebrew word Arabsh, signifying in 
general ' a desert plain * or steppe, is applied 
with the article {the Arabah) as the proper 
name of the great valley in question in ite 
whole length, and has come down to us in 
the same form in Arabic, namely, el-Arabah 
(m the Heb., Is. xxxiii. 9. Jer. 1. 12 ; li. 48). 
We find the Hebrew Arabah connected wifli 
the Bed sea and Elath (Deut i. 1; ii. 8). 
The Dead sea itself is cslled the sea of the 
Arabah (in the Heb., Josh. iii. 16). It ex- 
tended slso towards ihe north to the lake of 
Tiberias (in the Heb., Josh. xii. 8), and the 
arboth (plains) of Jericho and Moab were 
parte of it (Josh. ▼. 10. Deut xxxiv. 1, 8). 

The present Arabic name for the Jordan 
is eS'Sheriab, tkB Watering-plaa, to which 
the epithet el-Keber, th* Grtat, is some- 
times annexed, to distinguish it from the 
Sheriat el-Mandhur, or Yarmuk, the ancient 
Hieromax, which joins it firom the east about 
two hours below die lake of Tiberias. 

According to Burckhardt, the ghor at the 
upper end runs in a course from north by 
east to south by west, and is about two hours 
broad. Opposite Jericho, Bobinson found 
ite general course to be the same, but in 
oonseqnence of the retiring of the mountains 
on both sides, ite breadth is there much 
greater, being not less than three and a half 
or four hours. The Jordan issues from the 
lake of Tiberias near ite south-west comer, 
where are still traces of the site and walls of 
the ancient Tariehna. The river at first 
winds very much, and flows for three hours 
near ihib western hills; then turns to the 
eastern, on which side it continues ite course 
for several hours to the district called Kum 
el-Hemar, or < Ass's Horn,* two hours below 
Beisan, or Bethsan, where it again returns 
to the westsm side of the valley. Opposite 
Jericho and towards the Dead sea, ite course 
is nearer to the eastem mountains, about 
two -thirds or three -fourths of the valley 
lying here on ite western side. 

A few hundred yards below the point 
where the Jordan issues from the lake Tibe- 
lias, is a lord oloae by the rains of a Boman 

bridge of ten arches. About two hours fur- 
ther down is another old bridge. Somewhat 
higher up, but in sight of the bridge, is 
another ford. A ford is found near Beisan. 
Indeed, the river is fordable in many places 
during summer, but the few spoto where 
it may be crossed in the rainy season are 
known only to the Arabs. 

The surface of the plain of Jericho lead- 
ing down to the Jordan is for the first part 
of the way undulating, but it becomes al- 
most a perfect level as you advance. It is 
compact and hard, formed of gravel, sand, 
and clay, and susceptible of an easy resto- 
ration to tillage and fertility. It is mostly 
bare of vegetetion. Many small traoto <rf 
lower ground are white with an efflorescence 
of salt with which the soil is strongly im- 
pregnated. About a mile from the river a 
meagre and scattered shrubbery appears. 
Half a mile farther on you descend to a 
lower stage of the plain. This is separated 
fh>m the higher level by a bank of marl or 
clay, running nearly panJlel with the Jordan, 
fh>m 80 to ^ feet in height, generally preci- 
pitous, but out through in many places by 
channels. Near the summit of this bank are 
thin strate of limestone which are seen 
throughout the mass. The plain along the base 
of this high bank is covered with sand, but 
the clay predominates towards the river, and 
the visitor soon finds himself involved in a 
thicket of luxurious shrubs and low tangled 
bushes, which meet across the narrow path 
and obstract the way. The banks of the 
river are covered with a luxuriant, crowded 
forest of wDlows, tamarisks, oleanders, and 
oane. The highest of these trees do not 
attain an elevation of more than 80 or 40 
feet, and few of them are above five or six 
inches in diameter. This verdant canopy 
of foliage, and the luxuriant undergrowth of 
eane and brushwood, conceal the river firom 
view until you nearly reach tiie watei's edge. 
Bobinson (ii 2d6) considers the river to 
have here three sete of banks : — ^I. the upper 
or outer ones, forming the first desoent fkom 
the level of tiie great valley; n. the lower 
or middle ones, enclosing the tract of vege- 
tation; and III. the actual banks of tiie 

The lofl^ mountains that bound the valley 
of the Jordan are bare and desolate. That 
upon the west is more precipitous, while the 
eastem, rising by a more gradual slope, 
attains to nearly double ite elevation. Nei- 
ther affords any important tributaries to 
the river; and Olin&inks it probable that 
the Jordan enters the Dead sea with a 
smaller volume of water than it receives from 
the sea of Tiberias. Ite loss ftom exhala- 
tion and absorption, in passing through a 
climate and soil adapted to make very large 
subtractions from it, must, in his opinion, 
be equal to any aooession it may receive 
from any inconsiderable brooks, and firom 


JOB 132 JOB 

the ooeasioDtl eontribiitions of moantaiii- the enrrent. On the Idth of May, Bobinioti 

tanmitB, alwajB dry «zoepi in the leason of foond near the plain of Jericho a veiy rapid 

rains. The mountains were never wooded euirent He estimated the breadth of the 

or tilled, and therefore were not more adapted stream to be from 80 to 100 feet It was 

than at present to feed wateroonrses or arrest supposed to be ten or twelve fleet deep. Be* 

the passing olonds. There is no good rea- veral of his partj found the water beyond 

son for belieTuig that the supply of water their depth at about twetve feet flrom the 

ftunished by the rains and by the melting shore. The current was so strong, that a 

of the snows on the mountains north and stout swimmer of the NUe was in crossing 

north-east ci the sea of TiberiaSi was erer earned serenl yards down the river, 

greatly more abundant than it is at present It used to be thought that the Joidaa of 

The banks of the Jordan preserve a tole- old, somewhat like the NUe, regularly over- 

rably unifoim diaraeter. The river flows in flowed its banks in the spring, eoverii^f with 

a vaDey of about a quarter of an hour, or its waters the whole of the lower valley, and 

half a mile, in breadth, sometimes more, periu^s sometimes large tracts of the broad 

sometimes less, which is eonsiderably lower ghor itsell No such extensive inundation 

than the rest of the ghor; in the northern now takes place, nor probably ever did. In 

part, about forty feet This lower valley, when Joshua (iii. Id), indeed, it is said, 'Jordan 

Burckhardt saw it, was covered with high overtloweth all his banks all the time of 

trees and a luxuriant verdure, aflbrding a harvest' But the original Hebrew does not 

striking contrast with the sandy slopes that state more than that the river was filled to 

border it on both sides. Further down, the the brink. ConecHy understood, the Biblical 

Terdure occupies in some parts a still lower account corresponds entirely with what is 

strip along the rivef s brink. known to be the ease at the present day. 

The channel of the river varies in difl'er* The Israelites crossed the Jordsn Ibur days 
ent places, bemg in some wider and more before the Passover (Easter), which they 
shallow, and in others narrower and deeper, afterwards celebrated at Gflgal on the four- 
At the ford near Bethsan, on the 12th of teenth day of the flnt month (Josh. iv. 19 ; 
March, Irby and Mangles found the breadth v. 10). Then, as now, the harvest occurred 
to be 140 feet by measure ; the stream was during April and eariy in May ; the barley 
swift, and reached above die bellies of the preceding the wheat harvest by two or three 
horses. When Burckhardt passed there in weeks. Then, as now, fliere was a slight 
July, it was shout three iset deep. On the annual rise of the river, which caused it to 
return of the fonner traveUer% twelve days flow at this season with ftiU banks, and 
later (March 25th), they found the river at sometimes to spread its waters even over the 
a lower ford extremely rapid, and were immediate banks of its channel where they 
obliged to swim their horses. On the 29th are lowest, so as in some places to fill the 
of January in the same year, as Mr. Bankes, lower tract covered with trees and vegetation 
crossed at or near the same lower ford, the along its sides. The amount of the rise of 
stream is described as flowing rapidly over die river would vary in diflbrent years, wfaioh 
a bed of pebbles, but as easily fbrdaUe fbr will account for the various reports and esti- 
the horses. Near the convent of 8t John, mates of travellers. The Jordan as it now 
the stream at the annual visit of the pilgrims is, abundantly answers to the statements 
at Easter is sometimes said to be narrow, made in reference to it by the saeted writers, 
and flowing in fbot below the banks of It still fills its chsnnel to the brim in the 
its channel. At the (heek balfaing-place time of harvest, and a miracle would be no 
lower down, it is described in 1815, on the less necessary now than in the days of 
8rd of May, as rather more than filly feet Joshua to enable an immense multitude of 
wide and five UtX deep, running with a vio- men, women and children, with flocks and 
lent current; in some other psrta, it was herds, having no boats, to cross k at that 
very deep. In 1885, on the 28rd of April, season. The precise spot at iriiieh the ^il- 
the water neariy opposite Jerieho was found dren of Israel passed cannot now be deter- 
considerably below the banks. mined. In Joshua (iii 16) it is said the 

Olin (April 21) foond the banks at Jeri- people passed over right against Jerieho. 
dio quite flodl, and judged they had recently And Oilgal, where fiiey first enoamped, is 
been ov«rilowed,from the water then standing described as on fte east border of Jericho 
on the lower grounds, and firom mariu left (Josh. iv. 19). Two places now elaim the 
by it iq»on the trees. He estimated the honour, both of which may be rig^t; fir a 
river to be 85 or 40 yards wide at the point considerable spaee must have been covered. 
It swept along with a rapid, turbid current The first mot is the balfaing-plaoe of the 
The water was discoloured and of a clayey Oieek pilgnms. The Latin Christians have 
hue. It bore the appearance of being deep, fixed on a site between two and three miles 
Some of the party who bathed in the river higher up the river, being the same localitieB 
found themselves beyond their dqpth soon as those that are celebrated for having wit- 
after leawiag the shore, and they were carried nessed the baptism of Jesus. The import- 
lapidly down the stream by the strength of anoe which the Jordan sustains in tfie Jew- 

JOS i: 

lah wrltiiit* indiokto* id icl*tiT«, not iU fmI 
grandmif . ■ Th4l vu t magnifiMnt river, 
■nd the uitanl and frniltli] wninie of poatls 
iia>g*i7 to k Jaw, irliioh smpuwd ia mtg- 
nitod* noi onlf iU ih« etnuni at hit own 
gonnBr, but, wilb Ih* *iagU enaptlon of 
tha Nila, ii latgar tbaa khj tribntarr n- 
MiTsd 1^ lbs ' Qraat,' Hut i* tlu Madllei- 
Mnaan aaa, along tha whols aitant of tt* 
eoail, from tha Atlantio ODaan ts Honnl 
Labawjn.'— Olin, ii- Ml. 

Soma parta of tha Tala of tha Jordan, 
whiah DH9 gananUj b« daaeribad aaadaaar^ 
•n liahiBwdnra andbaantr- Immadiataly 
•on& of BaOiMn, Irbj and Mao^aa paaaad 
a pl^ mj thioUj ooTMed with hnbaga, 
partimlail J the miuludplaiiCiwbiBliiaaohad 
■a high aa llielr honc^ beada. Bouia pro* 

Next d^ (H*"li 19) >be} pataed tbrongti 
aoma moat beaaCiftil woodland aeenei^. with 
the gall oak, wild oVm, arbataa, &r., In 
graat Ituniiuies ; and a Tuielj ot wild flow- 
an, aa Ihe lynlimen, nrimaou anamona, and 
ollwn, growing on a rioh aoiL Aflar thia 
thay paaaad through a woodj, nneran aona- 
bj, extnuMlj baantihl.wharaib^obaarrad 

Ibr ttotili^ are Ibe lamrianl pi 
JrrlAo and a nanow mai^ along Um riiar 
whlah dailTM (tetililj tnaa ila watera. 
Olin fonnd the Tails; of tha Jordan ■!■ 

aaaaiwtr hot (April SI). 
luTa paaaad iaio another loiw Id (olug down 
from Jamaalnn to Jaricho. Tha region waa 
Oiaad fin Aa aama paenliaritjr in (he daja 
tt Joaaphna, who i«ra tha paople wen slut 
in linen, while ths inhabiluita of other parte 
of Jodaa were ahinriug in the midal of mow. 
Tbacitraise heal, with die eonaaqnenl aal- 
Irinaaa of Iba atagtiant atmoiphera, made 
tb* TaDer noted lor ili Inaalobritj; a repB- 
(ation wbieh it attU deaarrea. If a Jndgment 
naj bt formed from the pallid, aloklT eoaa- 
plaiion of iha wrvlohed inhabitanta. 

JOSEPH (H. nuraaM ,- A.H. 84S0. A.C. 
S113, V. ITU), aon of Jaaob and Bachel, 
wlia being hia father'i jonngaBt ohild waa 
the objeet ot hia apeoial taTonr, and lo ba- 
eame tha innoeent oeoaatcm of jaalonij and 
diatorbansa bt the ramilj. Theae nnhappr 
rlralriaa and fsara tad to Joaepb'a deportalioa 
Into BgTpt, where from a alaie ba beeame 
prime iniiiiiiaT of the kingdom, and b; his 
duMigbl and wiidom praaarred tha oountrj 
tmn the deraataliona ot luuDe, and aSbrdad 
an aQlnm to hie aged father and onee jea- 
lona bat now repentant hrothen (Oeneala 
— xlTii.). Being oonaasiad with tha 

wonarob a> hia grand filter, and with tha 
piiaatlj easta b; maiTTing the dani^itet ot 
Ibeir bead (iIL U), Joaepfa, in reliering 
the diaMaaei of the Batlon, eatabtlahed, in 
place of a &«a eonatitntioii, ■ royal daapotiam 
qnaliAed by aaeetdotal power, bringing all 
tha land, eare that of die prieala, into Ae 
handa of the king, who frare it back to lU 
fome r propileton on oonditiaoof hiateeaiK- 
inH ona-flftb ot the prodnee, and ao ell*- 
bliihed a Uod of tkndallam. Whatever opi. 
nlon «« may foiin ot thia proeeedfng, we 
aball not 'Jadge r^teona judgment ' luileaa 
wa take Joaeph'a poaitian into aeooant, and 
bear in mind that ainl righta and the prin- 
eiplea ot aoeial fireedom were not, aa they 
are with na, nndaralood in an oriental mo- 
narehy aonie tamr tbooaand year* ago. 

Tha atndent of Egyptian hlatoiy eannot 
fail in the Biblleal narratlTei to diiooer 
aridenea thai Egypt wh well known to their 
writer. Eipaeidly do the detaila giren in 
the hiatory of Jocaph aaaard with what fa 
known ot Egypt from otbar aooroea. Wa 
direct apeoial altanliaQ to tha implied oondl- 
tion of Iha priaathood. Thaira waa olnloaaly 
a pa*«r irtiieli die rapraaentatira of the 

JOS 134 JOS 

tliione dared not tooefa. Ho found tnd he gained posBesBion. Thi« eyent took plaoe 
left them free. They dxeedy possesaed land during the aojonni of larael in Oodien, after 
of their own, and that land alone was ex- the death of Joseph and his brethren and 
empted from the newly-imposed burdens, all that generation. The prosperity of the 
In the name of their head, ' Poti-pherah, Israelites, in this dependency of Egypt, and 
priest or prinoe of On,' is reason to think the circumstanoe that they had oome thither 
diat the hierarchy were of the blood-royal, originally from Canaan, the land of the shep- 
since, to say nothing of the import of * prinoe,' herds, would naturally excite the Jealousy of 
the regal title Phsrah or Phre (the Sun) the eonquerors. Goshen lay between Egypt 
seems to indicate a lineal connection with and Canaan. In this country dwelt ' a people 
the reigning dynaaty of PharnohB or kings, more and mightier than we.' It was there- 
Certain it is that the ascendanoy of saoer- fore conformable to the suggestions of woridly 
dotal influenee here implied is in striet policy that they should enslaTe and cruelly 
agreement with indisputable facts in Egyp- maltreat them ^Exod. i. 10). The < new 
tian history. king over Egypt which arose up and knew 
It is in points of general accordance like not Joseph' was, according to our authority, 
this, rather than in indiridual faets or chro- either Amosis or one of his immediate suc- 
nological coincidences, that modem disco- oessors ; so that the epochs of the eighteenth 
▼cries in Egypt have shown accordance dynasty and the captivity coincide, or nearly 
between the Bible and the history of Egypt so. The Exodus took place under the last 
Osbum (* Ancient Egypt'), from a diligent monarch of the eighteenth dynasty, and 
study of the monuments, has, with suocesa, Egypt never recoveied the blow which this 
endeavoured to trace this agreement in these terrible event inflicted upon her prosperity, 
four leading particulars : — ^I. Egypt was co^ Its first monarch, says Osbum, began to 
Ionised by &e descendants of Miaraim, the reign A.C. 1847; its last, A.C. 1479. 
son of Ham, who gave the country its oriental By his marriage with Asenath, daughter 
name (Mizraim or Mizr). This event took of Poti-pherah, Joseph had two sons, Manaa- 
place shortly after the dispersion of mankind seh and Ephrahn (Oen. xli. 51,02), who being 
from Babel (Oen. x. 13). II. Egypt was a adopted by Jacob (xlviii. 0), notwithstanding 
settled kingdom, ruled by a Pharaoh, at the the impurity of their blood, became, probably 
time of Abraham (xli. 10, m^.). III. Egypt owing to their fathei's eminence, the ances- 
acquired immense wealth under the adminis- tors of two tribes of Israel of the same name 
tration of Joseph (xlvii.). lY. Egypt sus- (Numb. i. 10; xxvi. 28, 87), forming what 
tained terrible national calamities at the time was termed ' the house of Joseph ' (Josh, 
of the Exodus (Exod. vii. — xii.). According xviL 17), and sometimes denominated simply 
to him, Joseph was prime minister to Apho- * Joseph' (Deut xxviL 12). Tlie maternal 
phia, one of the shepherd kings or Hyksos, lineage of theae sons could scarcely be with- 
a race of people firom Canaan, who, invading out an influence in making them prone to 
and conquering Egypt, reigned at Memphis idolatry; and we find the name 'Joseph' 
611 years, contemporaneously with the de* used to designate the idolatrous kingdom 
scendants of Osortasen, whose court was at of larael in which Ephraim was the leading 
Abydos. Notwithstanding the fearful account tribe (Amos v. 6, 10). As, however, the 
given by Manetho of the barbarities com- two tribes, Ephraim and Manasseh, consti- 
mitted by the shepherds in Egypt, they were tuted a considerable portion of the whole 
evidently a highly refined race. The shep- Hebrew nation, Joseph is also used as sig- 
herds adopted the religion, the manners, niiying that people in general (Ps. Ixxxi. 5). 
and the customs of Egypt The king of JOSEPH, husband of Mary, the mother 
Egypt with whom Abraham had had com- of Jesus (Matti. 18. Luke ii. 6), is not in 
munication 200 years before, was also a ahep- the evangelists recognised aa Uie natural 
herd king. Amosis expelled the ahepherds father of Jesus (comp. John i. 40), whose 
and recovered the throne of all Egypt His birth is represented as miracnloua. In con- 
era, or the eighteenth dynasty, was the golden sequence of Joseph's relation to Jesus being 
age of its .history. Nearly all the temples merely of a legal nature, he retires into the 
and palaces, the ruins of which are still in back ground in the New Testament, and 
existence, were begun by the Pharaohs of may have died before ita chief scenes took 
this illustrious line. The treasures accu- place. Somepassages which mention Joseph 
mulated by the shepherd kings under the may be explained without supposing him to 
administration of Joseph, seem to have pro- have been alive in the ministry of Jesus 
duced the usual effect of enervating the pos- (Luke iv. 22. Matt xiii. 00 ; hardly so John 
sessors and exciting the cupidity of tiieir vi. 42), during which only his mother and 
still formidable neighbours the hereditary brethren certainly appear (Matt xii. 46) ; 
Pharaohs at Abydos. They became in their nor is Joseph seen at the time of the cruci- 
tum the aggressors, attacked their ancient fixion, though, had he been alive, the duty 
conquerors, despoiled them of their wealth, of appearing at the Paasover might have 
and expelled them from the limits of Egypt, brought him to Jerusalem (Luke xxiii. 49). 
of the whole of which they afterwards re* Tradition has respecting Joseph much 

JOS 135 JOS 

more than can be believed. It gives blm (Joseph. Antiq.T. i. 29. Josh. zxW. 39, fs^.). 
the somame of Pandira, and states that he His length of days was of great moment tot 
had a wife before he became the husband of the success of the enterprise which Moses 
Maiy ; also, that he died in old age. undertook ; for living through three gene- 
Joseph's business was that of a carpenter, rations, he united the adults who had served 
or rather worker in wood, for our minute dis- Pharaoh, with their children and their chil- 
tinctions in trade did not exist in his day dren's children. He as a living witness 
(Matt ziii. 50). Mark seems to imply that was contemporaneous with the signal events 
Jesus himself had wrought at the same which converted the Israelites from gangs 
handicraft (vL 8). of slaves into an independent nation. No 
JOSEPH OF ABIMATHEA, ' an honour- wonder, therefore, that we find it stated that 
able counsellor,' or member of the Metro- *the people served Jehovah all the days, 
politan Sanhedrim, or national parliament and all the days of the elders that overlived 
and privy council, who, being secretly a dis- Toshua, who had seen all the great works of 
ciple of Jesus, begged his dead body from Jehovaii that he did for Israel' (Jndg. iL 7). 
Pilate, in order to inter it with decent rites Joshua, the Book rf, stands next to the 
in a new sepulchre hewn in the side of a last book of the Pentateuch, of which it may 
rock (Matt xxvii 60. Mark xv. 43. Luke be considered as the completion, inasmuch 
xziiL 50. John xis. 40). See Abimathba. as it contains the history of those transae- 
JOSHUA (H. Jehovah's help), of the tribe tions by which the purpose of Moses was 
of Ephraim, son of Nun, and in consequence fulfilled in the estabUshment of his people 
ofhis intimate relations to the great lawgiver, in the land of Canaan/ It may be divided 
called the servant ofMoses, was bom in Egyp^ into three leading portions, of which I. nar- 
whioh countryhe probably quitted A. M. 8902, rates the conquest of Canaan (L— xii.) ; II. 
A. C. 1646, y. 1491, passing into the de- its division among the twelve tribes (xiii. — 
serts of Sinai, where he ^>pears to have xxii.); and HI. Joshua's last official acts 
been commander-in-chief of the Israelite xxiii. xxiv.). These portions contain the 
army, and where he took part in all the following facts. Alter the death of Moses, 
leading transactions which preceded the related at the end of Deuteronomy, Joshua 
death of Moses and the conquest of Canaan receives from God the command to conduct 
(Exod. xviL 8 — 14). These engagements, the Israelites over the Jordan and take pos- 
togetfaer with the special confidence with session of the land. The tribes already 
which he was treated by the head of the settled on the east of the river, namely, 
nation, well prepared him for his appointed Beuben, Oad, and the half of Manasseb, are 
office as successor of Moses and finisher entreated to accompany their brethren in 
of his great undertaking. The events of his order to render them aid in their perilous 
life are mixed up with the history given in work. Obedience is promised (i.). Joshua 
the Pentateuch (see Gbhbsis), so that here sends into the country two spies, who are 
we have need only to notice one or two which detected, but being concealed by Bahab, re- 
had a marked effect on his destiny. He turn widi good news (iii.). He breaks up 
alone was permitted to accompany Moses his camp at Shitlim, and with the ark in 
on the mountain where was given the sum- advance crosses the Jordan dry-foot (iii.). 
mary of laws that formed the nucleus of the The Israelites erect two memorials of this 
Mosiao legislation (Exod. xxiv. 18). He miraculous passage — ^namely, twelve stones 
also was one of the twelve sent to survey in the river and twelve at OOgal (iv.). This 
Canaan, and having on his return made a extraordinaryadvance into the country alarms 
true report, and at the peril of his life sought ita inhabitante ; but before the consequent 
to suppress a rising of the people, he re- advantages are reaped, Joshua pute his peo- 
ceived a promise that he should survive the pie into a state of \egtl purity ; circumcising 
taking possession of the country (Numb, the actual generation on whom the rite had 
xiv.). Shortly before his death, Moses so- notbeenperformed during the wandering life 
lemnly set his tried and faithful minister in of the wilderness, and celebrating the pass- 
his own place, affectionately urging on him over both as a general religious duty at the pro- 
wisdom, fortitude, and courage (Numb, xxvii. per season of die year (spring), and as a suit- 
12 — 28. Deut xxxi. 7, 8). This vocation, able commemoration of God's second deliver- 
which originated in the counsels of God (iiL ance of hispeople in deep waters and astrange 
28), explains and justifies the position which land. Having now reached a condition in 
Joshua holds during the conquest of Canaan, which ordinary supplies of food could be 
and specially the part which he takes in had, the manna ceases. Before entering on 
dividing the land and adjusting claims ; in the fearful struggle, Joshua is favoured with 
which difficult office he evinced judgment and strengthened by a vision (v.). Jericho, 
and impartiality (Josh, xvii 14 — 18). He lying immediately before the daring chief, is 
finished his most arduous course in the overcome and devoted to perpetual ruin (vi.). 
110th year of his age, after having been the For the designed religious purposes, the 
leaderof hispeople for twenty -ftveyears; and Israelites must abstain from diaring in the 
was buried at Timnatfa on if onnt Ephraim substance and practioes of the Canaanites ; 

JOS 136 JOS 

but Achan appropriating to himself a part plained (xxii.). The great work being in 

ot the devoted booty, brings defeat and die- the main aeeompliehed, Joshua holds an 

aster on the nation, and is punished with assembly of the people, whom he exhorts to 

death (vi.)* l^ oonsequence of this atone- obey Ood and his law, to avoid intercourse 

ment, Ai is now captured and destroyed, with the natives, and to exterminate them 

Joshua having thus gotten a foothold in the (zziii.). In order to strengthen the im* 

eountry, goes to Mount Ebal, where he prsssion, he a seeond time calls a nations] 

builds an altar to Jehovah, renews the eove- convention, which is held at Shechem. Hera 

nant with Ood, and, agreeably to the direc- he enumerates the great things done for 

tions of Moses, pronounces on Ebal and them of Ood, which he urges as so many 

Oerisim the blessings and eurses of the law reasons why they should serve him faith- 

(viii.). While Joshua is engaged in these fhlly ; and having eommitted the tacts to 

solemnities, the native princes combine to writing, 'the servant of Jehovah died' (zziv.). 

resist his progress. The Oibeonites, how- Henoe it appears that the book befora us 

ever, struck with fear, employ a stratagem is not a biographical account of Joshua, 

Und bind the Israelites to spare their lives ; but an historical monument of great im- 

their deception is discovered, and they aro portanee, completing the narratives of the 

punished with hard serritude. The defection Pentateuch (oomp. i. 1), whose ftusts are 

of Oibeon urges the Canaanites into Inmse- hera presupposed, and whose ordinances an 

diate hostilities, in which five of their chiefs hera carried into execution. Consult Josh, 

ara vanquished and hanged. The enemy in i. 5, 0, 18 — 10; iv. Id; viii. 81, &e. The 

his flight is overtaken by a destructive hail- law had commanded the conquest of the 

storm. Their conqueror subdues the land promised land, the extirpation of the Ca- 

and ratums to his camp at Qilgal (ix. x.). naanites, the division of their territoiy among 

While the south thus falls befora Joshua, a the twelve tribes, Uie appointment of cities 

eonfederacy is forming in the north. Thither of reftage and levitical cities : the book under 

In consequence Joshua proceeds, and near notice ralates how all this took place. It 

the waten of Merom gains a decisive victory, lets us see how the Mosaio polity went, at 

which puts (generally) the entire land under least in part, into actual practice. Compara 

his power and brings peace (xl.). There Josh. viiL 29, with Dent xxL 28; Josh. viii. 

fbllows a catalogue of kings reigning on the 80, teq,, with Deut xxvii. xxviii ; Josh. xiii. 

east and the west of Jordan whom Joshua 7, «sg., with Numb, xxxir. ; Josh. xiii. 10, 

sttbdned,->-in all, one-and-tiiirty, — a number $eq., with Numb, xxxii. ; Josh. xxi. with 

which, considering the small extent of the Numb. xxxv. The study of the Pentateuch 

territory, shows that these mien were only and Joshua in union widi Judges and Buth, 

petty chiefe (xii.). The conquered country which the ancients sometimes put together 

is now divided among the victorious tribes, under the name of an Octateuch (eight»fold 

Parts, however, remain unsubdued, which book), is requisite to a knowledge of the 

are enumerated, and a statement is made of sphere within which the Israelite life origi- 

the inheritance, beyond Jordan, of the two nally moved, in eonibnnity with the Mosaic 

tribes and a half. The burnt-offerings are law. 

declared to be tfie inheritance of the tribe The time when this book, called by the 

of Levi (xiii.). Proceeding to divide the name of its chief subject, was composed, 

land west of Jordan among the nine tribes may be approximately ascertained from its 

and a half, Joshua flnt assigns Hebron to contents. At the date of its composition, 

Caleb as a reward for his long and faithfhl the stones set up in the Jordan were still 

service (xiv.). The inheritance of Judah is there (iv. 9). Oilgal (v. 9) and Aehor (vii. 

defined, and Caleb takes possession of his 26) had there commemorative names ; the 

territory (xv.). Then come the borden of funily of Bahab, if not the harlot herself, 

the sons of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh, lived in Israel (vi. 20). Caleb's deseend- 

who request (but in vain) a larger share, ants possessed Hebron (xiv. 14). The heap 

thus early showing a feeling of alienation of stones erected on the ruins of Ai still 

horn the constituted authorities (xvi. xvii.). remained. Though our knowledge of the 

The tabernacle is set up at Shiloh. Finding history is not minute enough to enable us 

a better knowledge of the country desirable, from Uiese data to detennine the exact age 

Joshua sends delegates who survey and di* of the book, yet we may affirm that when 

vide it among the remaining seven tribes, these notices were written, the Israelites 

Seven partitions are made, which are assigned were in peaceable possession of the land, 

by lot (xviii. xix.). Bix cities are appro- and that at least only a few centuries had 

priated for refuge (xx.), and eight-and-forty passed since the time of the recorded events; 

are by lot assigned out of the other tribes to for only on this supposition could the monn- 

the levites (xxi. ). The trans-Jordanic forees ments have been in existence. A comparison 

having rendered their brethren aid, retire to of Josh, viii 28, with Isaiah x. 28, shows 

their own lands, and raise there an altar, that the book was written before Sennacherib 

which Uie rest interpret into a token of marehed against Jerusalem {eir, 712 A.C.). 

apostacy ; but the misunderstanding is el- A comparison of Josh. xvi. 10, with 1 Kings 

JOS 137 JOS 

iz. 16, abows that it wu written btfim the iteaoe of the work been an eariy dele. Beeidei 
days of SoIoomml The wotda found in the book of Jasher and the Pentatenoh, refer- 
Joah. iz. 97, oany the date still farther baek, enee ia made to no written aathoritiea ; but 
proving it was written whUe yet the ark had to aneh as shew that we have in it an ori- 
no abiding-i»laoe. From Joah. xr. 68, we ginal that goea back to wifliin a period 
learn that the Jebnaitea atill poaaeaaed Jem- aniAeiently near to the recorded events, 
aalem, which waa ftilly eonqaered by David Thna it ia to atill sorviving monnments— 
(9 Sam. V. 6, ttq*). It is also worthy of notice heapa of atonea, proper namea, familiea, and 
that while the Sidoniana are exhibited in a inheritances— that tiie eompiler appeala in 
hoatile lif^ Sidon appears tiie chief dty, iUnstration or proof of what he atatea. The 
and Tyre aa holding a aecond rank (JoaL style and language betoken a primitive 
zi.8;ziii.6;xix.98,29);buthadthebook writer. That the materiala in part origi- 
eome into its present state after tiie time of natedat or near the time of the events ia dear 
David and Sdomon, the friendly feelinga Ikom the manner of Ihe writer, who apeaka 
which tfienenatedtowarda these cities wonld as one that stands on the newly-oonquered 
hardly have faOed to eolonr the nairative^ land, and is oontemporaneons with the 
and Tyre would have received the pre-emi- events. To him manna is the enstomaiy 
aence which it had gained and ttien held. Ibod ; other kinda of nutriment are new (v. 
To a very early date an we pointed by the Id). An exact knowledge of time, place, 
name Kujadi-arba (xiv. 15; xv. 18), called and peraon, betokena the hand of an eye- 
at a later period simply Hebron : ao Ki^alfa- witneaa (iii 15 ; ix. 16, 17 ; xL 10). The 
baal for KUjath^jearim (xv. 60), and Kiqalh- book, in which waa written a deacription of 
sepher or aannah for Debir. The limits of the land, appears to have served as an im- 
the land are given (xi. 17 ; xii. 7) dUBnently portent document in ita composition (xviiL 
from what became nanal in after days, 4, jay.). On the whole, though we may not 
namely, horn *Dan to Beeraheba.' Hence be able to detennine its exact age <» the 
we eeem wanrsnted in concluding that ths name of the author, we are warranted by 
book came into its pieaent condition belbie the gtneial contenta of the work to aay, that 
the age of David. it ia a genuine and credible production. 
In earlier perioda Joahua himaelf waa re* showing on the part of ita author or com- 
garded as the writer of this book. This pilera a correct and minute acquaintance 
opinionialbund in the Talmud. Inaupport with the aulijeeta treated of^ whether the 
of it refnence ia made to the title. But ttmea, the country, individnala, or national 
this, whatever Ibrce of eridence it may have, history, is concerned. In recent days have 
may imply nothing more than that the its claims to acceptance been atrengthened 
work nanated deeda in which Joahua bora by the identification, <m the part of learned 
the chief part The booka of Judges, Sa- travelleis, of places mentioned in it, Ac 
muel, and Both, have theee names spart names of which were unknown in Biblical 
firom any implication as to anthorahlp. Ths literature. These diacoveriea have rendered 
paasage in Joah. xxiv. 26, which baa been aid in ahewing how entirely the Canaan of 
said to prove Joehua to have been the the book of Joahua ia the real Canaan>*the 
author, refera merely to what immediately same land exhibited in other parts of the 
precedes, namely, the renewal of the cove- Bible, and still to be seen at the present day. 
nant with Ood. The concluding portion at And as Biblieal history in general, and hie- 
least (xxiv. 26"dd), which narrates Joshua's tory as recorded in this book, are much con- 
death and burial, cannot have come from neoted with proper namea, so the discovery 
him. And repealed referencea to later times aa actually in exiatenee among the native 
-.< unto this day' (iv. 9 ; v. 9 ; viL 26 ; viii population of Palestine of namee of places 
28 ; ix. 27 ; xiir. 18 ; xv. 68)-^8ufllce to mentioned in this book, adda confirmation 
prove that in ita actual condition the work alao to ita hiatorical atatementa, and aids in 
ia not Joahua'a. There ia, however, good encouraging the aasurance that we have here 
Mason to suppose that he had a hand in to do with a real and trustworthy piece of 
creating aome of ita materiala. Theee, which primitive hiatory. 

are varioua, appear to have been put together JOSIAH (H. jSre cf J^unah ; A. M. 4909, 

aome time after hie day. Certainly a part A. C. 689, V. 641 ; according to another 

of them proceeded ih>m eye-wimeaaee, it reckoning, from 689 — 609), aixteenth king 

may be from Joahua himeelf ( v. 1 ) . Among of Judah, eon of Amon and Judidah, reigned 

the aouroea whence the wc»k waa formed during a period of thirty-one yeara piously, 

is the poetic book of Jaaher (x. 18), the and frith the more credit because, aacending 

reference to which ia of a nature to ahew the throne when eight yeara of age, he re- 

that the author waa not Joahua, but aome eeived hie education in poaaeasion of aupreme 

one who lived aome time after hia day (14). power. Hia idolatrous father, Amon, baving 

Xn Joah. xix. 47, Dan ia recorded to have lUlen under the blowa of courtly conspiratora 

captured Leahem (Laiah) ; thia conquest (2 Kings xxL 17 — ^28), Josiah waa raiaed to 

did not take place till after Joahua'a death the thrmie by a counter movement on the part 

Judg. xviiL 1, 2, 27— 49\ But the aub- of the people. The pious eharaeter of Jo- 

JOS 138 JOT 

nah*8 reign is in ih« main owing to an event king's motiTea in this tranaaotfon, and liia 
of singular importanoe in the Hebrew hiatorf. freedom from nndne Inflnenoe, as well as 
Certain repaiia of the temple rendered a an illustration of the morally eleTating ten- 
draught on its treaaores neoessarj ; suitable deney of the Mosaic law, in the fact that 
orders were given. In the consequent inves* Josiidit after his death, was respected as a 
tigation of its coffers, there was found a book Just and impartial aoTeieign (Jer. izii. 10^ 
which is described as 'the book of the law,' 16). 

a description which corresponds with what This king lost his life in a battle which 
we term the Pentateuch* The book was took place between the two great rival powers, 
read to the king, who was filled with grief Egypt and Babylon. The monarch of the 
at the contraat which hence arose between former countiy, < Pharaoh-necho,' confident 
established practicea and the commands of in his power, proceeded to assail Assyria 
God. Virtuously did the monarch lesolTe, on its own territories, and making his way 
and faithfriUy did he perform his resolution, thither, apparently by sea, was met at Me- 
to effect a thorough religioua and social giddo, in northern Palestine, by Joslah, a 
reform. Idolatry was in every part and conflict with whom Necho was willing to 
manifestation broken down ; and extending avoid. Indisposed to listen to Neeho's re- 
his seal to the now desolate Israel, Josiah presentations, Josiah joined battle and was 
then also destroyed the remains of ito yet slain (2 Kings xzL 24 ; zzii. xziii. 2 Chron. 
grosser idolatrous wickedness. After these xzxiv.xxzv.). Besolved not to leave a power- 
great changes had been accomplished, the ftil enemy in his rear, Necho deposed Jeho- 
Passover was, in the eighteenth year of the ahai, who had been raised to his fathei^s 
king's reign and under his auspices, cele- vacant throne, and who, after being deposed, 
brated according to the newly-found book, was sent captive into Egypt. Necho, how- 
with more exactitude and ftilness than had ever, was not prepared to destroy or snlju- 
been witnessed from the days of the Judges, gate Judah, and therefore he placed the 
These Ucta teach us that, with a growing crown on the head of a creature of his own, 
idolatry, the Mosaic law had fallen into namely, Eliakim, brother of Jehoahas. Hav- 
neglect and comparative oblivion, but was ing thus settled matters on the western coast, 
by no means extinct, though copies of the Necho pressed forward through many difli- 
law were scarce, and no means taken to culties to Carchemish, on the Euphrates, 
multiply them or make ite provisions gene- where in conflict with Nebuohadneszar he 
rally known; that, in substance, the book received a decisive defeat (Jer. xlvL), which 
found was the same as the Pentateuch, for left the Assyrian power supreme in Western 
it is clear that the reform was in fnnda- Asia, put Judah under ite yoke, and re- 
mental pointe accordant with ite requirement strained the ambition of the Pharaohs, 
and promotive of ite aim ; and that the JOT, from the Greek iota, is the smallest 
book must have met with a state of feeling letter (i) of the Hebrew and Greek alphabete, 
and opinion correspondent with ite own and so indicates (Matt v. 18) the most in- 
spirit and tendencies, otherwise the monarch considerable thing. In the passage, our 
and his fellow-reformers could not have had Lord adds to ' one jot,* * one titUe.' ' Tittle ' 
the power needful for effecting changes so stends for keraiot which, meaning originally 
great, so hostile to the prevalent idolatry, and a small horn, came to denote the extremity 
involving so great a sacrifice of personal in- or top of a letter, which, like the crossing 
tereste among very influential classes, and of our t, was of little (comparative) conse- 
so large a renunciation of their prqudioea quence. Hence arose a proverb-—' Not a 
and practices on the part of the people, jot nor a tittle shall pass away'-— that is, 
Indeed, the entire movement is inexplicable ' not the least possible part' Comp. Luke 
except on the supposition that the simple xvi. 17. 

account given in the Scriptures is substan- JOTHAM(H. perfection rfJihovah; A.M. 

tially true. But this account supposes the 4796, A. G. 4762, Y. 758), eleventh king of 

existence of the Penteteuch, for many ages Judah, son and successor of Uzziah, reigned 

before the days of Josiah, as the great sta- sixteen years, imitating his father in pro- 

tnte-book of Uie country, which, though neg- moting the worship of Jehovah, for which, 

lected, retained ite authority, and was ac- however, he could not gain exclusive preva- 

companiedby sanctions of an awful character, lence. Yet true religion brought virtue and 

We have here also an illustration of the gave strength. In consequence, the monarch, 

value of writing in the transmission and foreseeing danger from abroad, augmented 

purification of rdigion. The general import the means of internal defence. In the latter 

of books chaoges not, or but partially. The part of his reign, Pekah and Besin were 

bringing fortli from the monasteries of the preparing for their attack ; which was not 

classics and Christian writings produced the made till the reign of his son and soocessor 

Beformation from Popery, as the discovery Ahai. Though now Judah was generally 

of a copy of the law enabled Josiah to re- in a prosperous stete, yet, through the cor- 

•tore the pure forms of the Mosaic religion, ruption of morals, was it hastening towards 

We find an assurance of the purity of the ito fall; which was not prevented by the 

J U B 139 J U D 

loi^ wwninga of Isaiah and Mioah, but paiipeitnn. Permanent alaverj beeame Im- 

aooelerated by the miadeeds and miafoitimes possible. Oreat distinotiona were avoided, 

of the weak Ahas. Sharply-defined and remotely-plaeed classes 

Another Jotham was the youngest son of oonld not come into existence. None were 

Oideon. See Abxm blboh. so rich as to dispense with exertion ; none 

JUBILEE (H. Jo6«<, *ahoznortnimpet'), so poor that they need yield to despair, 

the year of jubilee, of release or restoration, Erery fiftieth year, the state was re-boA, 

the termination of a period of seven times when the opulent were reUeved of their 8i»> 

seven years, * seven sabbaths of years,' or peifinity, and the needy had another chanea 

the fiftieth year regularly lecnxring, was, on of acquiring substanee. 

the tenth day of the seventh month, Tisri That these desirable effects were aotnally 

(October), and therefore about the autumnal produced, cannot be afllrmed ; for passages 

equinox and after the ingathering of all the are found which imply that land was alienated 

fruits of the earth, opened by the blow- and accumulation carried to an extreme 

Ing of trumpets, which, proclaiming liberty (1 Kings xxi. 2. Is. v. 8). Indeed, in the 

throughout idl the land, introduced a season defectiveness of our historical materials, we 

of rqoieing, when — ^I. all sold or mortgaged are not in a condition to prove that the 

goods, such as houses, lands, &c., returned to jubilee was observed before the Babylonidi 

their former possessors, so that every man exile. It would, however, be rash to ai&rm 

had his inheritance ; except houses in walled positively that such was the fast; though 

cities, which could be redeemed only within this system of laws may be among those 

the first year after the sale. Each person blessings of which the Israelites deprived 

or his kinsmen might redeem sold property themselves by the hardness of their hearts, 

before the jubilee, provided thero was paid Had the sabbatical system been from the 

to the holder the value of the produce first rigorously observed, means would have 

reckoned to the next ensuing jubilee. II. existed for a system of chronology which 

All male and female slaves of Hebrew origin, would have been of great historical value, 

but not foreignen, were set at liberty. III. J0DAH (H. Jehovah's pratis), the fourth 

The fields had their rest, so that there was son of Jacob by Leah (Qen. xxix. 85), ap- 

neither sowing nor reaping, and what grew pean in a favourable light in the patriarchal 

spontaneously belonged to the poor, the histoiy, for he pleads for the life of Joseph 

emsncipated, and the cattle (Lev. xxv.). A (xxxvu. 26), becomes surety for Benjamin 

piece of land oonsecnted to religious uses (xliii. 9), and receives firom his dying father 

did not return iu the jubflee, but remained a promise of dominion (xlix. 8—12). The 

to the priests ; yet, if unsold, it might be tribe of Judah derived from him, which in 

redeemed by its former possessor on the the time of Moses was the most numerous 

payment of die value of its produce and one- (Numb. i. 27), obtained in the division of 

fifth more (xxvii 16 — 21). Josephus add- Palestine the southern portion, so Uxat its 

ing that the jubUee brought a general re- northern boundary was a line drawn from 

mission of debts, states that the outlay and the northern end of the Dead sea to Ekron, 

the produce of die land were in each ease passing near Jerusalem on the north (Josh, 

estimated, when, if the former exceeded tiie xv. 1 — 12). The whole of this territory, 

latter, the original proprietor had to pay the however, did not come under its power. In 

balance before he received it back. the north-west, Ban possessed a comer (xix. 

This piece of legislatiou, when viewed in 33, 44). Within its inheritance also came 
union with its a^unet, the sabbatical year Simeon (xix. 1,109.). Nor were the Philistines 
(see Sabbatb), is unique in its kind, and dispossessed (Judges i 10). The original 
could never even in ontiine have been ven- distinction of the tribe was enhanced by 
tured on by a political deceiver, for its singu- David, who, being a Judahlte, raised its 
larity would have alienated his adherents, fortunes, together with his own. As, how- 
and its impracticability have exploded his ever, it was only after a time that David 
pretensions ; nor could any legislator, save acquired dominion over the twelve tribes, so 
one who relied on divine tad, have dared to for seven yean was Judah a separate king- 
raise against himself the hostility of the dom, governed by David, with Hebron for 
propertied classes in such a decided manner a capital (2 Sam. v. 5). This pre-eminence 
as was done by these agrarian laws. Equally occasioned jealousies and disturbances (2 
confirmatory of their Mosaic origin, and of Bam. xx. 1—0. 1 Kings xii. 16, 17), until, 
the truthftilness of Moses himself, is the under the tyrannical folly of Behoboam, 
fact that the jubOee stands in complete bar- Judah was deserted and left (970 A. C.) to 
mony with Uie fundamental ideas of the its own destinies as a separate state, to 
Mosaic economy. By means of these laws which was attached a part of Benjamin. The 
against alienation, the disturbance of the latter from this time disappean in Judah. 
original distribution of the land was pre- This kingdom till its downfal (588 A.C.; 
vented, and social relations were preserved comp. Ezek. iv. 5) was governed by twenty 
in some approach to their original condition : princes of the famUy of David. The defee- 
abarrierwas also settoboth accumulation and tion of the ten tribes so weakened Judah, 

J a D 140 J u D 

thftt it WM at Ant compelled to look exola- and whoie idolatroaa praotioea, aa baiiig 
aWely to ita own preaenr ation. It waa, how* those of an enemf , would keep aliva ia 
aver, strong enough to uphold its own inde- Jadah ita aeal for the Moaaie inatUuttona. 
pendenoe and to retain ita anpremacy over It was, however, to the diaoipline of the 
Bdom. The attention of ita first three kinga exile that Judah waa mainly indebtsd fbr 
waa fixed on reooTering larael to their alle- the distingniahed hononr of bdag the channel 
gianoe (1 Kings xiv. 80; xr. 5, 16) ; hat in lor conTeying to the world the pure mono- 
vain, though foreign aid was pnrohaaed (18, theiam of the fathera of Uie Hehrew laoe ; 
§tq,), Jehoahaphat found it deairable to form for on the banks of the Enphratea ita sona 
an alliance with the revolted tribes (xxii. 3, had leianre and promptinga to learn and UA 
$eq.)f which on hia aide waa attended, with the important not that the worda of «ba 
move ainoerity than on the side of Ahab and prophets had come tme, ttid that tfidr own 
hia wicked spooae Jesebel, who H^pear to anflbringa were the foie-annoaneed poaiali- 
have aimed at the destmetion of Jadah. menta for their aina. Impreaaed I7 fheae 
Under Joram the Edomitea aaaerted iheir rsflectiona, and aroaaed to a natural longtaig 
indspendeiiee, and internal disquiets fer* for a retam home, they, when Cyrus, having 
menlsd in the land till the days of Amaxiah; overoome the Ghaldsan power, ofihrad them 
from irtiose reign the kingdom began to liberty, prepared in a patriotic apirit to eft- 
leeover breath, favoured by the troablea tahliah and maintain in ita parity and integ^ 
which, after the death of Jeroboam II., de- rity the Mosaic constitution, nor after d^a 
prived Israel of the meana of doing ii^ury. did they ever yield to ^e aednctlona of iddl- 
But it waa only by calling in the aid of atry. Judah took the lead in all fliatcnaaed, 
Asayria, and then by aaaerting its independ- and so gave its name in the term Jmm to 
ence of that power, that Judah could with- the rssttned nation, and in tiie term Judas 
aland laraal in alliance with the Syrians of to the land of Canaan. See Oavtivitt. 
Damascus. In the religious snd prosperous JUDAS, snmamed, in Acts v. 87, * of 
reign of Heiekiah, the northern kingdom Oalilee,' or the Oi^ean, and in Joaephus, 
came to ruin, leaving Judah the only sur- Andq. xviii 1, 1, < die Gaulonite' but Irf the 
viving portion of the empire founded by aame, in Antiq. xx. v. 2, and Jew. War, ii 9, 
David. Soon after Hesekiah*s death, Judah 1, < the Galilean,' probably from the fSust that 
fUt the consequences of refhsing tribute to the word Galilean waa sometimes used so aa 
Aaayiia. Two events occurred to procure a to comprehend a part of the country eaat of (ha 
respite for the doomed kingdom of Jadah. Jordan. This Judas, a native of Gamala, 
Paammeticaa became sole maater of Egypt, a fortified f^ace on the sea of Galilee in 
which, thua gaining in internal atrength, lower Gaulonitis, raised an hisurrection 
could oppose a bolder front to its rival against the eenaus canied into eflbct by 
Assyria, and encouraged Jndah to throw off Cyreniua in the 87th year after the battle of 
the Assyrian yoke, becanae ita territory af- Actium (Joseph. Antiq. xviiL 3, 1). The 
forded a good oatpoat Soon, however, the rising waa put down, but the adherents of 
Assyrian empire itselfperished, and the Chal* Judaa contfaraed in existence (whence the 
dmn which arose from its ruins needed propriety of Luke's 'dispersed'), and ap- 
time to oooaolidate ita reaourcea. Besides, peered again in the last attempt made by 
at this time Judah had a moat excellent the Jews against the Bomans. 
governor in Joaiah, whom fortune, however, JUDAS ISCABIOT,— -that is, probably, 
fovoared less than he seems to have de- Jadaa, the man of Kerioth, a town in Judah 
aerved. The Egyptian monarch Necho made (Josh. xv. 25), — the betrayer of Jesus Christy 
war on the ChaldsNtns, when Josiah, wishing waa son of one Simon (John vi. 7), and 
to hinder hia paasage through the territory one of the apostlea (Matt x. 4). He com- 
of Israel, suiEmd a total defeat monly accompanied Jesus and his band. 

In order not to have an enemy in his rear, whose travelling purse he bore (John xiil. 

Necho subjugated Jadah, and set over it, 20). In this office he displayed a greedy 

aa his vassal, Jehoiakim (2 Kings xzili. 84). and dishonest spirit (John aU. 5, 6), which 

Necho in hia turn was defeated by the Chal- urged him to adl his Master to the Sanhedrim 

dasana, who now fall on his dependency, for thirty shekels (Matt xxvi. 14 — 16. Mark 

the kingdom of Jadah, which shortly be- xiv. 10. Luke xxli. 4, 5), after he had been 

came a province of the great Chaldsan em- present at die paschsl feast (Luke xxii. 20, 

pire. 21. JohnxiiL25. MarkxivriS. Matt xxvi. 

In Jndah the grand idea of the Mosaic 21). In Gethsemane he accomplished his 

law, namely, the sole divinity of Jehovah, wickedness, betraying his Master with a kiss, 

Maker of heaven and earth, found a foster- which served to make his person known to 

ing, though by no means a perfect asylum, his foes (Matt xxvi. 47—49). The perpe- 

To this precious trust it remained in a tration of this wickedness, as is not unusul, 

measore faithful after the defection of Israel ; brought regret, and regret rose to intolerable 

whose severance from the more strictly mo- anguish, which drove Judas to an effort to 

notheistie Jadah, removed hindrances to the rescue Jesus, and, thia fafling, to setf-de- 

perfonnanee of ita great religiona mission, struetion (Mattxxvii $->!(. AetaLlfi— 18; 


J U D 141 J U D 

Mwp. Ztdi. iL 19, 18). It U oajj » blw ud brottuT, oi nthar etnuin, of Jmd« 

Tltw of Am Bcaiptotei lod ■ fUw moil* of (Lnka ri. XS. Act* i. 13. Jnde L I). No- 

Unpnttng tham, Ihu aan oaaMlon uj thing more it known o( Jade, for tli« veola- 

■olidtnda nspeoUng inab mianta mriatkuu aiutioa] mditions conCradiet each other and 

■a in^r ailit bahraan Oie (wo aaooBot* of are worthr of no credit. 

hla daath, namelr, Ibat of Matthew and thu JUDE, TILE GENERAL EPISTLE: OF, 

ol Palar in tha Aeta; whiah, howerai', naj waa, aoocrdiDB to the inaeriptiao (1) wrUten 

b« raeonailad If wa anppoaa that tha tnt on b; 'Jade, a aarrant of Jwna Chriat, and 

• lAieh Jodaa hnng hfauadf pTS m;, ao that brothei of Jamaa.' Though no ftimial proof of 

ka ' tm headloof and all hia bowala giuhad Ihia allegation nan be addoead, jet in agree- 

nt' DMnt with it, Jnde, the oonsin of out Lord, 

I Tba aibenia toipitDde of Jndaa hu been ia generally held to have been ita lalbor. 

< fseatlooed wittoDl anSdant retaon ; tor ba It is addieued to Jewiih Chditiuu, aa per- 

I ^p— ra to haie been a alaTe to eopiditf, aons ' Banetified bj Qod the Fmliui, and 

I nieh tn'ged him to eommit tha h^noni pmaenad in Jeana Chriit' The occaaion 

erime with whieh he atanda <diargad in the of it waa a falling awkj from the faith 

goapela. Hi* rapantaooa ma a momantacj wliieh ww on« dellTcred to the aainta, and 

ralom of iMttar fiMling, whieli, ao tti from the writer propoaed aa liia aim, to arooae 

' diaproTing, im^iea flta eiiatenoa of hia pia- liia nadera lo wnteiid eameaU; for that 

Tiona gnilt. tUtb. Thii deeleiuioa had been eaoMd bj 

The Jodaa-tiaa, a bandaome tree of Iha men of oomqitnuudi, who, denjing the only 

legnmiDoua kind, deiiTad ita name from the Lord Ood, and ow Lord Jeani Chriat, had 

toppoBltion diat on it the wratdied Jndaa atealthii; mapt into the Cliriatian eoiunili- 

deprired liiiiuelf of lifb. Tlie old bctanial nitiaa. Tlia dnt} thoa propoimdad, ii en- 

Gerardi gi*aa pnferanee to the Elder. fbreed by examplea of the pnnialimenl of 

JUDE, tha Engliah A>rm of the Qi«ek mbellaf, drawn partly from the Seiipltuea 

Jndaa and tha Helaew Jodah, waa one of of the Old Testament, partly from other 

Iha twalra apoMIaa. He bore tin annuone aonroea. The Integrity <rf thii short letter 

of LeblMna, whiah probaldy aignifiea ' a man haa been eallad in qoaation, linee a part of 

of heart;' and Thaddena, ■ k man of bteaat ^ it (S — 16) bean a atrong raaembUnoa to • 

epitheta wliiofa may haTa been employsd to part of 9 PeL ii. 4—19, and both ippeat 

denote a kind and ganaroiudiipoaition (Malt, to haTO been botrowed from an aninllieit- 

I. 8. Mark iiL 18). He ia alao deaignatad tioatad work ealled Iha book of Enoeh. Cai^ 

Jndaa (the brother) of Janea (the leae), tainly the word* wbioh Enoeh ia said (11) 

„j 1 , ,,j^ ^ Claophaa to haTe pmpbeaied, namely, 'Behold, tha 

Laid eometh with tan thotuand of hie aainta,' 
fa)., an not fbtmd ia our eanonioal Ser^ 
tnie*. The data al the cjiiatle Daonot be 
determined with pnoiaion ; only, if written 
by an apoaOa, it muat have speared wiOiin 
the apoaudio era. Tba period waa eertainlj 
whtf waa aoaoonlad ■ tha hut time*— that ii^ 
near die aeeond adnnt. Vitae 17, whi^ ia 
•eareelj reaonoileaUe with the q>o*toUo origin 
of tha letter, aeenka to ahow that it waa eoai- 
poaed iaamedlnlely attar the d«^ ot the 
■poatlea, while Ouwe were yet alita who had 
teeelrad iuametiona from their lipe. The 
tone at the letter, whiah ia aerardy inatdpa< 
toaj, poiDia to » lata p«od in Om &nt 
eentaiy, when tba lor* A many bad b^na 
to gmweool, and dfcrta oa behalf «f the 
gospel ware made in » ^lit in which lb* 
worid b«d • terser ^ara than Jema Chriat. 
The WTlMr, inalMd of oonhling, leproachat 
Ae fidM U^tbut, and app*^ latber to 
the fMM tbaa the judgment of anab aa had 
BOt abendonad neeired opinitma. Vhelher 
or not dM name of aa apoelle waa prafkiad 
to Ha tetter In order to gain aatboii^tar &a 
tiawa of eome petaon wboae religjoo waa 
not imllnged by bigotay, and who idastifiad 
the goapel with hie own fom of opioicm, 
it ia now too late lo aUainpt to aaoertun. 
Certainly die credibility of the letttr ia not 
eabeneed by iti eitalioii of an oBciaonieal 




book which Beems not to hftTe been wanting 
In legends. 

The Epistle of Jade was not nnivenaHy 
leceiTed in early times, for the Syrian 
ehuroh did not place it in its eanon. In the 
western church, which ascribed it to the 
apostle Jade, it was more highly estimated. 

The persons against whom the anthor 
wrote were such as denied the only Lord 
Ood, and oar Lord Jesns Christ ; more pro- 
perry rendered, ' the only Soyereign (Ood) 
and our Lord Jesus Christ;' for the term 
' Ood' appears to have been taken into the 
text, having originally stood in the margin 
as explanatory of * soyereign' — dispot«n, 
whence our English detpot. Comp. 1 John 
i. 22, 23 ; iy. 3. 

JUDEA. See Cakajjt and Diyisroir. 

JUDOE, A (L. judex), stands for the He- 
brew word thapkat, which is from a root 
meaning first to oleaye, then to decide (d$ 
citdo, *I cut down') ; and as judicial determi- 
nations constitute, especially in the East, a 
chief function of a ruler, so to goyem. 

In the hands of the people lay the choice 
of judges, who were to be chosen for their 
wisdom and integrity, and to be appointed 
in eyeiy city (DeuU xyL 18—20). These 
local judges appear to haye home some 
resemblance to ine judieet of the Romans, 
and to the jury of our own land. One of 
them, probably, was, from age and prudence, 
made the president, with the duty of de- 
claring the sentence of the body. In Bent 
zyii. 0, the words ' the judge,' taken in their 
connection, may intimate that some judge, 
haying a general superyision, if not holding 
a sort of court of appeal, was contemplated. 
The context shows that in diflleult eases 
recourse was to be had to the assistance of 
the priests and leyites ; and as these fvaxc- 
tionaries were found in difTerent parts of the 
country, they were, probably, in part pre- 
ferred for the office of judge, for which their 
education, habits, and leisure well fitted 
them (xix. 16—18). Criminal causes found 
their appropriate jurisdiction before the 
elders (xxi. 19 ; xxii. 10 ; xxy. 7), but 
whether as a tribunal separate from the 
judges may be doubted, especially as the 
latter were held in the highest respect, being 
denominated §lohim, or divine (Exod. xxi. 
6; xxii. 8. John x. 85). The judge, or 
ikaphat (an officer of the same name held 
supreme power in Tyre and Carthage) who 
should rule the state, seems not to have 
formed part of the permanent arrangements 
of Moses (but see Beut xyii. 0, and eomp. 
zriii. 10), who, howeyer, chose his successor; 
and though we have no evidence to that 
effisct, Joshua may have appointed the per- 
son whom he thoujght best fitted to fill his 
place. Tet such a step was scarcely in 
aeeordance with the strict republicanism of 
the times, and it is evident fit>m the book 
at Judges, that the office of judge, or ruler. 

was neither permanent nor elective. Thft 
highest authority was with the priesthood, 
whose chief sought oounsel of Ood, and 
whose sanction was necessaiy to make a 
▼alid election (Numb, xxvii 18, s«f .). That 
election, however, did not, as a matter of 
course, involve jurisdiction over the whole of 
Israel. Each tribe was an independent state 
(Judg. i. 3 — 22), wfaidi was answerable to 
^e rest only in eases deeply affiscting the 
general weal, or contravening the laws of 
die common legislator (Josh. xxii. 11, 12. 
Judg. XX.). Nor were the judges in all cases 
chosen to their office. In the book called 
by that name, we behold individuals coming 
forward without a eall tram their fellow- 
oitizens, and having, for the good of their 
tribe or country, exercised a dictatorship, 
still, after the emergency was over, they con- 
tinued to hold a species of directing power, 
the limits and fiinctions of which cannot now 
be determined. 

JUDOES, THE BOOK OF, is so called 
from the name Shophetim, judges or rulers, 
given to persons whose deeds, as liberators 
and governors of Palestine, it is occupied in 
recording. After the death of Joshua, no 
one appeared to take his post ; and though 
the country was but partially subdued, and 
elements for active hostility existed on many 
hands, the government of the Hebrew colony 
was left in the hands of the people and the 
tribes, whose acting in concert was insuffi- 
ciently provided for, and attended with delays 
and uncertainty. The great experiment of 
self-goyemment was tried with a people little 
advanced, individually, in personal excellence, 
and when the religious faith and enthu- 
siasm which had brought them in triumph 
tram Egypt into Canaan was beginning to 
wane. In such a state of society, religious 
declension and political difficulty were un- 
avoidable. Yet the true and deep religious 
and social life of Mosaism glowed in the 
heart of society. Hence, from time to time, 
under impulses from on high, there arose 
men who, breathing the spirit of by-gone 
days, and, like the Boman dictators, en- 
trusted with supreme power, in the true 
temper of religious heroism defeated the na- 
tional foe and revived the national religion. 
Here we find the ideal of the Hebrew judges; 
some of whom have left on the page of his- 
tory few memorials, and others ei^oj but a 
tarnished glory. It is one exoellenee of the 
Mosaic polity, that it successively developed 
out of itself such extraordinary instruments 
as special junctures required. The defects 
and misdeeds of the crown and the priest- 
hood called fbrth the corrective and edu- 
cational institnte of Uie prophets; and the 
weaknesses and aberrations of Hebrew re- 
publicanism, produced first Judges, and 
then Kings. And nothing can mors fhlly 
prove that the laws of Moses were as good 
as they could be— as pure, lofty, and bene- 

JUD 143 JUD 

▼olent as the state of his people would allow a supplement we have an acooont of the 
— than the fact, that the generations which image- worship of Ifficah, a man of Mount 
immediately followed him, and over whom Ephraim ; of the capture of Laish hy the 
his person^ influence must still have been Danites, and the idolatry thence introduced 
considerablci were in practice incapable of there (xvii. xviiL) ; finidly, of the ciril war 
maintaining in its integrity the system conducted by eleven tribes of Israel against 
which he had bequeathed to them, and Bei^amin, with Uie extraordinary means 
needed the discipline of many centuries, taken to arouse the former, and preTent the 
and even of seventy years of c^tivity, ere extinction of the latter (xix. — xxi.). 
they could fully receive and duly honour In perusing the book of Judges, we are 
the grand truth, that God is king over sll reminded of traditions found in pagan his- 
tfae earth, which formed the groundwork of tory. The sacrifice of Jephtha's daughter 
his institutions. Laws that far outstrip has its counterpart in the death of Iphigenia. 
the age to which they are communicated, The step taken to procure wives for the Ben- 
may give it an impulse in the right direc- jaminites, recals the rape of the Sabines. 
tion ; but ere they can enter into the national Samson's history has a parallel, not favour- 
life, and produce their appropriate fruits, able to itself, in the labours of Hercules, 
they must bring the national mind forward We have in the scattered and dispropor- 
to Uieir own advanced position. tionate notices and implications of this book, 
The book of Judges is no regular history, dear evidence of national retrocession. The 
but a number of collected historical notices sun had gone back many degrees ; it may 
or Ihigments, of disproportionate length, have been at the Divine command, and for 
relating to those heroes, and so presenting the better and fuller accomplishment of the 
views of the condition of the people of Divine purposes. In the long period of 
Israel during a somewhat undefined period three hundred and fifty years, idolatry had 
of three htmdred and fifty years. It opens gained the upper hand ; servitude ensued ; 
with narratives of several victories gained social disorganization was the consequence ; 
by the Israelites over the yet unconqnered and hence the spirit of history declined from 
natives. Judah, with Simeon, subdues the the high Mosaic standard. Accordingly, when 
Canaanites ; the descendants of Joseph cap- at some later day a writer sought to fill up the 
tnre Bethel and slay its inhabitants ; but historical chasm, he found scanty and hete- 
Ephraim and Manasseh, as well as other rogeneous materials; which, while they 
tribes, are, contrary to the Divine commands, showed that no regular records were pre- 
neglectful of the duty of extirpating the served, snd therefore no means existed for 
remaining idolaten ; so early did the prone- keeping facts f^e fr^m fabulous admixtures, 
ness to idolatry, which lay in the heart of he put together in an honest but uncritical 
the nation, especially of the more northern disposition of mind, 
tribes, betray its existence and exert its This book, accordingly, takes up the 
power (1). On which account the Israelites thread of the history where that called after 
are reproved and exhorted by a divine mes- Joshua drops it (Judges i.), and is, in con- 
senger, who appean to them in a festive sequence, in its right position immediately 
assembly ; nevertheless, the service of idols after the latter work. Its aim seems to be, 
continues its progress, till apostacy brings not merely historical, but dogmatical also— 
punishment, punishment produces repent- that is, to show by instances how departure 
ance, and repentance is rewarded with par* from tiie Mosaic worship brought disaster. 
don (ii. — iii. 5). There ensue instances of Though the materials are various, the book 
depsiture from the living God. From the is one, for they have undergone such revision 
yoke under which Ghnshan*riahathaim, king as made them into an externally uniform 
of Syria, held the people, Othniel liberates narrative. This appeara from the sameness 
them. Apostacy makes them servants of of manner with which is set forth the infln- 
Eglon, king of Moab, from whom they are enee of God on the judges (iii. 10; vi. 84 ; 
delivered by Ehud. Next Shamgar rescues xL29; xiiL25; xiv. 6; xv. 14). The time 
the Hebrews firom the Philistines; and Barak, when the work was composed cannot be 
assisted by Deborah, who celebrates the exactly detennined. That it was after the 
victory in a triumphal ode, redeems them introduction of regal government is clear 
from the Canaanitish king, Jahin (iii. 6 — ▼.). fh>m the passages which say—' In those 
The brave Gideon frees the people from the days there was no king in Israel* (xviiL 1 ; 
Midianites (vi— viiL). The tyranny of Abi- xix. 1 ; xxi. 26). Other tokens that the 
melech is overthrown by a woman (ix.), on book was put together long after the re- 
which Tola snd Jalr are judges (x.); the corded events, are found in vi 24; xi. 40; 
people are relieved tram tribute to the Am- xv. 19. With some probabili^, the com- 
monites by Jephtha; after whom Ibsan,Eloo, position has been referred to the last days 
and Abdon fill the ofllee of judge (xi xii.). of Samuel, when the literary spirit had 
Vassalage to the Philistines is put an end to revived, and when, in the f^sh seal for 
by Samson, whose birth, deeds, snd death monarchical government, the allusions to 
an somewhat ftilly related (xiii— ^xvi). In the kingless state of the nation to which 

JUD 144 JUD 

«• lunre Mf«ned, were nfttnnl and most deaigneiionB: I. the Judgment (Matt xii, 41, 

likely to be made. The author or oompiler tsq, Luke z. 14; zL 31. John r. d7; in the 

is unknown. The diTeiaities of length original, the judgment); II. * the day of judg* 

which prerail in the eoTeral notices of the ment ' (Matt z. Id ; ziL 86. 1 JohSa iv. 

Judges, are an argument that the writer put 17) ; III. * the day of the Lord' (I Cor. ▼. 5. 

his materials together much as he found 1 Theas. ▼. 3; oomp. Is. it 12. Mai. It. 

them, without any undue effort to bring 0); IV. * the day of visitation ' (1 Pet it 13); 

them into agreement with an ideal propor- Y. * the last day ' (John tL 89) ; YI. * tbe-daj 

tion or a fancied abstract ezeellenee. That of redemption ' (Ephes. iv. 80) ; YU. * the day 

he had before him and made use of docu- of Jesus Christ' (Phil. L 6) ; YIII. * the day' 

ments originating in the same age as the (Bom. ziiL 12. 1 Cor. iii 18) ; IX. < a day in 

events, iqppears probable from the use of which he (God) will judge the world in 

language which is peculisr to eye-witnesses righteousness by Jesus Christ' ( Acts zvii. 

or contemporaries (t 14, 15 ; ill. 10, mq. ; 81) ; X. 'that day' (2 Thess. ii. 8. 2 Tim. 

iv. 7, 18,af9.; ▼. 8, 7; vi. 11; iz. ziz. zz.). L 12, 18). The ideas entertained seem to 

The condition of the tribes, as separate be as follows: that as there were in the 

one from the other, having no common head, prophetie language of the Old Testament 

and sometimes hostile to one another, is such two conditions of the Messiah spdten of, 

as aocords with a tendency of the Mosaie zuunely, his humiliation and his ^ory, and 

ordinanees, and such as the land of Canaan, since the flrst had been ezperieuMd in his 

broken and intersected with hills and vales, emciilzion, death, and burial, so his seeond 

would naturally occasion in a primitive age. was to be looked for in a visible t^ipeaianee 

And the dissensions among themselves, as of Jesus in the clouds of heaven and amid 

well as the absence of impassable barriers ehoirs of attendant angels, when he would 

between them snd the Philistines, the 8y- judge the world, vindicate his canse and the 

rians, and other enemies, ezplain how it was canse of his people, raise the dead, establish 

easy for the Israelites in the south or in the his kingdom on the earth, and finally van- 

mortfa, sometimes over the whole length of quish the devil and his angels, who had 

the country, to faU under the power ef hitherto divided the empire of die world 

foreign aatiomB. These end ottier similar with his Father, ooasigning them, with his 

considerations have, when combined, much enemies, to everlasting torments, but as- 

weight to prove that the book of Judges is a suxing to his friends unutterable and endless 

genuine, and in the main credible work^- bliss (Matt zziv. 8, teq, ; zzv. SI, 9tq. Luke 

the produetion of an age when there ezisted iz. 26. Acts ill.] Cor. zv. 51, mq, Philip. 

sniBeient moans loot putting together a trust- iii. 20. 1 Thess. iv. 15, ttq, 1 Pet iv. 18). 

worthy nanadve of the times to which it This return of Jesus from heaven is repre- 

refers. seated as in point of time unknown to any 

JUDGMENT and TO JUDGE represent save God, yet near st hand; and our Lord 

terms which in the Beriptures have a fax himself ezpiessly states that &e generation 

wider signification than &ey bear in ordi- whom he addreeaed should not eome to an 

nazy English s^ie, for they denote not only end before it took place (Matt zziv. 84; 

the various parts and the whole of a judicial eomp. zvi. 26; zziiL 86. Luke zzi. 82. 

investigatiea, but also the •dministration ol John zzL 22; comp. Matt zziv. 14). A 

justice, and even the ezereiae of civil govern- season of great calamity was to precede, in- 

ment Leaving the student to find in the volving the ov e rthr o w of the Jewish state; 

aaered writings ezamplifieatioiis of most of whiefa days, howeprer, would be shortened 

the acceptations to which we have alluded, for the ekctTs sake (Matt zziv. 22. Maik 

we refer to one or two passages in which ziii. 20). That the general^ judgment and 

governing after the manner of eivil adminia- the establishmeiit of ti^e Messiah's kingdom 

(ration ia meant (Matt ziz. 28 ; eomp. 22. are identifled botfi fimn the passages (see 

Luke zziL 80. 1 Cor. vL 2, 8). This use above) hi whieb *the jwdgment' is spoken 

of the word judge is derived ficom the ftbo^ of, and in regard to thne, appears from Matt 

that the eariiest form of dvil goivmment zzzv. zzv., which p ts ecnt one continued se- 

amongthe Hebsews after their settlement in qnenee of ideas introdnoed by the predie- 

Canaan was conducted by men tended judges, tton of Jesus touching the overthrow of tiie 

who in oonsequenee were ssid to judge, temple, and the questioB of the disciples, 

that is govern, Israel (Judges ziL 7-- 9). * When shall these things be? and what the 

That this ussge was not unknown to the sign of thy coming and of ibe end of the 

Greek of our Lord's d^s, is obvious firom world V And it seems to have been the 

the feet, that it is foond in Josephus, who, object of Jesus to represent to his diseiplee 

for instsnce, s*ys (Antiq. v. 8, 0), that that these tilings would all take place at Ihe 

Othniel received the government and judged destrootioB of Jerusdem snd the ooneequent 

die people, and when he had rmkd over termination of the Jewieh policy, when his 

them lorty yesrs he died. kingdom would in a marked and final manner 

A penod of generaljudgmentia repeatedly besetupin|^bceof IfaeoondemnedJudaiem, 

ipokan of in tiis Now Testament under ihess and judgment (government) would be ezei^ 

J TT D 145 J U D 

eised in his name and for hia pnrpoaea polity and gorernment, it conld not fail to 
throngboat the world. This general view, become the judge end mler of the entire 
though not unattended with difficulties of world. This rectoral ftmction the church 
detail, seems to come forth olearlj from the has firom the first exercised and does still 
language employed. In the description of exercise; and in Uie degree in which the 
these great events, our Lord uses figures of outward and ▼isible becomes the true church 
speech, the exact import of which cannot be of Christ, it must and will bring into subjec- 
appreciated except by those who understand tion to itseU^ and so supersede, all earthly 
the peculiarities of the oriental style, and dominion, principality and power, till at 
are familiar with the imagery relating to last, ruling in each individual heart with 
these topics current in the day, and formed full and unrestricted empire, it will make 
after the model of the Helnew prophets each man a law to himself, and so set aside 
(Dan. vii. 18, 14. Is. xiii. 9, 10. Exek. xxxii. and bring for ever to an end all mere verbal 
7. Joel ii. 1 — 10,28 — 81. Acts ii. 16, m^.). and civil legislation. This the apostle Paul 
This is the less surprising, because even cleariy saw, but he made the commencement 
* the nunisters of the word ' were led to ex- of the benign reign of spiritual law depend- 
pect a visible and outward return of their ent on a Yisible appearance of Jesus, in 
Master, a formal judicial procedure, and a doing which he committed the inconsistency 
material reign of Christ on earth. A not of deriving the moral from the material, and 
dissimilar mistake was made by them in re- interrupting that regular development of spi- 
gard to the nature of the Messiah's kingdom, ritual causes which commenced when Jesus, 
Interpreting the language of Jesus on this rising from the dead, passed into the spi- 
point in accordance with the convictions ritual world, and took his seat at the right 
and sympathies of their own minds, they all hand of the mi^esty on high. In general, 
expected him to prove a temporal prince, the disciples did not at first discern the 
This expectation, barely dissipated by his high spiritual meaning and importance of 
death, was corrected by the great events that the downfal of the Jewish state, and there- 
ensued on his ascension, the effusion of the fore still kept looking for a visible appear- 
Holy Spirit, and the progress of his cause, ance of the judge of the world. The delay 
Still that cause was lowly, that progress was of that appearance made some sceptical, for 
small. The state of triumph and glory which the disappointment of false hopes might well 
prophets had predicted and Jesus himself lead to faJse states of mind {% Pet. iii. 4). 
promised, could ^not be recognised by minds As, however, the first generation passed away, 
so prepossessed with the hope of material and with it the material conceptions on 
grandeur, especially in the midst of the which these false ideas were founded; as 
persecution and tribulation which soon beset men entered more into the spirit of the 
the church on aU sides. From the midst of gospel ; especially as they began to consider 
their sorrows the disciples looked forward in diat, since the great Teacher had set as a 
hope ofthe second advent, which they believed limit for his re>appearance the lives of that 
would repair their losses, give them retribu- generation to whom he spoke, the event pre- 
tion on their enemies, and secure their own dieted must be one that had already tfdcen 
everlasting felicity. In the subjugation of place, so men were led to a spiritual inter- 
Jerusalem by the Boman arms, the conse- pretation and a right understanding of the 
quent termination of the Mosaic institute, words employed by the Christ, till, towards 
die establiishment and vindication of the the end of the first century, that interpreta- 
cause of Christ, the commencement, in a tion gained ^prevalence, though not uncon- 
pre-eminent sense and to permanent results, tested by millennial notions which, after &e 
of his everlasting kingdom, the promised old Jewish manner and in a grossly material 
coming was brought about, the predicted sense, maintained the outward and visible 
judgment had a beginning which shall never reign of Christ for a thousand (mi//«finmin, 
end till God be all in all. Admonished by from the Latin miUe, thousand ; annumy year) 
their Teacher's warnings, most of his dis years on earth (Rev, xx. 4, 6). It deserves 
ciples, fleeing to Pella, beyond the Jordan, special attention that the aposUe John, who 
escaped the terrible calamities which accom- lived till near the end of the first centuiy, 
panied the last struggles of expiring Judaism and whose gospel was written after the three 
(Euseb. iii. 5), and while all around it was others, aims to correct the materialised ex- 
fiill of trouble, sorrow, and anguish, the pectations of the church ; for, with a higher 
secluded church of Christ in tranquilli^ knowledge of spiritual realities, he saw that 
awaited the time when, after the fury of the Jesus was in truth glorified in his sufferings 
storm was spent, it should return to the and in his death, since these were the high- 
ancient capital of Palestine, and there, as est proofs of his spiritual majesty, under 
well as in other parts of the world, shine the influence of which he laid down his life 
forth in undecaying glory. Possessed as for the world. Accordingly, in his gospel 
that church was of tlie great and indefeasible our Lord identifies his glorification with his 
principles of morality which constitute the death : ' The hour is come that the Son of 
foundation of justice and judgment — of law, Man should be glorified' (xii.d8, 28). With 
Vol, II. L 




bis passion ore tlto identified the judgment 
of this world and the sabjagatiion of its 
prinee (31), and the fhtcue state of happi* 
ness is made to oommenoe in the spiritaal 
world immediately on his death (82 ; eomp. 
xiiL 81, M9. ; zIt. 2, 8, 19 ; zv. 8 ; zH. 0, 
10, 14, 28 ; ZTiL 2, sf^.)* '^^ (^o'T ^^ 
begvn, which was to be completed in the 
mansions of his Fathei^s honse, Jesus oum- 
mnnieated to his followers, that they in 
sharing his snfTerings and oanying on his 
work, might partake in the priTileges and 
hsppiness whieh he had to bestow (John 
ZTiL 10, 22). And instead of his eorporal 
pfssence in the ehnroh, erroneously ezpeeted 
by its members at large, Jesus promised 
anolher, the paraelete, advocate, comforter, 
or Holy Spirit, that was to ezponnd the 
teachings of Christ and lead his disciples 
into all truth (zIt. 16, 26; zt. 26; zvi. 18). 

The Tiew, then, that seems to have the 
sanction of the mind of Christ is this, that 
the judgment of the world which commenced 
in his ministry, was carried on in his suffer- 
ings, and was strikingly ezemplified in the 
retributory termination of corrupted and 
out-worn Judaism, is still continued and will 
last till the Prince of Peace has subdued all 
enemies, and made his church and his spirit 
uniyersal. Meanwhile, the period of judg- 
ment to CTery individual is his period of 
probation, and pre-eminently the period of 
his death, when he enters the world of spirits, 
and is rewarded 'according to his works' 
(Matt ztL 27. Bom. ii. 6). 

Only by degrees and in part, howcTcr, did 
the Christian church apprehend and receive 
these ideas. Losing, in course of time and 
under the teaching of events, the ezpectation 
of a material reign of Christ on earth, and 
sundering the idea of that reign iVom its 
mere local accessaries. Christians in gene- 
ral, after the first century, accustomed tibem- 
selves to the conception of an invisible reign 
of the Messiah iu his church, to a more or 
less remote appearance of him a second time 
to raise the dead and judge mankind at the 
end of the world, that is, at the final disso- 
lution of the material universe, as we find it 
set forth in what is termed the Apostles' Creed. 

The disciples first held Jesus to be a tem- 
poral Messiah; then a spiritual Saviour 
ascended to heaven who would shortly return. 
The second advent was identified with a 
general judgment and the reign of Christ on 
earth. These ideas were connected with the 
city of Jerusalem, in which the expected 
kingdom was to be set up. The delay of 
tiie return weakened the ezpectation of it 
When Jerusalem feQ, some began to doubt, 
others to deny, the second advent ; but others, 
looking on that fall as only the beginning of 
sorrows, took the event as a sign that Chrisf s 
appearance was at hand. Time went on, 
and still no second coming. Men looked 
back on the fall of Jerusalem and the ler- 

mination of ftie temple servioes, and around 
them on the rapid progress of the gospel, 
till, towards the last quarter of the first 
century, they began to give a spiritual im- 
port to passages that spoke of Christ^ s coming 
to judge the world, and so were by degrees 
led to the opinion that his kingdom was 
established on earth, and that the great duty 
of his followers was to ezert themselves tor 
its eztension. Hence new and vigorous 
efforts, and as a consequence f^sh con- 
quests over sin and ignorance, and a greater 
unity in the Christian church. From these 
fiusts we gain some criteria which may afford 
aid in spprozimately determining the date 
of Christian Scriptures. Four cUef phases 
of the opinion respecting a speedy retain of 
Christ to earth may be marked: I. A ge- 
neral ezpectation of it, indicated by its an- 
nouncement in general terms, A. D. 80—60 ; 
II. an anzious ezpectation, indicated by 
statements of its being near, and by efforts 
to prove its reality, A.D. 60—70 ; III. doubts 
of the event op&oSj combated, and as a 
consequence disorders in practice and opi- 
nion, A.D. 70 — 80; lY. a spiritual concep- 
tion of Christ's kingdom, and a greater unity, 
co-operation, and zeal, A. D. 80 — . The ap- 
plication of these facts to the determination 
of the date of a Christian writing is not 
without difficulty. We mast, however, en- 
deavour to ascertain which of the four views 
prevails in any doeument, and accordingly 
pronounce on the period when it first ap- 
peared. Thus we may assert that MattheVs 
gospel, which is probably characterised by 
phase I. or II., was written before A. D. 70 ; 
and John's gospel, in which phase lY. is 
very visible, could not have come into ezist- 
ence till about flie last twenty years of the 
first century. One condition must be laid 
down, namely, that it appear on sufficient 
evidence that the phase exhibited comprises 
the opinion of the writer or the prevalent 
opinion of the day in which he wrote. 

< Judgment,' in Matt v. 21, 22, is the ren- 
dering of kritUf which there denotes an 
inferior local tribunal, consisting of seven 
members appointed in each town, for hearing 
and determining ordinary causes (Deut 
zvi. 18 ; 2 Chron. ziz. 5), who might, how- 
ever, uike cognizance of criminal dTences 
of high moment (Deut zvii. 2, 0, 8), but 
only so that an appeal lay to the higher 
court, the Sanhedrim (Joseph. Antiq. iv. 8, 
14; War. ii 20, 5). 

The highest judicial tribunal was * the 
council' (Matt v. 22) or Sanhedrim, called 
in Luke zziL 66, the Prtilkuterium — ^tn the 
English, *the elders of ttie people.' A 
Sanhedrim sat in every city to adjudicate in 
inferior causes (Matt z. 17). At the head 
of these local tribunals was the great San- 
hedrim in Jerusalem, of whose origin see 
Ezod. zviii. 17—36. Numb. zi. 16, teq. This 
was the great national council, having, both 

J U N 147 J U P 

In raUgioiiB and eivil affaixs, rapreme power, they often went in adTance of the eamela, we 
Ita members, aeventy in nnmber, were high Ibmid them not unfreqaently aitting or Bleep* 
priesta, eldera, and aeribea, whose president ing under a boah of retem, to protect them- 
waa the chief priest for the time being, in aelvea from the sun. Itwaa in this very desert^ 
virtue of hia office, ealled ' prince,' or ' head a day's journey from Beersheba, that the pro- 
of the Sanhedrim.' In hia absence, the phet Elgah lay down and dept beneath the 
president's chair was filled by another mem- same ahrnb.' In a note, Dr. Robinson adds, 
ber, denominated ' fiuher of the house of ' The roota are Tery bitter, end are regarded 
judgment' (tribunal). by the Arabs aa yielding the best charcoal.' 

The degree and kind of puniahment This iUnstrates Job zxx. 4. Ps. cxx. 4. In 
Taried in general with the nature of the Palestine, as in other countries, roots are, 
tribunal, from the aeven justices of a pro- in poverty or urgent want, eaten as food. 
Txnoial town to the highest eourt of review These facts will be found to Aimish illus- 
in Jerusalem. Hence the terma < judgment^ tration of the passages in which the rothem, 
and * council' were uaed for different penal- or broom, is mentioned, 
tiea, 80 that *tobe answerable to the council' JUPITEB, the Latin (deut-pater) form 
or ' Sanhedrim,' bore in the fonn of expres- of the Greek Zeus, and the name of the 
sion a resemblance to our being *exehe- highest divinity recognised among the 
quered.' The lowest punishment was ' the Greeks and Bomans, commonly termed 
judgment;* a higheri 'the council;' the father of gods. Jupiter was honoured as 
higheat, * hell-fire,' or, according to the ori- the supreme chief of all divinities, and spe- 
ginal, ' Gehenna of fire' (see Hinnom). cially as the ruler of the upper world, while 
This explains the passage in Matt v. 21, his brother Pluto governed the nether re- 
Mf. (in V. 21, 'judgment' may have the gions, and Neptune had the empire of the 
general import of our term ' law,' Exod. xx. sea. His abode, in which the other goda 
18 J, where causeless anger is made to ren- gathered together, was by the ancient Greeks 
der an offender amenable to an inferior placed on Mount Olympus, in Thessaly, 
punishment; the use of contemptuous and which appeared to them the loftiest point of 
opprobrious words, such aa Baca (' thou the earth, where heaven and earth seemed 
lickspittle'), subjected a peraon to higher to unite, and a survey might be had of the 
penalty ; and designating another as an entire world. When, however, a better know- 
* impious apostate ' (Ps. xiv. 1 ; liii. 1, #09. ledge of the earth, and of this particular 
1 Sam. XXV. 20, Nabal, probably the word district, had shown men that the palace of 
condemned by Jesus ; comp. Job ii. 10), Jupiter was not on the top of the mountain, 
exposed a man to the most disgracefril death, they removed his abode hi^er into the 
These statementa from the lips of Christ unseen ether, which they denominated hea- 
are probably not to be pressed closely, but ven ; whence Olympus became some un- 
to be understood as generally declaring that, known spot in the skies, and ita king, Ju- 
under the new dispensation, not merely piter Olympius, was accounted the supreme 
overt acts, but inconsiderate and injurious governor of gods, who received from him 
words, as well as ill-govemed paasions, their several departmenta in the administra- 
would meet wi^ punishment in proportion tion of his empire, extending over heaven 
to the deeper hue of the offence. See Ana» and earth. 
thmna and Damnation, Jupiter thus became to his worshippers 

JUNIPER is, in the Common Version, the the symbol of power. Accordingly, when 
rendering of a Hebrew word, rothem (1 Kinga Paul and Barnabas came to Lystra, and dis- 
zix. 4, 5. Job XXX. 4. Ps. cxx. 4 ; oomp. tinguished themselves by their deeds and 
Micah i. 18), niiieh is found in the modem words, the people, thinking that the goda 
Arabic rttom, a species of broom, probably had come to earth in &e ahape of men, 
geniffa monoqtorma, Burekhaxdt saya that called tbe former Mercury, because he was 
in the deserts south of Palestine, whole the chief speaker, and gave the name of 
plains are covered with this shrub, a^BRording Jupiter to Barnabas, who may have been 
to aheep favourite pasturage. Lord Lindsay, marked by something unusual in his size, 
too, found in the valleys of Mount Sinai, port» or mien (Acts xiv. 11 — 18). Besides 
*thenittam, a species of broom, bearing a this, there waa a special reason why Bamabaa 
white flower, delicately streaked with purple,' received the name of Jupiter. This divi- 
which * afforded me frequent ahelter from nity was worshipped under several forms, 
the sun.' Of the same plant, Dr. Robinson Among these he was regarded as the author 
(i. 299) observes, ' this is the largest and of oivilization, and so die founder and pro- 
most conspicuous shrub of Aese deserts tector of cities. Now Lystra was held to 
(fh>m Akabah to Jeruaalem), growing have been built by Jupiter, and under his 
thickly in the water-courses and valleys, protection it remained. Accordingly, before 
Our Arabs always selected the place of en- the eity stood a temple, erected to his 
eampment (if possible) in a spot where it honour, and which may have been the nu- 
grew, in order to be sheltered by it at night elens of the place. When, therefore, the 
from the wind; and during the day, when inhabitants saw the cure operated no the 


JUS 148 JUS 

lame man, they at onoe referred the miraole In the times of the Hebrew eommonwealth 

to their own tutelary god. there ia no mention of execationers, who ap- 

JURISDICTION (L. J1U, * right' or Maw/ pear only under the Kings. A mnrder(»r was 

and dico, * I say/ * pronounce '), signifying the given np to the vengeance of the relatifes of 

district or (figuratively) the sphere over his victim. After death, the body of the 

which an officer of state has authority in eriminal might be suspended on a tree or 

the administration of law, is used in Luke post, where it remained not longer than 

xziii. 7, for a Greek word that is generally sunset, the reason assigned being, that * he 

translated * power' (v.d4. John LIS; z. 18), that is hanged is accursed of God' (Dent 

* authority' (v. 27); also * liberty' (1 Cor. zzi. 22, 23). In some eases, persons who 

viii. 9). had been stoned were consumed by fire 

JUSTICE (L. Jut, ' right'), that which is (Josh vii. 20), or they were buried under a 
right (rtctum, 'ruled'), as being command- mound of stones, which remained as a me- 
ed {L. Jub90, *1 command') by supreme morial of terror (vii. 26). In Acts xzviii. 4, 
power, that is, properly, God, the source of ' vengeance' appears as pursuing the guilty, 
all obligation ; whose ordinances and laws The common translation, which is neverthe- 
are the expressions of the highest wisdom less preserved by ' A Layman* and Bartletfs 
and the purest and widest benignity (Dent ' People's Edition,' imperfectly represents the 
zxxii. 4. Ps. Izxxix. 14). That, then, is original, which, as given by Sharpe, should 
just which, emanating firom the divine ordi- be 'justice,' that is, the personification of 
nations, has for its aim the furtherance of Justice, the goddess that with the Greeks 
God's will and man's good (Ps. xxiii. 3 ; bore the name (as in the original of the 
xlv. 7). Hence comes a criterion by which passsge in Acts) of Dike, the daughter of 
we learn that what opposes these great pur- Jupiter and Themis, having specially in her 
poses is not just, and that every thing is hands the avenging of death by violence, 
just and divine in proportion as it promotes In the genuine Hebraic period, the admx- 
the great ends of God's government in the nistration of justice, like the manners of tbe 
education of his intelligent offspring (Is. nation, was simple. The ordinary tribunsls 
xi. 4; Iv. 6,j«f. John iii. 16, teq.). Justice, had their seat at the chief gate of the city, 
accordingly, is only a modification of bene- where a concourse of people was commonly 
volence (Ps. Ixxxv. 10). Viewed in this light, found (Deut xvi. 18 ; xxi. 19 ; xxii. J 0), espe- 
justice with God is his observance of his cially in the early part of the day (Jer. xxi 
own laws of rectitude, goodness, and mercy, 12) ; but in later times the SanJiedrim as- 
in his dealings with man (Gen. xviii. 2d. sembled in a hall in the capital, connected 
Ps.xix. 7,se9.). Justice, as from man to God, with the temple. At the gates of the city 
is faithful and childlike allegiance to the the advantages of publicity were readily 
laws of God, because they are his, and gained. The taking of salaries or bribes, 
therefore ' holy, just, and true ' (Matt xxii. as well as partiality on the part of the 
36, 9eq,); and justice, as between man and judges, was prohibited (Deut xvi. 19 ; xxvii. 
man, is doing unto others as we would be 26). The piooednTe,which involved a minute 
done unto, out of deference to the will of investigation, was summary, and for the 
God, and in obedience to the rules he has most part verbal (xiii. 13, teq.; xrii 2, teq,). 
given for our c^idance (Matt. vii. 12). Criminal causes were deteraoined on the 

As confession of guil^ at least when the verbal evidence of two sworn, unsuspected 
crime was not glaringly evident, was con- witnesses (xvii. 6) ; in civil cases, one wit- 
sidered desirable, if not necessary, to con- ness was sufllcient (Exod. xxii. 10-^12). 
demnadon, means were taken to work on JUSTIFY {I^Juitumfado, * I make just') 
the feelings of an accused party (Josh* vii. is the tranalation of a Hebrew word, tsodofc. 
Numb. V. 10, teq,) ; but among the ancient which, having for its root the idea of right, 
Hebrews there is found no trace of the use bears as a verb several acceptations which 
of torture ; which, however, was among the are natural modifications of that import 
foreign customs introduced by Herod (Jo- Accordingly, it signifies 'to be righteous' 
seph. Jew. War. t 30, 3). The parties (Genesis xxxviii. 26. Ps. xix. 9) or *justi- 
pleaded their cause themselves (Deut xxv. fied' (Job xxv. 4. Ps. czliii.2), ' to cleanse ' 
I. I KingsiiLlfi, seg.). Professional advo- (Dan. viii. 14), 'to clear' (Gen. xliv. 
cates are not mentioned, though friends 16), 'acquit' (Is. v. 23), and specially that 
might speak on behalf of an accused person acquitting which is vouchsafed to man by 
(Is. I 17. Job xxix. 12^17). Speedy his Creator and Judge (Exod. xxiii. 7. Is. 
punishment followed conviction (Deut xxv. liii. 11), before whom no mortal can be held 
2)> If the sentence was ' death,' it was in- guiltless (Job. ix. 2). Hence, to account • 
flioted by stoning, which took place on the thing to any one for righteousness, is in con- 
outside of tlie city (Lev. xxiv. 14. Numb, aideration of that thing to ' acquit^ (comp. 
XV. 36. I Kings xxL 10, 13). The wit- 'rectify'), and so 'to treat him as just,* 
nesses were to cast the first stone; whioh or witib favour (Gen. xv. 6. Ps. cvi. 81). 
was followed up by the men of the place In the New Testament, the Greek dikawo, 
(Dent xvii. 7; xxL 21. John viiL 7). fromdaJbatot, 'just," equal," ptopei" (Mutt zx. 




4. Bom. Tii. 12), < good,' or * kind.' (Matt i. 
19. John xrii. 25. 1 John L 9), signifies, 
' I make a.penon just/ or 'I aoooont, deelare, 
or prove any one just.' Thus in Luke viL 
29, ' the publicans justified Ood, being bap- 
tised with the baptism of John' (86). In a 
similar manner we speak of justafying the 
ways of God to man. Comp. Luke x. 29. 
Bom. iiL 4. In the passiTs Toiee, the word 
is equivalent ' to be approved' (Luke xviii. 
14. Bom. ii. 18. James iL 21—25. 1 Tim. 
iii. 16). Accordingly, to * justify' is * to par- 
don' (Mattzii. 87. Acts xiiL 88, 89), *to 
set free from sin ' (Bom. vi. 7. X Cor. yi. 
11. Bom. iiL 20, teq.). 

The corresponding noun, dtkaiatuni, de- 
rives from its root-meaning, namely, 'that 
which is just and proper,' various significa- 
tions in which the original import may be 
traced ; for example, ' what is becoming as 
part of established law or custom ' (Matt iii. 
15) ; ' acceptance with Ood ' (vL 33) ; * benig- 

nity ' (2 Cor. ix. 9) ; * benefaction ' (Matt vi. 
1 ; see Griesbach ; and comp. 1 Sam. xiL 7) ; 
<a holy life' (Matt v. 6); 'regard to the 
divine laws, and specially to conscience' 
(10, 20. Acto X. 85) ; 'justification in Jesus 
Christ ' (Gal. iiL Bom. iv. ; comp. James ii. 
28) ; ' the mode or system of justification or 
pardon' (Bom. vi. 18. Heb. v. 18). 

JUTTAH (H.), a priestly city in the 
territory of Judah (Josh. xxi. 16), mentioned 
with places whose position mskes it likely 
we are to seek for it in the south of Judah 
(xv. 55 ). About four miles south of Hebron, 
tiliere is a large Mohammedan village called 
Jutta, near which are still found the names 
Carmel and Ziph, mentioned in the last pas- 
sage in connection with Jnttah, and in which 
are remains of ancient buildings. Not im- 
probably this is the place which is meant in 
Luke L 39, where by an orthographical error 
Juda is read. 


KADESH (H.), called also Kadesh-bamea 
(comp. Numb. xx. 14; xxxii. 8. Josh. xiv. 
7), a place in the south-east of Palestine 
(Numb. XX. 16 ; xxxiv. 4. Josh. xv. 8), 
with a fountain (Gen. xiv. 7), whence it 
had another name, En-mishpat, 'fountain 
of judgment;' on the borders of Edom and 
in the wilderness of Zin (Numb. xx. 1, 16 ; 
xxvii. 14), connected with that of Parau (xiiL 
27). At this place the Israelites arrived 
in their journey towards Canaafi. Here 
Miriam died and was buried; here Moses 
smote the rock whence water gushed to 
supply the thirsty and mnnnuring people 
(' this is the water of Meribah ' ) ; here also 
that leader treated in vain with ihe Edomites 
for a passage into the promised land, which 
he had caused to be surveyed by special 
messengers (Numb. xiL 16; xiii. xiv. xx. 
xxxlL 8. Jndg. xL 17). By the Be v. J. 
Bowlands (see Williams' Holy City, Ap- 
pendix), the place has been identified with 
the modem Kades or Kades, which lies to 
the east of the highest part of Jebel Halal, 
towards its northern extremity, about twelve 
miles E. S. E. of Moilahhi (the same as 
Beer-lahairoL Gen. xvL 14), near the grand 
entrance into the promised land, in a plain 
connected by roads both with Sinai and Hor. 
' The nature of the locality,' says Bowlands, 
' answers in every respect to the description 
inferred from Scripture — the mountains to 
the east and some very grand ones to the 
south; the rock, the water, and the grand 
space for encaoipment whieh lies to the 

south-west, a large rectangular plain about 
nine by five or ten by six miles, and this 
opening to the west into the still more ex- 
tensive plain of Paran.' The same traveller 
speaks of the lovely stream which still issues 
from under the base of the rock smitten by 
Moses, a large single mass, a spar of the 
moantain to ttte north of it, the only visible 
naked rock in the whole district In proceed- 
ing towards this spot, ' Bowlands passed 
Khalasa (ancient Chesil, Josh. xv. 30), 
which must have been a very large city ; two 
hours and a half from which he came to an 
ancient site called Sepata, which he thonght 
was Hormah, or ancient Zephath (Jndg. L 
17), which corresponds well with the great 
elevated plain of Serr or Seir, where the 
children of Israel were chased before the 
Amorites (Dent i. 44). It lies to the west 
of the mountains of Bakhmeh. A few hours 
to the east of Sepata, he was told, lay Kas- 
loodg, which he considered to be Ziklag. 
About a quarter of an hoar beyond Sepata, he 
came to the remains of what must have been 
a well-built city, called now Bohebeh, the an- 
cient Behoboth (Gen. xxvi. 18, 22) ; outside 
of the walls is a weU. Ten hours beyond 
Bohebeh is Moilahhi, a grand resting-place 
of Uie caravans, there being water here; which 
lies in one of two or three passages or openings 
in the very southernmost hills or southern 
border of the land of promise, which form tlie 
great outlet from Palestine into the desert by 
which the great caravan roads frt>m Akahah, 
Mount Sinai, and Sues, pass to Hebron and 




Oasa. It will add to Ihe readci's acqaaini- 
anee with this part of the Holy Laud if we 
transcribe the description given by Bow- 
lands of the country whieh he saw in pro • 
seeding southward from Aroer and Bakh- 
mah: *We turned to the left of our path, 
and having ascended a ridge, a scene of 
awftil grandeur burst suddenly upon us with 
such startling effect, as to strike us dumb 
for some moments. We found ourselves 
standing on a gigantic natural nmpart of 
lofty mountains, which we could trace dis- 
tinctly for many miles east and west of the 
spot on which we stood, whose precipitous 
promontories of naked rock, forming as it 
were bastions of Cyclopean architecture, 
jutted forth in irregular masses from the 
mountain-barrier into a frightftilly terrifie 
wilderness, stretehed far before us towards 
the south, whose horrors language must 
fail to describe. It was a oonfojied chaos of 
ehalk, and had the appearance of an immense 
furnace glowing with white heat, Oluminated 
as it now was by the fierce rays of the sun. 
There did not appear to be the least particle 
of vegetation in all Ihe dreary waste; all 
was drought, barrenness, and desolation. 
We were standing on the mountain-barrier 
of the promised land.' 

KEDAB, a son of Ishmael and founder 
of a widely-spread Arab tribe of the same 
name (Oen.xxv. 18), connected in the Bible 
with another tribe, that of Nebajoth or Ne- 
baioth (Gen. zxv. 18. Isaiah Ix. 7). llie 
Kedarenes appear as a rich nomad people 
(Jer. xliz. 29, 81), who carried their cattle 
for sale to Tyre (Ezek. xzvii. 21), and were 
distinguished for power and warlike achieve- 
ments (Is. zxi. 16, 17). Their exact spot 
cannot be determined; though, from the 
passages in which they are spoken of, they 
must have been near Palestine, and most 
probably had their head quarters in the 
Arabian desert, west of the Euphrates, and 
perfaapft at no great distance from Babylon 
(Ps. cxx. ; oomp. Jer. ii. 10). 

KENITES, one of three Canaanitish na- 
tions, the Kenites, the Keniziites, and the 
Kadmonites (Oen. xv. 10). The Kenites 
dwelt south of Judah (1 Sam. zxvii. 10), in 
the neighbourhood of Uie Amalekites (xv. 6) 
and Edomites, in a mountainous region 
(Numb. xxiv. 21). They appear in a friendly 
relation wilh the Hebrews (1 Sam. xv. 6; 
comp. XXX. 29. Judg i. 16 ; iv. 11 ). 

KEBCHIEF (F. eoutrir, 'to cover,' and 
€hrf, * the head'), is properly a covering for 
the head. By prefixing 'neck,' kexvhief 
came to be * neckerehief,' a covering for the 
neck. The apparent incongruity in the 
same piece of cloth being etymologically a 
covering for the head and the neck, is di- 
minished in the case of those who have 
seen the ungraceftil custom of Lancashire 
females in wearing a shawl, or on holiday 
oeeaaions a silk handkerchief, over the head 

and neck, so that it hangs on the top of the 
back, or protecte also the chest Nothing, 
however, can excuse the etymological ab- 
surdity of the word 'handkerchief {hand- 
eover-hsad) and ' neckhandkerchief ' {neck- 
hand'-eover-head), the first for a convenience 
carried in the pocket, the second for a piece 
of doth worn exclusively round the neck. 
In Ezek. xiii 18,21, the original for'kerchier 
might be appropriately translated ' tarban.' 

KEBIOTH (H. city), a town on the south- 
em borders of Judah (Joeh. xv. 2d), pro- 
bably the birth-place of Judas, who betrayed 
Jesus, and was henee sumamed Iscariot 
It may perhaps be found in the modem el- 
Kurietein, a village about twelve miles from 

Another Kerioth appears to have been in 
Moab (Jer. xlvui. 24, 41. Amos ii 2). 

KEY is represented in Hebrew, according 
to the genius of the language, as the openmr, 
being from the same root as is the word 
'opening' in Prov. viiL 6. Though keys 
were known among the Israelites (Judg. iii. 
25. Is. xxii. 22 ; comp. 1 Chron. iz. 27), 
yet, if we may judge from the small number 
of passages in which they are mentioned, 
they were not common. As, however, the 
key gave admission to mansions, palaces, 
temples, and their treasures, so it became a 
symbol of power, authority, and distinction, 
and to have or bear the key was synonymous 
with possessing uncontrolled sway (Is. xxiL 
22. JobxiL14. Bev. i. 18; iii. 7; ix. 1; 
comp. Matt. xvL 19). The key was of a 
much larger size than those that are com- 
monly in use amongst us, and hence might 
be carried on the shoulder, where on high 
occasions it was borne, indicative of rule, 
like the sword of state in modem courts (Is. 
zziL 22; comp. 21). In ISgypt the doors, 
being of either one or two valves, and turn- 
ing on pins, were secured by bars or bolte, 
but in many instances by wooden locks, 
which passed over the centre at the junction 
of the two folds, as in this figure—. 


if it is not rather an exemplificaUon of the 




Mk For greater wteuiitf, the Telves of the The entning cut repreeents Otirit with these 
door were occaaioiudly eealed, u tfaoa, insignia on his shonlders. 

with a mass of olay, oaUing to mind the 
words of Herodotus (iL 121), 'the seals 
being entire, and the door locked/ or bolted, 
which innatrates Matt xxriL 66. When 
iron came into use, keys were made of that 
metal. Here is a specimen, oopied firom an 
Egyptian key in possession of Wilkinson. 

In regard to Is. nil. 22,— 

And the kejr of the house of Darid wHl I lay 

on his Bnoulder; 
He shall open and none Bhall shnt ; 
And he ehall shut and none ehall (qpen*— 

it may be farther obseryed, that in general a 
key was a sign of sacerdotal or civil autho- 
rity. The priestess of Juno was called her 
key-bearer ; and Kallithoe is termed the key- 
bearer of the queen of heayen. This token 
of oiBce was among the Greeks, as in the 
aboye passage, borne on the shoulders. Cal- 
limachus says this expressly of the priestess 
of Ceres. Divinities and monarchs and 
high oiScers are constantly seen on the 
Egyptian monuments, bearing as ensigns of 
their authority the flagellum or whip, and 
what Wilkinson calls the crook, but which 
may more ooiteetly be termed the key (1. 320). 

To bear or have the key of a place, or to 
shut and open it, is, as before remarked, the 
same as possessing supreme power. Hence 
Rev. i. 18. On the Egyptian monuments in 
paintings figurative of the soul's passage 
from the moment of her departure ftrom 
earth to her entrance into the abodes of the 
blessed, Isis is seen with a key in her hand, 
to represent her an&ority and power in these 
momentous scenes. From this her ofSce 
the goddess was thus described on a pillar 
which stood at Nysa, in Arabia : * I, Isis, am 
queen of Egypt; what I have bound no 
one can loose.' From the Egyptians, the 
key, as a power to shut and open, passed to 
the Hebrews (Is. zxii. 22) and to the 
Oreeks. In the Orphic hymns, the key of 
the earth is assigned to Pluto, the key of the 
sea to Proteus, the key of the world to Love. 
So, in the Aramaic language which our 
Lord employed, ' to bind and loose' indicated 
the possession of uncontrolled power. In 
the Chronicle of Greogiy Bar-Hebrans are 
these words — ' The Jew who yesterday was 
the highest roler, and could bind and loote, 
wearing royal apparel, is now a beggar, and 
clothed in sackcloth.' Comp. Matt. ivi. 10. 

KINGS (T., from a root with which are 
connected our * ken' and <<cunning ;' comp. 
Ps. cxxxvii. 5) were not introduced into the 
Hebrew constitution till Uie termination with 
Samoel of the commonwealth under the 
Judges. The constitution of Moses, in its 
earliest and genuine condition, offers the 
first specimen of a mixed government, com- 
bining as it did the monarchical form in 
Jehovah, who was the sole king (hence called 

K I N 



a theooraey), the arUtooratioal in the heads 
of tribes and families, and the democratical 
in the common councils of the nation, ' the 
congregation of Israel,' and in the general 
prevalence of an equsli^ of civil and social 
privileges (Lev. xxv. 55). If viewed in 
relation to its Divine Head, the government 
was strictly a monarchy, inasmuch as Je- 
hovah was the source of law, obligation, 
and right, on whom depended every officer, 
and for whom was discharged every function 
in the state. If, however, we regard the 
earthly distribution of power, we find the 
democratical element largely predominant, if 
democracy was not the original type accord- 
ing to which Moses framed his institutions. 
The idea of a king seems to have been 
superinduced at a late period, and only 
because the legislator had been led to fear 
that his people could not permanently go- 
vern themselves. Moses, in consequence, 
left the nation a conditional power to elect 
a king, but took care to limit the monarch's 
prerogatives. Thus he was to be chosen of 
Ood, a native Hebrew, independent of Egypt, 
and a diligent student of the law; he was 
also forbidden to keep a standing army, 
especially of cavalry, which would be dan- 
gerous to popular liberty, and a la^^e harem, 
which would prove corrupting to himself 
(Dent. xvii. 14, uq. ; comp. 1 Sam. viii. 19, 
M^.). These limitations illustrate the wis* 
dom of ihe great legislator, for they touch 
t)ie very points, failure in which brought 
disaster on king and people. How different 
would the history of Israel be, had its mo- 
narchs confurmed to the Divine behests ! 

The confiision and dependence that pre- 
vailed during the partial and ill-defined 
authority of the Judges, co-operated with 
the advantages accruing from Samuel, the 
last of the number, to make the Israelites 
desire a monarchical government. That vir- 
tuous man, averse though he was to the 
general wish, on the ground that it was a 
breach of the fundamental law of the state, 
which recognized God as its sovereign, and 
because he feared that such an officer would 
disturb the balance of the constitution and 
bring many evils on the people, yet, yielding 
to the general demand, took measures for 
electing an hereditary successor to himself, 
in conformity with the provisions of the 
law (1 Samuel viii. ix. x.). Accordingly 
Saul was appointed the first king in Israel, 
being nominated of God and elected by the 
people. The venerable judge and prophet, 
Samuel, drew up a form of government, 
which was adopted, and a copy of it depo- 
sited in the national archives (x. 25). As 
yet, however, the monarchical power was 
weak. Saul, in a great measure, depended 
on Samuel, to whom he owed his elevation ; 
and ere long, a time came when, under the 
direction of that powerful subject, who held 
in his hands great religious as well as civil 

influence, and who was deeply conoeme«] for 
the preservation of the Hebrew constitnticm, 
the short-lived monarch was superseded in 
favour of David, a servant in his court Too 
great was the difficulty which the newly- 
elected prince experienced to get possession 
of his throne, and too troubled with foreign 
wars and domestic dissensions was his 
reign, to allow David to give full play to the 
monarchical principle as represented in his 
person; and though in the latter part of 
his reign he had acquired great and various 
powers, which he used in a manner charac- 
teristic of oriental despotisms, it was not till 
the era of his son and successor, Solomon, 
that monarchy appeared on the soil of Pa- 
lestine in its full development and native 
splendour. How ineompatible with the holi- 
ness and equality of the Mosaic institutions 
it then was, sufficiently appears ttom the 
darkening close of the reign of that sove- 
reign, who was the root of two series of 
kmgs that corrupted religion, divided and 
disgusted the people, and finally brought on 
the whole nation seventy years of captivity. 
With Solomon began and ended the glory 
of the Hebrew monarchy. Under his suc- 
cessor, Rehoboam, ten tribes revolted and 
made Jeroboam their king, leaving to the 
hereditary head of the nation little more 
than the tribe of Judah, with Jerusalem for 
its capital, and a few dependencies. The 
unfriendly relations that thus arose between 
Israel in the north and Judah in the sooth, 
were propagated amid mutual hate and 
slaughter, till exile and suffering had suc- 
ceeded in melting down causes of dissension 
and fusing the two kingdoms into one Jew- 
ish nation. Though small in territory and 
weak in numbers, Judah, in virtue of pos- 
sessing the religious capital of the race, of 
certain geographical advantages, and of be- 
coming less corrupt, maintained a general 
advantage over Israel; while the two, en- 
gaged in almost constant and very unnatural 
conflict, destroyed the sinews of each other's 
strength, and laid themselves open to attacks 
from foreign enemies, by whom they were 
at last reduced into servitude. The details 
of the history which wiU be found under the 
names of the several monsrchs, combine to 
illustrate the great truth exhibited in the 
whole of the Hebrew history, that 'righteous- 
ness exalteth a nation, but sin is a reproach 
to any people' (Prov. xiv. 34). In Judah 
the crown remained in David's family, while 
changes of dynasty, with the evil conse- 
quences that ensue, were frequent in Israel. 
The united kingdom of Judah and Israel 
had only three kings, for Ishbosheth was 
not acknowledged by the former (2 Sam. ii. 
10). These three were Saul (Acts xiii. 21), 
David (1 Kings ii. 11), Solomon (ii. 12; 
xL 42). Of the divided kingdom, Israel in 
a period of about 250 years had twenty kings* 
most of whom were bad. Over Judah ruled* 




dnring about 400 years, also twenty kln^, 
the miyority of whom were less guilty than 
those of Israel. 

If we look at the actasl working of mo- 
narchy amongst the Hebrews, we find that 
a right to the throne was acqoiied by the 
Divine appointment through the chaxmel of 
a prophet (1 Sam. ix. 17; x. 17 — 2d;xiiL 
14), so as not to exclude hereditaiy succes- 
sion, though as to the individual some power 
of selection lay with the reigning sovereign 
(1 Kings iL 2), and occasionally the people 
made their own selection (2 Kings zxi. 24 ; 
xxiii. 30). In the appointment, Uie exterior 
had an influence (1 Kings x. 23, 24. 2 Sam. 
xiv. 25. 1 Kings i. 6). Inauguration in- 
volved anointing (1 Sam. x. 1 ; xv. I), from 
the practice of which kings were called * Je- 
hovah's anointed* (2 Sam. xix. 21). They 
were objects of profound respect Persons 
on horseback alighted on meeting them 
(1 Sam. xzv. 23). On entering their pre- 
sence, others fell on their faces (2 Sam. ix. 
6). The favour of princes was shown by 
entertaining distinguished subjects at their 
own table (2 Sam. ix. 7. 1 Kings 11. 7). 
They showed honour one to another by 
interchanging presents (1 Kings x. 2. 2 
Kings XX, 12). At first the monarchs of 
Israel were simple in their manners (1 Sam. 
xi. 0. 2 Sam. vi. 14), and in consequence 
w«re easy of access to their subjects (2 Sam. 
xviii. 4) ; but treason was severely punished ; 
im case of members of the royal family, by 
bcmishment from court (2 Sam. xiv. 24); 
otchers were summarily punished with dea^ 
(X Kings xxi. 10). Among their preroga- 
ti'ves was the right of making war and peace 
(1 Sam. xi. 6, se^.; xiv. 36), the command 
of the armies (I Sam. viii. 20), the admi- 
nistration of justice in the highest instance 
(2 Sam. XV. 2), the power of pardon (xiv. 
21, 33). Limitations to their power ensued 
firom the relations in which the Hebrew 
monarchs stood to the heads of the tribes, 
who must have had great influence, as they 
formed a compact with a new sovereign 
(v. 3. 1 Kings xii. 1, 4, 7. 2 Kings xi. 17). 
They were excluded from all share in the 
priestly office (2 Chron. xxvi. 16 — 18), 
though they might take measures for the 
furtherance of religion (1 Kings viiL 1, $eq, 
2 Kings xli. 4). Their income arose firom 
presents, an acknowledgment of dependency 
or vassalage (1 Sam. x. 27 ; xvi 20. 1 Kings 
z. 10), fh>m tithes (1 Sam. viii. 15, 17), 
from royal domains (14. 1 Chron. xxvii. 26 
«— 31), from confiscations (2 Ssm. xvi. 4. 
] Kings XXL 15, 16), fh>m spoils in war 
(2 Sam. iii. 22; viu. 7), from tribute (2 
Sam. viii. 2. 1 Kings iv. 21. 2 Chron. xvii. 
11) ; so that Solomon's annual income was 
▼ery great (1 Kings x. 14, 15), and was 
augmented by commerce (22, 2iB) and by 
services rendered by his sulgects (ix. 23; 
oomp. 1 Sam. viii 11—18, 16, XT). The 

amount of income, as well aa the oourt-stalT, 
Tsried at different epochs. As members of 
the latter are mentioned the oommander-in- 
ehief of the forces and the royal historio- 
grapher or recorder of events (2 Sam. viii. 
16. 2 Kings xviiL 18), the seciitary of state 
(2 Sam. Tiii. 17; xx. 25. Jer. xxxvi 20), 
the prime minister (2 Sam. xx. 26), the 
master of the household (1 Kings iv. 6 ; xviii. 
3), the minister of justice, and probably for 
foreign afbirs (2 Sam. xx. 24), the master 
of the robes (2 Kings x. 22), the chamberlain 
(1 Kings xxiL 19), the treasurer and store- 
keeper (L Chron. xxvii. 25, lef., where 
other chief officers are mentioned). In later 
periods of the history, the first men in the 
state had much power in the royal councils 
and measures (Jer. xxvLlO — 12,16). Among 
the monarch's ehoicest possessions must 
be placed a well-stocked harem (2 Sam. v. 
13. 1 Kings xL 1; X. 3. 2 Chron. xi. 18, 
teq.}, which formed a part of the succession 
(2 Sam. xii. 8). A species of posthumous 
judgment, which may have been borrowed 
from Egypt, was passed on some wicked 
kings, who were excluded from Uie royal 
sepulchres (2 Kings xxi. 26. 2 Chron. xxL 
20; xxiv. 25). 

BOOKS OF, derive their name from the 
Hebrew Kings, respecting whom, from the 
year 1016 A.C. to 563 A. C, or from the 
end of David's life to the thirty-seventh year 
of the Babylonidi captivity (2 Kings xxv. 
27), they afford information. These two 
books, as well as those bearing the name of 
Samuel, originally formed one whole. Being 
afterwards divided, those of Samuel were 
denominated the first and second, and the 
writings now under consideration the third 
and fourth book of Kings. The account 
in the first book extends from the termi- 
nation of David's career to Jehoram and 
Ahaziah, a period of about 117 years. The 
second book embraces a period of about 
300 years, that is from the reigns of Jehoram 
and Ahaziah to the time when, alter the 
destruction of Jerusalem, the captive Jehoi- 
achin began to experience better treatment 
in Babylon. These scriptures follow as to 
their contents in a line with the books of 
Samuel, with which they are intimately re- 
lated in plan, aim, and manner of repre- 
sentation, exhibiting the history in a highly 
important era. The same remarkable events 
are set forth according to the sequence of 
time ; with a success, however, which is only 
partial. The work is a whole. Kings are the 
points around which the author groups his 
materials. With pleasure he dwells on those 
reigns and events which display the hand of 
Divine Providence, especially as seen in its 
care for Uie descendants of David ; and the 
work concludes with the decease of Jehoia- 
ohin, the last scion of his house. The mora 
the kings degenerated, the people became 

KIN 154 KIN 

•oRapt, and idolalroiu tuperatitions gained Batfaaheba (1 Kings L 11 — ^14,24 — ^87), by 

the upper hand, the more frequent is tihe vp- Bathsheba to Da^id and Solomon (17 — ^21 ; 

pearanoe and the greater are de efforts of the ii 19 — fU ; see also 2 Kings zriii. 19 — 26 ; 

prophets, especially in the kingdom of Israel, ziz. Id — 19, &c.). Letters also are given 

On this account the operations of Ae pro- (1 Kings zxi 8 — 11. 2 Kings t. 6, 7; x. 3, 

phets form a chief topic of these books, the 8, 6), and long prophetic speeches (1 Kings 

rather, perhi^is, because history was chiefly zi 81—^9 ; ziT. 6->16). The proceedings 

in the hands of these men of God (1 Ghron. of Behoboam with the ten tribes (1 Kings 

xzix. 29. 2 Chron. ziL 10 ; ziii. 22). The sii.), of Benhadad with Ahab (zz. 2—12), 

great aim is to ezhibit in details, shewing and other transactions, are reported with a 

the perverse and inTeterale iniquity of the particularity which implies the use of docu- 

people, especiaUy in the northern kingdom, ments of the same age with the events, 

the justice of Qod in their punishment, par- The general tenor of Uie work corresponds 

ticularly as inflicted by the captivity in Bft- with the times to which it refers. The im- 

bylon (2 Kings zviL 18, teq,), plied natural condition of Canaan is the 

The concluding words of the book, ' all same as that set forth in earlier wridngs. 
the days of his (Jefaoiaehin's) life,' place The social condition differs from what had 
the composition of the work, at least in its gone before only in degree, and that so far 
present state, posterior to the death of that merely as circumstances must have occa- 
eaptive monarch. Hence ti^e termination sioned. Through David the kingdom had 
of the books of Kings cannot have been obtained an eztent of territoiy which placed 
oomposed before ctr. 050 A. C. In the body it by the side of the more considerable 
of die work, the words, 'unto this day,' monarohies, and which, had it been pro- 
whieh occur frequently (1 Kings viii. 8 ; zii. perly governed, it would not have been 
19. 2 Kings iL 22 ; viii. 22 ; ziv. 7 ; zvi. 6 ; difiieult to maintain. Solomon's reign raised 
zviL 28, 84, 41), prove ihtX its substance the kmgdom to a high pitch of internal 
was put into its present condition long after prosperity and splendour, and made it an 
the narrated events. Different, however, as object of admiration among foreign nations, 
appears firom the application of these words, This condition grew naturally out of the 
were the times at which parts of the books state of things recorded in Samuel, and 
were penned. Thus 1 Kings viii. 8, must as naturally did it, under bad government, 
have been written while the temple of Solo- lead to that luzuiy, dissoluteness, and cor- 
mon was yet standing ; and the passage in ruption within, and those constant assaults 
2 Kings zviL 28, could not have come into l^m without, which terminated in the final 
ezistenoe till a considerable time after the captivity of the whole Hebrew people. A 
deportation of Israel. The ezaet length of train of events at least similar to that re- 
time alter the death of Jehoiakin when, or the corded in the Kings must, beyond a question, 
hand by which, these writings were finally have taken place. Finally, a tone of honesty 
completed, we possess no data to enable us to prevails tlurough the work, conciliating 
determine. The similarity which they bear credence. As the writer had means of 
to the books of Samuel, encourages the knowing, so did he possess a desire to nar- 
idea that they proceeded from the same rate the truth. This desire is evidenced by 
authority. In 2 Kings zziv. 18 — ^zzv. 21, 27 his impartiality. He was not, indeed, witb- 
—80, is fbund a passage which is repeated out predilections, but he loved truth more 
almost word for word in Jeremiah lii. ; than his fkvoorites. Not sparingly does he 
i^ence some have inferred that in diat pro- speak in praise of Solomon, but he also 
phet the author or tfie voucher of the books reports his declension and fkll. The revolt 
of Kings is to be recognised. The two, of the ten tribes is described as a crime 
however, may have been a transcript firom a against Uie house of David. Not less is it 
eommon document made to appear as occasioned by the wilftil- 

It is from authentic sourees that the mate- ness of B^oboam. 

rials were derived. The author or compiler The period to which the books of Samuel 

often refers to his authorities, at the same and Kings refer is one which, though it is 

time implying the ezistenoe of a considerable of an historical character, and in its great 

body of historical literature, now lost for outlines may be considered as historically 

ever, and thus giving us reason to hold that certain, yet is by no means free from chro- 

he possessed suflldent guarantees for the nological difilculties. Into these our space 

substance of his narratives (1 Kings zi. 41 ; and plan do not permit us to enter. But a 

ziv. 19 ; zv. 31 ; zvi. 0, &o. 2 Kings zv. synoptical view, such as ensues, may be of 

11, 21; zvi. 19, &c.). The annals to which service. The leading dates are taken firom 

he had access appear, like those of other Winer ; those enclosed in brackets rest on the 

oriental nations, to have been records made authority of Fynes Clinton. The dates here 

at the time when the recorded events took given may be compared vrith those which 

place. Accordingly we find the very words are placed at the head of the chief biogra- 

employed,— as by Nathan to David and phioal articles. 






A. C. 














Hebrew Monarelu. 

Saul (1096) 
David (1056) 
Solomon (1016) 
Behoboam (976) 
(BeTolt of the Ten Tribes) 

Kings of Jadalu 

Behoboam (976) 

AbQah (959) 
Asa (956) 

Jehoshaphai (915) 

Jehoram (891) 
Abasiah (884) 
Athaliah (883) 
Joash (877) 

Amasdah (837) 

Usxiah (808) 

Kings of liiaal. 

Jotham (756) 

Ahaz (741) 

Jeroboam (976) 


Nadab (955) 
Baasba (953) 
Elali (980) 

Omri Tibni 

(1 Kings xvi.) 
Omri, sole King 
Ahab (910) 

Abaxiab (896) 
Joram (895) 

Jehu (883) 

Jehoahas (855) 
Jehoash (839) 

Jeroboam II. (823) 

Jeroboam dies 

Zachariah (771) 


Pekaiah (750) 
Pekah (757) 

The Assyrians con- 
quer N. Palestine 
and the ootintiy 
of Jofdan 







Egypt, Assyria, fte. 

Prosperity of Tyre under 

InTasion of Shishak, K« 
of Egypt, into Jndah. 

Homer flourished in 
Greece 7 

Lyenrgas in Sparta. 

The first year of the 

Pol reigns in Assyria 

about this time. 

Fonndation of Bome. 

Nabonassar, king of Ba- 

Tiglath-Pileier, king of 



K I N 

▲. C. 
















KingB of Judah. 

Jadah in depend- 
ence on Assyria 

Hezekiah (724) 

The Assyriana be- 
siege Jenisalem, 
bnt retire suddenly 

Manasseh (697) 

Amon (642) 
Joaiah (640) 

Josiah slain in a bat- 
tle with the Egyp- 
tians at Megiddo. 
Jehoahaz (000) 
Jehoiak im pi aced by 
the Egyptians on 
the throne (609) 

Jeboiachin (598) 
Jerasalem taken by 

the Babylonians 
Zedekiah (598) 

Jerusalem again ta- 
ken, and Zedekiah 

Final deportation of 
the Jews to Baby- 

King! of Israel. 

Pekah murdered 

Interregnum (?) 

Hoshea (780), tri- 
butary to Assyria 

Samaria taken by 
the Assyrians, the 
kingdom destroyed, 
the people led into 
captivity (720) 





Habbakuk 7 

appears In 


Egypt, Assyria, fte. 

Shalmaneser, king of As- 
syria, makes great eon* 
quests in Asia. 

Sevechus, or So, king of 

Sennacherib, king of As- 
syria, goes against 
Egypt, bnt is repulsed 
by Tirhaka. 

Psammetichus, king of 

Esarhaddon, king of As- 

Nabopolassar makes him- 
self independent king 
of Babylon, and with 
Cyaxares, king of Me- 
dia, destroys the As- 
syrian empire, 625. 

Pharaoh Necho defeated 
by the Babylonians at 

Nebuchadnezzar, king of 

Pharaoh Hophra, king of 

Solon in Athens. 

LAI 157 LA M 

KIBJATH-JEARIM (H.uwod-toivn), called brotherly love among its members, and henee 

alsoBaalah (Josh. zt. 9), Kiijath-baal (60), it receiyed the distinctive epithet of 'holy' 

and Baale of Jndah (2 Said. vi. 3), a town (Bom. xri. 16. 1 Cor. ztI. 20. 2 Cor. xiii. 

in Jndah, on the borders near Benjamin 12). Ik was customary to kiss some part of 

(Josh. ix. 17 ; xr. 9 ; comp. 1 Sam. vii. I, the face (Oen. zziz. 13 ; zzxiii. 4. Ezod. 

2. 2 Sam. vi. 2). Bobinson is inclined to iy. 27; zviii. 7. Ruth i. 9), or the beard, 

identify this place with the modem Kurygt which was taken by the hand (2 Sam. xz. 

eUEtuif 'on the direct way from Jemsa* 9). A kiss was also a mark of homage, 

lem to Ramleh and Lydda, three hoars, or made by subjects to their sovereign (1 Sam. 

nine Roman miles, from the former city, z. 1. Ps. ii. 12). In modem times, Eastern 

lying west of Neby Samwil, and therefore not potentates receive the honour on their hands, 

far remote from el-Jib or Gibeon' (ii. 885). their knees, or their feet; being a part of 

KIRJATH - SANN AH ; KIRJATH-SE- that extreme outward reverence manifested 

PHER. See Dbbib. in all ages by the humble and the vanquished 

KISHON, a stream in Palestine, receiving towards the high and Uie successftil (Is. zliz. 

the waters of the plain of Esdraelon, and 28. Micah vii. 17), and which went so Ut 

conveying them to the Mediterranean, into that the former kissed the spot trodden on 

which, after flowing along the northern base by the latter (Ps. Izzii. 9). Hence arose a 

of Carmel, it falls into the bay of Acre, Accho, practice of kissing, in sign of adoration, 

or Ptolemais (Judg. iv. 7; ▼. 21. 1 Kings images and pillars (1 Kings zix. 18. Hos. 

zviii. 40. Ps. Izxziii. 9). As the plain, so xiii. 2) ; also of kissing the hand to and in 

the stream is distinguished for being the honour of the heavenly bodies (Job zxxi. 

scene of slaughter, and on account of its 27). 

historical reminiscences is designated * that KNIVES (T.) of stone (Exod. iv. 25), 

ancient liver.' In a part of its course it especially for sacred purposes (Josh. v. 2, 

seems to have borne the name * Waters of 8), were employed at a very early period 

Megiddo' (19). In the rainy season the (Gen. xxli. 6, 10), though knives of gold 

Kishon has a considerable volume. During were jfound in the temple (Ezra i. 9). In 

most of the year, there is a stream in the eating, knives were not used by the Hebrews, 

lower parts which the sides of Carmel con- nor are they in Syria at the present day ; 

tinuously feed ; but in the hot season it is since flesh meat was served already cut into 

higher up either a shallow brook, a marshy bits, and the bread, being thin and like 

tract, or wholly dry. Its source is in Mount cakes, was easily broken by the fingers. 

Tabor. Its banks are very fruitful. KNOP (T. German knapf, '• a protube- 

KISS, the, was anciently in the East, and ranee '), is the same word as ' knob,' de- 

in some parts of Europe still is, a token of noting a body which swells up into a circular 

friendship between persons of the same sex shape, like the blossom of some flowers. In 

(2 Sam. zx. 9. Matt xzvi. 48. Luke vii. this sense it ia used in Scripture (Exod. 

45; zv. 20). In the same way it was, in zzv. 81). 
the primitive Christian church, a sign of 

LAB AN (H. whiu), son of Bethnel, bro- LAMB (T.), the young of the sheep, mm 

ther of Rebekah, the uncle, and afterwards used in rery early ages fbr sacrifice (Gen. 

the father in-law, of Jacob (see the article), zzii. 7), and ondained by Moses to be 

LACHISH (H. ih4 walki), a royal Ca- slaughtered as a symbol in the rites of the 

naanite town, in the level country of Judah Passover (Ezod. xii. 8), as well as on other 

(Josh. X. 3; XV. 89), which Joshua con- occasions. Most naturally did the lamb 

quered, and which was assigned to Judah come to be a recognised symbol of nncon- 

(x. 81 ; XV. 89). Being fortified by Reho- scions innocence and unmerited sufl'ering (Is. 

boam (2 Chron. xL 9), it became an im- xi. 6; liii. 7. Jer. xi. 19) ; as sucb,ito name 

portant stronghold, and was held to the latest was with peculiar propriety applied to ' the 

days of the kingdom (2 Kings xviii. 18, 17 ; man of sorrows' (John i. 29. 1 Cor. v. 7. 

comp. xiv. 19. Jer. zzziv. 7. Micah i. 18. 1 Pet i. 19); and next to the cross, the 

Neh. xL 80). Enscbius fixed its site seven figure of a lamb eame in the primitive 

Roman miles sontfi from Eleutheropolis. church to be a customary symbol of the 

LAISH (H. a Wm), or LESHEM. See Redeemer of mankind. The use of the 

Dak, symbol, however, so degenerated into some- 




thing of an idolttrons nature, that in Ibe 

seTonrh century the emblem was int>hibited ; 

yet has it, not without corruption, been in 

the AgnuM Dei transmitted to the present 

hour. See Shibp. 

LAMECH (H. j>ocr)t son of Metbusael, 

and a descendant of Cain, who has the 

honour of being connected with the earliest 

serap of poetry extant (Oen iv, 19, tff .). 

' Adsb SDd ZtUsh, hear my Tolee ; 
Ye wtTM of LMnaeh, listen to my tpeech ; 
I will tlsy the man that hu wounded me, 
The youth thet hu done me hann. 
If Cain wae avenged seren-fold, 
Lameeh •eTenty'«nd-feTe& fdd,' 

This is obTiously a snatch from a war 
song, in which breathes the revengefhl spirit 
that among semi-barbarous tribes demands 
blood for blood. It deserres notice that as 
soon as arms were fabricated by Lamech*s 
son, Tnbsl-cain, man's blood was shed. 
Probably the superiority which the posses- 
sion of arms 'in brass and iron' gave 
Lameeh and his family, caused them to be 
both sangttinaiy andrevengefhi. The exist- 
ence, however, of the poetical fragment above 
given in so fleroe a dan as that of Cain, 
shews tliat its members had better qualities 
than those whose ofSoe it is to destroy human 
life. And if it is maintained that these 
lines are the production of a much later day, 
still the attributing of them to the primsval 
age of Lameeh is an evidence as to the cha> 
racter of that age in regard to song as well 
as revenge. 

Another Lamteh (Gen. v. 25), son of 
Methuselah, was a descendant of Seth and 
the father of Noah. The question arises 
whether there were two persons bearing the 
name of Lameeh. We place the names one 
over the other; first, those of Cain's de- 
scendants; in the second line, those of Seth : 

1. Cain, Enoch, Irad, MebuJael, Methutael. 
S. Cainan, Enoa, Jarad, Mahalalwl, Methuselah. 

LAMP (O. lampa$, * a torch') is the En- 
glish of two Hebrew words of kindred mean* 
ing: I. hpeedf which signifies and is ren- 
dered * a torch' (Nah. ii. 4. Zech. xii. ; comp. 
Dan. X. 6. Judg. xv. 4) ; IL rukr, which ori- 
ginally denotes alight, and is rendered * light* 
(3 Sam. xxi. 17), Mamp' (Exod.xxvu. 20), 
and * candle' (Job xviii.6), though the last 
word, in its modem acceptation, is inap- 
propriate. The lamp was fed with oil (John 
xviii. 8). Pure olive oil was used for the 
seven lamps' (see i. 228, 267) of the sanc- 
tuary (Exod. xxvii. 20), which were allowed 
to go out at the dawn of day (I Sam. iii. 3). 
The extinction of the lamp or light was a 
natural metaphor to represent misfortune or 
sudden death (Prov. xiii. 9), the rather 
because a lamp in a tent was the sole source 
of light On the other hand, to light a 
lamp, or to have a lamp burning, signified 
moral guidance (Ps. xviii. 28; exix. 109. 
Prov. vi. 28). 

Aceording to Wilkinson, it is difficult to 

iay whether the Egyptians employed glass 
for the purpose of making lamps: ancient 
authors give no direct information, and the 
paintings are as silent, though in funeral 
processions one person carries what seems 
to be a candle or torch. Herodotus men- 
tions a festiTal of burning lamps which took 
place at Sus, and indeed throughout the 
country, at a certain period of the year, and 
describes the lamps used on this occasion 
as ' small vases filled with salt and olive oil, 
on which the wick floated and burnt during 
the whole night' Probably these lamps 
were of glass. 

In modem days, lamps in Egypt ore em- 
ployed on bridal occasions. Speaking of 
one such, the 'Englishwoman in Egypt' 
remarks, * The route to the citadel is marked 
by innumerable new glass lanterns, each 
c(mtaining ten lamps, mostly hung on ropes 
extending across the streets. When we 
began to ascend Ac hill, we found on either 
side of the new road temporary pillars hung 
with lamps. The principal features of the 
architecture of the gateway and other en- 
trances of the palace were hung with lamps. 
In the court were festoons of lamps ; many 
hung fhiit-like from the trees. Tlie garden 
contained bright lamps hung in festoons 
wherever they could be so arranged.' 

LANCET (G. diminutive of * lance'), a 
small instrument for cutting (1 Kings xviii. 
26), the Hebrew original of which is ren- 
dered * javelin' in Numb. xxv. 7, and * speai^ 
in Judg. V. 8. The voluntary infliction of 
wounds in the case of the servants of Baal, 
to which our present word refers, was among 
some ancient nations a religions custom, 
observed when the intention was to bend the 
gods to compliance; and may be regarded 
as only an extreme of that religious error 
which fancies that the Creator is well- 
pleased by self-inflicted sufferings on the 
part of his creatures. The custom passed 
over to some Christian sects ; and the false 
idea whence it arose is not altogether foreign 
to some systems of Christian theology 
(comp. Dent xiv. 1). The following from 
the travels of Olearius (382), when speak- 
ing of the Persians, illustrates the subject : 
' When the sun has arisen many in the outer 
court open with lancets veins in the arm; 
and that to sneh an extent, that the court at 
noon-day is as full of blood, as if several oxen 
had been killed there. The boys also have 
their arms punctured, and then beat and 
lash them until they are covered and them- 
selTcs sprinkled wiiii blood.' 

LAND was among the Hebrews distm- 
guished by its qualities in regard to agricul- 
tural purposes. These qualities were various. 
In genend, Palestine may, however, be cor- 
recUy described as a * good land' (Oen. xxri. 
12. Dent viii. 8). Even at the present 
day, after centnr.'es of neglect and oppres- 
sion, the conntiy may still not unaptly be 

LAN 159 LAN 

•poken of as * a land of brooks of water, of The moment a traveller eomisg from the 
foontaiiis and depths that spring oat of desert has fairly entered the south of Jndah, 
valleys and hills; a land of wheat, and bar- he beholds com fields, and finds himself in 
ley, and vines, and fig-trees, and pome- a eonntry where sowing and reaping are 
granates ; a land of olive oil and honey ; a enstomary. He also breathes a softer and a 
land wherein thou shall eat bread withont fragrant air, which expands his bosom and 
soareeness.' And thoogh the general aspeet raises his spirits. His eyes are greeted wiih 
of the coantiy bears evident maika of the tiie iris, orchis, and other kinds of flowers, 
evils to which we have l e fe ped, yet, from A few mDes onward he has reason to oon- 
the unevenness of ito sorface and ito lofty aider Palestine a land of brooks, seven of 
heights, it affords views and seenes of great which, besides cisterns, he beholds at Samna 
intersst and beauty, especially when taken (Josh. zv. 56 7), with their natural product, 
in unison with the historical recollections gardens fhllofoUves, figs, and pistachios. Of 
with which ito surface is thickly covered, this neighbourhood Schubert (ii. 461) thus 
In exemplification of these remarks, and in speaks : < It was an incomparably beautiful 
order to make the reader better acquainted evening in spring. Alone I ascended a hill, 
with some of ite more important and attrao- where I took a survey of the olive gardens 
tive features, we have put together a number around the town ; and on another side, of a 
of notices. neighbouring hill crowned with ruins like a 
Schubert, in entering Palestine from the temple. Thence my eye ran down into the 
Arabah, after a toilsome journey up to a lovely narrow vale between the two eleva- 
hetght of 1484 Parisian feet, was, on de- tions. Flocks and herds were quietly pass- 
scending suddenly down on the south-east ing on to their resting-place in the town. 
of the Holy Land, greeted by natural beau- In this district the patriarchs fed their cattle, 
ties, the sight of which amply repaid his and Abraham spoke of the name of Jehovah, 
labours. Proceeding in a westerly direction I laid myself down near a long disused re. 
over a plain, he found *the country' — ^we servoir, and at the break of day was awa- 
translate his words (iL 451) — ' a real flower- kened by the joyftd song of the lark.' 
garden; for there blossomed, with several Having ascended a steep and lofty hill, 
kinds of tulip, the variegated anemone and Schubert (iii. 48), besides the vale of the 
delicate hyacinth. When we turned onr partially green desert of John the Baptist 
faces towards the north, they were saluted (Luke L 80), which lay here beneath his 
by a relishing breeae. We passed on to feet; besides the groves of terebinths near 
the village Kalaat el-Kumib, which is rich which David performed those acta of valour 
in brooks and pasture grounds. On the which the women of Israel celebrated with 
right, in the vale, we beheld several large music, song, and dance (1 Sam. xviiL 6) ; 
flocks of sheep and goato. We rode hence besides the native and the burial-place (Mo- 
for a short time over the field of tulips and din, 1 Mae. IL 1 ; ziii. 2^—90 ; now Esnba) 
anemones, came to luxuriantly green mea- of the Asmonsans, saw on a distant hiU 
dows, and took onr station for the night in Bamah of Samuel and the town of £m- 
a verdant valley (1020 feet above the sea), mans; Calonia, on the road from Jaffii 
begirt with low hills, the like of which we to Jerusalem, and the heighte of Olivet 
had not seen since we left the vaDey of the * Chiefly were we delighted by the grand 
Nile, and only in parte of that did we see so monastery of St John, like a regal palace 
diversified a carpet of meadow-flowers as we lying before us in a cypress-grove. By the 
here found. The ground of our tent, which side of it our feet conducted us this day. 
had heretofore been but arid sand, was now Light-footed gaxelles, in form and colour 
a high soft grass, intermingled with fragrant like the roe, flitted over the hill.' Near the 
herbs. It gave me pain that at every step monastery, Schubert found an inhabitant of 
to or from the tent, a flower or young stalk the land older than any recorded in Biblical 
was trodden under foot, which in my native history, namely, an ammonite belonging to 
land would have been an ornament of a the limestone of the district 
scientific collection, or of princely pleasure Independently of ite great historical asso- 
gardens. Of wild tulips &ere were three eiations, Jerusalem, in the nature of ito en- 
species, two species of the iris, and a multi* virons, has peculiar and distinguished qua- 
tude of other producto of this warm bosom, lities. In order to approach it, you have, 
which formed varieties to ours, or belonged firom whatever side yon come, to proceed 
to species unknown to onr country. The upwards to the elevated spot on whioh 
same is true of the birds, among whieh one stands the oity, which is nearly 2000 fiset 
distinguished itself by a very lovely song; above the level of the sea. The ascent, how- 
a lark sang its vespers ; to whose notes ano- ever, is most striking firom the east, from 
ther bird snswered from a cleft in the rock, the Dead Sea, and the valley of the Jordan. 
My heart was much moved ; this was my As ftur as science has yet made known, in 
first evening in the Holy Land, and I what place, it may be asked, is there so re- 
breathed the air of a eonntry wfaoae biwidi mailable a union of height and depth as 
was the breath of life.' here, where^ in a line of seven honnT Jour- 




ney, tliere is a depression of at least 600 
feet below, and more than four times as 
great an eleration above the sea-lerel 7 The 
difference of heightbetween Jerusalem and the 
banks of the Jordan at Jericho exceeds 3000 
feet This difference of elevation causes a 
difference of average temperature, corre- 
sponding with a similar difference of lati- 
tude. The respective heat of these two cities, 
lying so near each other, is consequently as 
diverse as that of Rome and of London. 
The average temperature of Jerusalem, ae- 
ooxding to Schubert, is eir, 59o Fahrenheit. 
Thus the date palm here never ripens its 
fruit, while the dates of the vicinity of Jeri- 
oho and the Dead Sea were by the ancients 
held in the highest account. Cotton and 
the products of warmer climates are not seen 
there ; on the contrary, there is produced at 
Jerusalem and Bethlehem a wine which, in 
flavour and strength, is not inferior to that 
of Lemnos and Lampsacus ; while the olive, 
the fig, the walnut, abundantly repay the 
cultivator's care. In regard to the diveni- 
ties of the seasons it may be remarked, that 
what is true of all the districts bordering 
on the Mediterranean, is true of Jerusalem, 
namely, that the cold of winter extends far- 
ther into the spring, and the warmth of sum- 
mer farther into the harvest, than in western 
countries. The heat in summer often rises 
above lOOo Fahrenheit When, moreover, 
as b frequently the case in the middle of 
summer, the hot and dry east and south-east 
wind blows, the night brings littJe coolness ; 
and living in the unshaded environs of Je- 
rusalem is, for those who come from cloudy 
and moist climates, so intolerable,. that the 
orusaden, when they fint assailed the city, 
burrowed deep in the earth, whose warm 
dust, however, afforded little mitigation. 

The city in its high position is, in the 
latter part of spring, often visited by so cold 
a north wind, that, even as late as the begin- 
ning of June, the monks of the Oreek monas- 
tery have been known to resume their furred 
garments. On the other hand, the heat in the 
harvest months is mostly very great And 
after the early rains, which fall some seven 
weeks before Christmas, in the interval be- 
tween the autumnal equinox and the winter 
solstice, have ref^shed the tbinty earth 
with rich streams, the south-west winds 
bring days so mild, that the season of Christ- 
mas is often the most pleasant of the whole 
year, though on the hills of Galilee, lying 
near the snowy heights of Anti-Lebanon, 
the cold is sometimes severe. Generally 
about the middle of January continued cold 
begins; frost sometimes prevails in February ; 
snow, which, however, quickly passes away, 
is not specially rare. The more lofty points 
of the land may often, for several days, be 
seen white with snow. The latter rains 
come about the time of the vernal eqninox, 
or soon afterwards. Abundant is the dew. 

For domestic purposes rain supplies most 
of the water. 

Schubert gives it as the resnlt of his trm^ 
vels through the land, that on the west of 
Jordan the rocks are generally limestone, on 
which beyond Gana, on the lofty plain of 
Hittin, and on the western declivity of Tibe- 
rias, is found basalt ; * which on the east of 
the Jordan appeara in masses so huge and 
extent so wide, as I have never before seen* 
(iii. 100). The limestone at Jerusalem, 
between it and Jericho, at Nazareth and 
Tabor, which coven the top of Olivet, and 
forms its declivities, belongs to the chalk. 
Northwards of Jerusalem, towards Jafed, 
and in other parts, appears a species of rock, 
which Schubert and Russiger say resembles 
the Jura formation. Below the Jura lime- 
stone is a kind of oolite. 

Palestine may, before most other coun- 
tries, be called a land of salt It abounds 
in warm springs. It is also emphatically a 
lend of caverns. The limestone, especially 
where marl and water are found, is distin- 
guished for a great variety and luxuriance of 
natural products. The basalt is the mother 
of fountains. No soil would be more pro- 
lific than that of Palestine, did not man 
destroy at once the cradle and the child. 
He who has seen the indestructible abund- 
ance of vegetation near Carmel, and on the 
edge of the desert; the verduit plains of 
Esdraelon, and in the Ghor; the leafy 
woods of Tabor; the banks of the lakes Tibe- 
rias and Merom, which need nothing but the 
cultnring hand of man, is able to say whe- 
ther any other land of our hemisphere, 
depopulated by war for centuries long, offen 
so favourable a prospect of productiveness. 

The banks of the Jordan were of old 
thiekly eovered with a growA of bushes, 
plants, flowera, and trees, presenting pasture 
grounds; poplara, tamarisks, reeds (2 Kings 
vi. 1 — 7), beneath which lions found a lair. 
Here were found the papyrus and the lotus. 
The hills, valleys, and plains, were rich in 
the smaller vegetable products; in legumi- 
nous plants, flowera of various kinds and 
the greatest beaubr, tulips, anemones, lilies, 
all growing wild (Cant ii. 12, 16). LUies, 
among the Persians a symbol of purity and 
i^edom, grow in the open fields. Hence 
the words *the lily of the valleys' (Cant 
ii. 1). Crimson lilies flourish especially in 
Syria, also in Palestine. Accordingly, a 
lover^s lips are likened to lilies (Cant v. 
13). Very luxuriant are the nareissns and 
tulip. Palestine is also rich in odoriferous 
as well as medicinal shrubs and herbs 
(Cant iv. 14; v. 13). Especially valued 
was the balm of Gtlead (Gen. xxxvil. 2d). 

The green plains and flowery meadows of 
Esdraelon are a spot on which the eye of 
the traveller cannot satiate itself, whether he 
regards the luxuriance of the ground or the 
beauty of the neighbouring hills, or calls to 

LAN 161 LAN 

mind their associated history. ' Besides, the of bread stufls, was probably the best in 

moming' (Schubert, iii. 163) *was so fine, the whole country. Being less exposed to 

the air so bahny, such a feeling of buoyancy changes, it exhibits the best evidence, per- 

was there in our limbs, that, passing on foot haps, of the general accuracy of Scripture, 

over those blooming fields, we seemed to be which ascribes to the promised land the 

borne along by the soft gentle breeze. Full attributes of fertility and abundance, 

on our sight fell Mount Oilboa — covered In a plain east of Tabor the soil is a dark 

with verdure, and like a billow in form — red, an unvarying token of fertility. It is 

lighted up by the moming sun, awakening mostly under cultivation, and may be seen 

the recollection of David's elegy on Saul and either covered with fine wheat or freshly 

Jonathan (3 Sam. i. 19 — 27). Another ob- ploughed for a summer crop. This beanti- 

ject rose beyond, Hermon, and with it Tabor, ful vale equals, and in fertility perhaps 

reminding us of the words in Psalm Ixxzix. surpasses, many parts of the plain of Es- 

£sdraelon is a field of com, whose seed is draelon. 

sown by no human hand, whose ears are cut The vicinity of Carmel is one of the most 
by no reaper. For the most part, the com, beautiful in the country. Its Flora is most 
whose stalks rise above the horse's belly rich and various ; containing such a multi- 
sows itself from the ripe ears, whose abnnd- tude of rare variegated insects, that the col* 
ance no inhabitant of the land enjoys, lector might there find for a whole year gra- 
Flocks and herds tread down more than tifying and well-rewarded occupation. The 
they consume. The boar from Tabor and monastery on Carmel lies only 582 feet above 
Carmel, hidden beneath the lofty vegetation, the sea-level, above which the summit of the 
roots up the rank soil ; and sometimes the mountain rises 1200 feet The prospect to- 
leopard, driven by hanger down into the wards the south-east and east is limited by 
plains, carries oif a number of the flock, eminences; towards the north and north- 
Below the high stalks are seen flowers the east are seen the snow -covered tops of 
most varied, especially of the lily species, of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ; towards the 
which we here found new and undesoribed west, you have the blue Mediterranean; 
species.' in the south, the plain of the sea-coast as 

Anciently,the plain of Jericho was regarded far as Ciesarea. Very attractive is the view 

as one of the most fertile in the world. The of the bay of Ptolemais (Acre), and that of 

language applied to its productions by several the green, fruitful declivities of Lebanon, 

Roman wTiters,and still more that of Josephns, which far away in the north sink down into 

savours of the marvellous. The latter ascribes the sea. How deep a pleasure to see from 

this fertility to the warmth of the climate, this spot the sun sink into the tranquil 

but more to irrigation, and expresses a be- ocean, and tlie full moon rise over it ! Scbu- 

lief that the fountain healed by Eliaha pos- bert here had the gratification to witness a 

sessed in this respect special and unequiUed total eclipse of the moon. That learned tra- 

virtues. Still does this region retain its an- veller, in relation to his approach to Carmel, 

oient reputation. Fine crops of barley and says (iii. 203), * We now entered on that 

wheat are annually harvested around Jeri- open country whose fruitfulness yet sliows 

cho. Industry and protection might increase what Palestine formerly was, and what, under 

its products to an indefinite extent. favourable auspices, it might again become. 

On passing out of Nablous, the traveller Fields full of com and leguminous plants, 

enters into gardens and groTss of firuit and as well as cotton, proclaimed by their rank 

shady trees, which not only occupy a beau- growth the richness of the produce. Small 

tiful ravine on the southern side of the place, brooks and rivulets ran through the verdant 

but surround it, and fill the widening valley plains. A wood of oaks afibrded a home to 

which extends towards Sebaste. * This,' says many a bird. There, then, lay the grassy 

Olin, ' is the most delightful and verdant plain of the Kishon, and beyond it Carmel, 

spot I saw in Palestine, nor do I remember with its peaks and clefts. 'The mountain is 

to have seen in any part of Uie world evi- not so bare as the hills of Judah, but in 

dence of a more exuberant fertility.' Be- many parts covered with tliick underwood 

sidesamountainstream, the valley is watered and trees, and also rich in springs. But 

with a multitude of fountains that gush out even in Uiis vesture of the lovely and the 

of the bases of Gerizim and Kbal, and are abundant, the miyestio hill, by its gorges, 

conducted off to the gardens, which owe caverns, and mines, raises in the traveller, 

their fertility chiefly to the abundance of at the first view, a feeling of wonder mixed 

water. The co-operation of the extreme with fear. Below, in the vale of Kishon, 

heat of the ever-cloudless atmosphere with were feeding many considerable herds. The 

copious irrigation, produces a remarkably ox is here much larger and stronger than in 

deep and vivid green on the exuberant fo- the south. We went on through high grass, 

liage of this lovely tract. and passed the Kishon at a point where it 

The plain of Csdraelon as an agricultural was scarcely forty feet broad, and from three 

district, especially adapted to the production to four feet deep. We kept along the foot 

Vol. II. M 

LAN 162 LAN 

of Oarmel. There, where % ocmslclentble of the motmUin, or eome ali^t ehangv in 

founUin of pare dear water sprang from the course, intercepts the ^w of some por- 

the rock, is the place where El^di dew Uie tion of the shiniiig tract, leaving Ttsible onlj 

prophets of BaaL' the nearer or remoter parts, and sometimes no 

One hour ftom Labah is a small moon- more than an inconsiderable section across 

tain, on which tniditioi& has fixed as that on the middle of the lake. The increasing elcTa- 

which Christ ddirered his sennon, and which tion brings the magnificent plain that spreads 

has, in consequence, received firom the Latin oat bejond its eastern plain more and more 

monks the name of the Moont of fieati- under the dominion of the eye, and gives a 

todes. The Arabs call it Keroon Hotteln, vast enlargement to its visible extent, as well 

the Horns of Hottein, in allusion to the two as greater distinctness and depth to the form 

peaks or elevated summits on its top. snd outlines of graeeftil green hills that rise 

Safcd, in Galilee, said to be the loftiest in such numbers on the broad expanse of 
town in Palestine, i^ords a noble prospect, its froitM bosom. The views of this exqui- 
An extensive region of cultivated land, wheat- sitely beautifhl region are made more en- 
fields, vineyards, and gardens of firait>trees, gsging because it was honoured and hal- 
occupy the south and west slopes and valleys lowed by the ministry of the Saviour of man- 
of the mountain. Intermingled as they are kind. There, with a deep and sacred grati- 
with many bare mountain summits and wild, flcation, the eye falls on ' the sea of Galilee/ 
rugged cliffs, they form altogether a land- ' the coast of Magdala,' and * the land of 
scape of rare beauty. The sea of Galilee Gennesareth ;' on the site of Ghorazin, Beth- 
seems as if only a little below the spectator, saida, and Capernaum,* the cities where most 
while a region farther east stretches out into of his mighty works were done.' * Passing 
a vast table-land, in which the wilder moun- over to the other side,' it may trace in vari- 
tain features predominate over the graceful ous directions across the shining lake, the 
forms and deep verdure. Hermon in the probable track of * the little ships ' in which 
north-east, and Tabor and the mountains of he * went about doing good ;* and that along 
E|]liraim in the south-west, are conspicuous which he came to his disciples ' walking on 
objects. the sea,' and where * he rebuked the winds 

The following is from the brilliant author snd the sea, and there was a great calm.' No 

of Eothen: 'I ascended the height on which region on earth but Jerusalem and its en- 

our Lord was standing when he wrought the virons is so rich in affecting associations, 

miracle. The hill was lofty enough to shew In speaking of the latter part of his jour- 

me the fairness of the land on all sides ; ney across the country from Tiberiaa to Tyre, 

but I have an ancient love for the mere Otin (ii. 42d) says, — *yfe wer6 often called 

features of a lake, and so, forgetting all else npon to admire the beautiful landscape 

when I reached the summit, I looked away which opened before us as we ascended the 

eagerly to the eastward. There she lay, the successive ridges that lay across our route, 

sea of Galilee. Less stem than Wastwater, It is a lovely and picturesque region, and 

less fair than gentle Windermere, she had our ever-changing elevation and direction 

still the winning ways of an English lake; constantly diversified the view and enhanced 

she caught from the smiling heavens unceas- our enjoyment. A great number of graee- 

ing light and changeftil phases of beauty; fully-formed hills, clothed with rich pastur- 

and with aU this brightness on her fkoe, she age to their «ammito, and sprinkled with 

yet clung ao fondly to the dull he-looking low, spreading ««ka— deep, fhiitftd vaDcys, 

mountam at her side, as though she would covered with green fields of wheat, or freshly 

« Soothe him with her finer foneies ploughed, the darit red sofl contrasting strik- 

Toueh him with her lighter thought.' ^^7 ^^ the verdure—filled an extensive 

8tfed,thetr»Tener,ontumingtoa>«eMt,iii«y 'At half-past toi tfelook we bad imner. 

tnjoj a q>l«nd>d wane Th. «« to ahnoat cptSMj att^ an d^ttoTwhidi toT 

tions and eyer^duftlng poinu of Tiaw gi,. motmtatoa and TaUew^rwhSh^SS? 

to thM lojraljr expanse of water. repoaJng in oreilooked them an. md »«, V»~"SLht 

iSnwS..^ rSr.'f ** *'*"^ *" "^ fal yiew of one of SUm^ "m^uXd 

S^ S^«S^ SZ: ■! "f^"" ^ «»««5ni«<»nt «^n. I hare ever seen in"a 

its entire length, km so oronSSSLS^ ^ f * 'f'"^ "P*"" »' *«en^ »P°«i 

straitened U Ubr^e hi^h^ZSf ^ whose sleeping matM two ships and a no- 

rier which tomur to «ltem^o^J?^ L**"^ .'"* ''''"•• Th« ««• ^^ 

LAN 163 LAN 

distant; and tbe whole intermediate tract, every beast of the field and erezy fowl of 
fall of smiling, froitfol plains, and green, the air (Gen. ii. 19) ; though in his having 
wooded hills, and dotted with villages that been previoosly addressed of God so as to 
glittered in the snn upon their showy sites, understand the command given him not to 
was spread out before us like a map. Upon eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and 
looking back, the eye ranged over a field of evil (16, 17), it is implied ti^at he, before 
mountain scenery at once vast and rich, that naming, possessed an acquaintanee 
The snowy tops of Lebanon had often been with the powers and import of words. The 
in view during the day.' condensed brevity of the narrative gives rea* 
Several of the most striking spots oon- son to suppose that there may have passed 
nected with the Holy Land are brought to- between Adam's creation and his giving ani- 
gether in these remarks made by Tischen- mals their names, such an interval as ena> 
dorf, in relation to his position on the hills bled him to become acquainted with their 
of Nasareth (ii. 200) : — * A few months be- oharaoteristio peculiarities. Certain, how- 
fore, I had stood on the highest pyramid, ever, it is, that most (perhi4>8 all) of those 
the Desert, the Nile, and Cairo at my feet names were originally descriptive of the qua- 
I was on Sinai, the mi^estic hill of God, and lities of the animals to which they were se- 
poured my soul forth in prayer towards the verally given. But it is the clear implica- 
beaveus as into the heart of a present friend, tion of the Bible that man, in the morning 
From the minaret of Mount Olives I sur- of his ereation, possessed the use of Ian- 
veyed the holy city, the heights of Bethle- guage, which he employed as a mesne of 
hem, and the hills of Samaria, with the interoommunication, and which, at an early 
mysterious sea of Sodom and the high lands period, became copious and acquired con- 
of Moab. Tet was I to-day as a child who as siderable powers of expression. This pri- 
yet has seen only the narrow scene of his own mitive tongue, as seems to be implied, pre- 
home. I was overcome with the prospect vailed throughout the period that elapsed 
afforded from Neby Ismail, which crowns before the flood. And even some time after- 
the heights of Nazareth. On the east, my wards, the whole earth is expressly declared 
eye first extended to Tabor ; from its vioi- to have been of one, though it is not said 
nity rose up the lesser Hermon and Oilboa ; what, speech (words) ; but as men journeyed 
tliey conducted me, southwardly, to the hills firom the East, and, settling in the fertile 
of Samaria. Thence, in a westerly direction, plains of Mesopotamia, undertook the task 
I beheld the foreground of Garmel and the of raising, in the tower of Babel, a rallying 
deep blue of Carmel itself. Between all point to prevent their dispersion, God saw 
these heights lay before me the wide plain fit to confound their language in order to 
of Esdraelon, as if girded by everlasting defeat this design, and to prevent them from 
walls. Beyond Carmel, on its right and its carrying their own imaginations into effect 
left, reposed, as a holiday in summer, the In consequence, they could not understand 
mirror of the Mediterranean sea. In the each other's speech, and were scattered 
north another plain spread forth, with Cans, abroad on the face of all the earth (xi. 1— 
the nuptial-city, and ' the Horns of Hattin,' 9). Here we are taught that the one uni- 
where Saladin's victorious troops trod under versal language was broken into many, and 
foot the achievements of the crusaders. In that, in consequence, the migratory impulse 
the north-east, finally, there shone, like a which had already begun, and had impelled 
sacred eye, behind barren ridges, the sum- men from their more Eastern home, was so 
mit of the greater Hermon, with a head-dress augmented as to drive the members of the 
of perpetual snow. My eye, in coming back, primitive eommunities asunder, and scatter 
fell on Nazareth, which, like a lovely child, them over the face of the world (see Divi- 
smiled on the hill where I stood.' siov). This dispersion is referred for its 
LANGUAGE (L. lingua, F. languB, * a cause to diversity of tongues ; and nothing 
tongue') stands with speech for, I. davahr has so great an influence to scatter men 
(Genesis xL 1), 'word,' i^m a root which abroad and keep them asunder, as ignorance 
means * to connect,' ' put in order,' since a of each other's language. If, therefore, it 
word is a series of sounds, and language a was a part of the scheme of Divine Provi- 
weU-arranged succession of many such se- dence that the globe at large should be peo- 
ries ; n. Mtqphah, that is, * lip' (Gen. xi. ; pled, the most effective means for this end 
oomp. Lev. v. 4), because the lips are a was adopted ; and there is nothing irrational 
chief instrument of speech ; III. lahihon, in the supposition that, in order to g^ve in- 
' tongue ' (Gen. x. 5 ; comp. Exodus iv. 10), creased activity to the migratory impulse, and 
since the tongue is the chief organ of articu- prevent the e^s that must have arisen £rom 
late utterance. According to scripture, Adam the aggregation of men in one small portion 
was created in full possession, as of other of the world, God should take what step he 
powers, so of the faculty of speech, which, so judged best to confound men's language, 
far as the express statement of Uie record and so disperse them in all directions on 
goes, he first employed in giving a name to the face of the earth (comp. x. 0, 20, 81). 


LAN 164 LAN 

Tlie Yiew giTen iu implieatioD or statement that what was thus revealed or taught was 
of the origin of language itself, and of a great bj no means a perfect whole. It is, indeed, 
diversity of tongues, bears in its substantial clear that the gift was improved by men, 
import unquestionable marks of probability, and, as a germ, developed and brought by 
and is entitled to its own intrinsic weight degrees into a variety of forms. ' Modern 
as an historical testimony to facts against philology,' says Bunsen {BgypUn't StelU 
which it is impossible for any counter his- EfiUit, 11), *ha8 proved that the diverse 
torical statements to be arrayed. We haiard conditions in which language is now found, 
little in adding, that a more likely or a more arose by degrees and by virtue of intrinsic 
credible account has not been propounded laws.' The sole question, then, at issue is 
by science or philosophy. Hence the antho- one of degree. Admit a Creator, yon admit 
rity of the Bible, entire and unimpaired, en- that the faculty of speech is divine in its 
forces the view on our acceptance. Encou- source. The exercise of that faculty, which 
ragemeut, however, has been given to the eould be perfected only in the lapse of ages, 
opinion that the Biblical account of the ori- must to some extent have been contempo- 
giu of speech and the multiplication of Ian- raneons with the gift of man's powers, 
guages is in disagreement with, if it is not Speech, in the proper sense of the term — 
positively contradicted by, the results of considered, that is, as the articulate utter- 
modem investigations conducted by scho- anee of thoughts and feelings — is peculiar to 
lars independent of theological preposses- human beings. This peculiarity seems to 
sions. Entertaining a diiferent conviction, have more forcibly struck the attention of 
we are called on to lay before the reader an reflecting minds in the earlier ages ; and 
outline of our reasons. In doing so, we hence Homer, finding in speech the grand 
shal] bear in mind another conviction we en- external distinction of man in opposi- 
tertain, namely, that the human race sprung tion to the brute, repeatedly characterises 
originally from one pair (see Max). human beings as those who use articulate 

In regard to the origin and multiplication sounds. Speech not only distinguishes man 
of languages, we are in a more favourable from the irrational creation, but it proves 
condition than if our object was to reproduce the identity of the several portions of the 
the primeval condition of social lifb or any human race. The faculty is universal. How 
of the aru ; for though, apart from the brief low soever a tribe may be, its members still 
notices supplied by the Book of Oenesis, we give articulate utterance to Uioughts and 
have no historical information, yet we pos- feelings, and thus by two marked features 
sess in speech as it now is — ^in all its mul- of their existence, namely, the faculty of 
Umdinons variety, its broken and mingled blinking and the fiunlty of language, claim 
character— relics of the past, and monuments kindred with the higher orders of mankind, 
from even the earliest periods ; since speech It is the union of these two faculties which 
in its very nature, while it admits of mani- forms what is essential in man. Instinct 
fold modifications, permanently retains eer- approaching to reason there may be in the 
tain great qualities which it transmits from elephant, but the elephant is dumb. Sounds 
age to age. In these relics and monuments, resembling articulate words some birds may 
which to some extent resemble ruins, are be taught to utter, but they are mere sounds, 
the materials that must be studied by those representing no corresponding mental states, 
who would ascend to the earliest manifesta- Man alone both thinks and speaks. Hence 
tions of the faculty of intercommunication all are men who think and speak--the Bush- 
by means of intelligible sounds ; and in these man no less than the European. And this 
materials the experienoed and skilful mquirer distinctive peculiarity is one of the greatest 
nnds grounds for trustworthy conclusions, no consequence, for it involves the elements 
less tnan the geologist, who firom the, at first out of which have been developed all that 
signt,intennmableoonfta8ion of rocks, moun- ennobles our race and lays open before us 
tains, sand, and gravel, succeeds, by means an endless career. It is a peculiarity not of 
?i^J™#^ !J^* ™ constructing a science degree, but kind ; for though within its own 
ttiat unfolds Oie process by which the hills limits it admits of manifold variations, it is 
were raised, the valleys sunk, and the rivers divided by a broad sharp line fix>m mm 

A^.n'!!?- * , "*^"*"^ qualities. The bleat of the sheep 

in ^1^^^ *? some, language was given and the roar of the lion, significative as they 

^"^a^^i^nLr^'l^tLV*^""'. ''~ ^'y ^ ^' ^'^^^ ™de SiTvague sensa^ 

L k J^^ *^* I'.*^«fi»*P^were, tions, want both articulation and Stelligenee. 

with t^X.ltiTo?7«i^ J::^.^^ T*^? ^" comparison with fliese united poJS, of 

ta conristeS^t to hold aL*^!^"^^^^ *^?2 *i ~"**'' •"* language, of smaU ii^rtanee 

not m?4wliA ^^^^.^J J!^u^ •" establishing diversities between dJlTei^nt 

wi^me«^.:i?«tuSr;ort r^.^L'^^^^T^^^^ s' r^!? "^x 

eyes to aU scientific mquiry, we cumot deny cular or receding, or Uie occiput bTaSw or 




1«88 broad, if in anj two cases they are te- 
nanted by a mind of similar generic capabi- 
lities ? Let the skin in one case be black 
and in another fair — ^the heart beneath has 
the same affections, and those affections are 
guided by the same intellect. The red In- 
dian mottier loves her child with a passion 
as warm, and perhaps nearly as wise, as that 
which is felt towards her babe by an £ngliah 

The faculty of speech has, however, ma- 
nifested itself under various modifications, 
giving rise to what are termed languages, 
dialects, and patois. These terms have re- 
ference to artificial diversities of two kinds : 
I. diversities of origin or blood ; II. diversi- 
ties of numbers. Nations dissimilar in ori- 
gin speak different tongues. These tongues 
are themselves spoken, with some diversity, 
by portions of a particular nation, so giving 
rise to dialects ; and of these portions smaller 
divisions, varying one from anotlier and from 
the mother tongue, are found to use what are 
called ftatois, or provincial dialects. The 
diversities which arise in the tongue of the 
same nation are known to be mainly owing 
to peculiar local influences — lowlanders or 
highlanders ? agricultural or maritime peo- 
ple? manufacturing or commercial? poor 
or wealthy? near to or remote from great 
centres of civilisation ? sundered from or 
exposed to foreign influences? actual cul- 
ture, climate, soil. From diversities of 
this kind, the common language of a coun- 
try undergoes such modifications as often 
prove unintelligible to an untrained ear, and, 
even when put into print, defy any but an 
experienced linguist to interpret their mean- 
ing. *The Lancashire dialect' as found in 
' Tim Bobbin,' especially as spoken by an 
unrefined native, would bear, even to a pro- 
fessional teacher of the English tongue, but 
liBW distinct resemblances to the elocution 
of Eemble and the style of Johnson. It has 
been affirmed and denied that all the lan- 
guages in the world hold one to another, and 
to a common unknown primitive language, the 
relations that the dialects and patois of, for 
instance, England have in common, and in 
regard to the pure mother tongue. In other 
words, what are termed different languages 
may also be denominated varieties of one 
common language, arising from the very 
diverse influences through which human 
beings have been led. What was this as- 
sumed primitive language there are no means 
of determining. It is obvious that speech, 
as it exactly corresponds wi^ ideas, must 
from the earliest ages have been subject to 
variations. In the first family, individuals 
would have a different nomenclature in pro- 
portion as they gained a wider experience 
and found necessity for new forms of utter- 
ance. Consequently, diversities must have 
begun to arise as soon as ever varieties of 

culture appeared. When Cain was sent 
forth a wanderer on the earth, he eould not 
fail to acquire thoughts and employ terms 
that were peculiar to himself and his asso- 
ciates. It will easily be seen that the causes 
of diversity were both diverse and innume- 
rable. Hence diverse languages must have 
arisen; and in the multitude now in exist- 
ence there is nothing to discredit the sup- 
position that they all sprung from a common 
stock. It is equally clear Siat the common 
stock could not have been large, and that 
the number and diversity of the causes 
which have combined to produce dissimi- 
larity are so great, and have been so long in 
operation, that it must be difficult to trace, 
with full and satisfactory evidence, these 
ramifications to the one original trunk. Tet 
something of the kind may be done, so as to 
illustrate, from scientific grounds, the state- 
ments and implications of the Bible that 
human beings are one, not only in nature, 
but also in parentage. If, indeed, languages 
are found so dissimilar in character that tliey 
cannot be classed together nor referred to a 
common source, tlien some support arises 
to the doctrine that several pairs of human 
beings were originally created, and became 
the progenitors of different races of human 
kind. But if languages, in the midst of 
very great and numerous diversities, are 
found to run into certain groups, and these 
groups exhibit traces of a common origin, 
then they at least offer no contradiction to 
the lesson of the Bible regarding the deriva- 
tion of all men from Adam and Eve ; nay, 
rather, they afford an evidence of the dearly- 
asserted fact 

In order to employ languages in the ex- 
planation of great historical problems, and 
specifically for illustrating facts stated in 
the Bible, an accurate, minute, and full ac- 
quaintance with the vocabularies and genius 
of all that have been and are still spoken, 
is indispensable. Such a knowledge is not 
yet attainable, and therefore any undertaking 
of the kind can be attended with only partisd 
success. Still, much progress in the study 
of comparative philology has already been 
made, and results have been acquired which 
have a direct and favourable bearing on the 
point. When the invention of the compass, 
and the naval enterprise that ensued, first 
laid open to Europeans the different parts 
of the globe, tliere was in the course of a 
few ages disclosed a multitude of tongues, 
whose variety seemed to bid defiance to the 
utmost skiU of classification, and in time 
concurred with other causes to produce a 
confirmed scepticism in regard to much of 
the Biblical history. Time and reflection 
brought a calmer state of mind and a less 
incorrect decision. The lists of words in 
foreign and dissimilar modem languages 
which traveUers had collected, were carefiQly 

LAN 166 LAN 

studied, espeoiallj by learned Oermans, and others in the abnndance of its gnirnnatioal 
it was ere long found that most of the known forms and its power of making compounds; 
tongues formed themselves into gronps, the by means of which it excels in well-eon- 
members of which were severally related one stmcted sentences composed of several mem- 
to another. After a few attempts of less bers. Opposed to this is, III., a class of 
consequence, the Spanish Jesuit, Lorenzo monosyllabic languages, destitute of all 
Hervas, iu the fifth volume of his Encycio- grammatical forms and connections, found 
pedis (1778 — 87), published a comparative in Eastern Asia. In its normal condition, 
Lexicon, wherein he compared together 63 tills class has only words of one syllable, 
words, denoting objects of prime necessity, determining by position the mutual relation 
as found in 104 languages; made known and import at its terms, and seeking to 
55 yet unmentioned American tongues, and make up for its poverty in words by mani- 
gave the Lord's Prayer in 307 different fold accents. The Chinese tongue is the 
dialects, adding valuable information re- purest and mostcomplete type of tibis family; 
specting what may be termed the geography to which belong also the languages spoken 
of languages. Adelung, both in fbllness and beyond the Ganges, as well the language of 
judgment, surpassed his predecessors in a Thibet, and probably the languages of Corea 
work that he named Mithrtdatet (1806 — 17), and Japan. IV. The languages of the peo> 
which exhibited the Lord's Prayer, in nearly pies scattered over the Southern Ocean, If 
500 languages and dialects. Much, however, we except the unknown tongues of New 
remained to be accomplished, especially in Holland and those spoken in the interior 
learning first the essential oharacter of each of the Malay Archipelago, belong to one 
tongue, and then in reducing on sound prin- and the same family. V. The languages 
eiples diverse tongues into classes and fa- spoken in the north of Upper Asia are 
milies. In this important task good service very little known ; but Schott, after Abel- 
has been rendered by Bopp in his great Bemusat had directed attention to the logi- 
yroTk,VergUich«ndeGrammatik{lSS9 — 1843; cal relationship of the Mandshoo (the most 
see, translated from this, *A Comparative cultivated dialect of the Tonguese), Mon- 
Orammar,' &o., by Eattvnek, 1845) ; Balbi golisch, and East Turkish, exhibited in a 
{Atlas Ethnographique) ; W. von Humboldt number of common words, and especially in 
(die Kawi-Sprache, 1836), and others. As » their grammatical character, the intimate 
result of their inquiries, it is found that relationship of these languages of Upper Asia, 
languages may be arranged under the fol- namely, the Turkish - Tartar, Mongolish, 
lowing heads: I. The Shemitio (from Shem), Tonguese, and Finnish; and the time may 
comprising the ancient Hebrew, Chaldee, not be far distant when there may be found 
Syriac, Arabic, and even the Abyssinian in here a wide extent of the world occupied 
Ethiopia. The grammatical peculiarity of by * many nations speaking one mother 
this class consists in its roots being dissyl- tongue, though the varieties of it may be 
lables, the absence of compounds, and of less closely idlied than are the Indo-Oer- 
moditications in meaning effected by prefixes manic languages. VI. An immense district 
and affixes. Pronouns placed before or after of very many different tongues is presented 
the root form the tenses of the verb, and by America. Though as yet we do not 
prepositions hold the place of cases in sub- possess an accurate acquaintance with each 
stantives, except that the genitive is indi- and every one of them, yet WUliam von 
cated by the union of the governing with Humboldt, who possessed on this point a 
the governed word. II. The Indo-Oermanio greater amount of information than any 
class comprises a far greater number of other European, has found iu them a com- 
members ; the chief of which are the Sans- mon character, which he terms * incorpora- 
crit, or the ancient sacred language of Hin- tion,* or the blendmg together in one word 
dostan, the Persian, the German, and kin- of several parts of a proposition. Even in 
dred tongues, including the English; the Africa, among the Negroes, where Uie lan- 
Sdavonian, the Greek, and the Latin, toge- guages as well as the people are known 
ther with the Bomance languages, or rather only by ftiigments, it has been ascertained 
dialecte, such as the Spanish and Portu- tliat the languages of the Eastern coast, 
guese. Its right to be entered in this class from Mozambique to Cafltaria, coincide in 
has by Bopp and others been successfully many roots with the languages of the nations 
asserted on behalf of the Celtic. Thus, on the Western coast in Congo, Losngo, 
with the exception of the smaU stem, the and Angola. Also among the tribes of 
Finnish in the north (between which, how- Northern Africa, fh)m the Canary isles to 
ever, and the Indo-European points of con- the oasis of Siwa, has one famUy of toniraes 
tact have recently been found) and the Hun- been discovered. 

I'^^.**'*if'''''*^ ^.^^ languages of Languages, regarded in their fundamental 

Eiuope, as well as several in Asia, as far as peculiarities, thus arrange themselves into 

fam ?: ^f T ^' ^i?°? ^' u"^ ?^** ^'^^^^ ^^«^ ««>«?•• They at the some 

family. Thia class is distinguished from time afford evidence that a confusion of 

LAN 167 LAN 

tongaet once took place. As in geology, W. von Hamboldt has shown (die Kawu 

so in our present subject, we see a primary Sprache) that all langaages may be traced 

fonnstion leading to certain classifications, back to monosyllabic roots, and also that 

and a secondary, which exhibits tliese as the languages vrith their present fulness of 

broken, intermingled, and thrown together grammatical forms, — as the Sanscrit with its 

in the dispersion of men over the face of abundance of inflections, the Shemitic with 

the world. Amidst these oonftised mate- its dissyllabic roots, the Chinese with its 

rials are also found a number of the same monosyUables and entire absence of inflec- 

or similar roots, which appear to belong to tions, — ^were originally not so foreign to each 

the united human family before the ages other, but that they appeared without tire 

when the separate grammatical peculiarities clothing now peculiar to them, in the same 

of languages were developed* The French nakedness, like the Chinese. Indeed, what 

traveller of the last century, De la Conda- Lepsius, in regard to the Hebrew writing, 

mine, remarked, ' The words Abba, Baba and particularly the Devanagari alphabet of 

or Pi^a, and Mama, which with slight vari- the Sanscrit, has established, namely, that 

ations seem to have come firom the ancient originally words were consonantal sounds 

Eastern tongues into the European, are com- to which vowels adhered, and that through 

mon io a great number of American tribes, the different formation of the vowel sounds, 

whose languages are otherwise very dis- aided by accents, the various forms of words 

similar.* He meets the objection that these in different lauguages arose, is interesting 

are the first natural words of a child, and so and important in its bearing on the opinions 

establish no historical relationship of Ian- here set forth. 

gnages, by the question, why then these The mutual relationship of the great fami- 
words are not in different languages ex- lies of tongues has received acknowledgment 
changed one with another, so that the father from modem linguists. Many of them agree 
is called Mama and the mother Papa ? In- that the Shemitic and the Indo-Germanic are 
deed, these two words, which must have been very nearly related to each other. This Gese- 
among the first that were used, are found in nius has laboured to establish. Bopp (die Ver^ 
nearly all tongues. Besides ' father ' and wandtsch, d, Malayisch-Polyn. Spraehen mitj 
* rootiier, ' < God ' represents a universal con- &c., I84I), following the steps of W. von 
eeption, and accordingly, under slight vari- Humboldt, has shown the original connection 
ations, derivable from a common form, our of the MaJay-Polynesian family of tongues, 
English word < God ' may be found in many or those of the South-Sea islands, with the 
and most distantly -seated nations and tribes. Sanscrit, not only in individual words, but 
Not to adduce other single words, we find especially in the agreement of the pronouns 
a very strong argument for the original re- and numerals. He says, < As the Bomance 
latedness of languages iu the similarity of idioms arose, so, I think, the Malay-Poly- 
pronou&s and numerals, which express the nesian languages were formed out of the 
most simple and the earliest ideas. In the ruins of the Sanscrit' In regard to the 
roots of the personal pronouns as found in Tartar languages, or those of Upper Asia, 
the American, Indo-Germanic, Shemitic, and Klaproth, in his Aiia Polyglotta, discovered 
other languages, there is the greatest resem- many Indo-Germanic roots in the Turkish, 
olance (comp. Bopp's Verwandttehaft der Mongolian, and especially in the Mands- 
MaUyiteh'PolynesischenSprachetimit d,Indo- hoo. Schott also finds in the Tartar 
Gertnanitdim; Berlin, 1840). Moreover, in tongues roots resembling such as are Indo- 
their internal structure, languages do not Germanic. On the other side, these Ian- 
stand so broadly opposed to each other as guages, in their vocabularies and their in- 
at first may appear. What they have in temal character, appear connected with the 
common is greater and more important than monosyllabic family of Eastern Asiatic 
that in which they differ. In their very tongues. These last, moreover, while re- 
essence, all written languages are expressive lated in words to the languages of Upper 
of either sounds or ideas, and all the sounds Asia, are in the same way also related to the 
employed are articulate. These fundamental Indo-Germanic. In regard to the tongues 
qualities are universal, while it is only an of Africa, Lepsius and Bunsen have sliown 
accident that some languages have a more the connection of the Coptic, or old Egyp- 
or less complex or perfect system of gram- tian, with the Shemitic and even the Indo- 
matieal structure, or vary in the number of Germanic. * The Indo-Germanic and She- 
syllables of which their words are com- mitic numerals, even in minute particulars, 
posed. These varieties probably represent agree, ' says Lepsius, * with the Egyptian sys- 
diverse ages and diverse states of culture tern. The numeral figures appear to me to 
and lingoistio developments, rather than ori- have gone from Egypt to India, whence 
ginal and irreconcileable principles of diver- they were got by the Arabians, among whom 
sity arising from organic peculiarities or they are called Indian, as we call them Ara- 
specifio differences in origin. In coufir- bic because we obtained them from the 
mation of this view, it may be added, that natives of Arabia.* Bunsen, in summing 

LAN 168 LAN 

up results {^JEgypien'$ StelU, L 515), re- of the boman race, maintains that the nui- 
marks, 'We have no hesitation in saying versa] affinitj of langaages is surroiiuded 
that the inqairies hitherto made, as well as with so striking a light, that all ought to 
tlie division of languages, lead to the deci- regard it as completely established. This 
sion that the religion and the speech of the affinity, he adds, appears explicable only on 
Egyptians have tlieir roots in pnmeTsl Asia, the hypothesis whidi admits that the frag- 
in the Armenio-Gancasian country. This ments of a primitive speech still exist in 
district, more nearly defined, is an old Ara- all the tongues of the ancient and modem 
maic, and connected with the primeval world. Frederick Schlegel, In his Spneh* 
kingdom of Babylon. The hieroglyphics und Weiaheit der Inditr, dedaros himself in 
of Egypt also are a fixed point, at which the favour of the original unity of all languages, 
prinubval Aramaan race came to a stand.' In his latest work he retains the same opi 
Benfey {Dot Verhaltnitt der JEgifpti$cken nion. The eloquent and learned Herder 
Spraeke turn Semit, S. 1844), has also lately asserts, 'The alphabets of nations present a 
established, in a grammatical point of view, striking relationship ; which is of , such a 
the near relationship of the Gnptio with the nature, that on a thorough investigation they 
Shemitic. Moreover, Prichard is of opinion appear properly only one alphabet' The 
that the Negro tongues of Southern Africa same writer, after characterising the Biblical 
stand in organic connection with the Coptic, account of the conftision of tongues as a 
The American languages, as we have above poetic fhigment in the oriental style, states, 
seen, have their peculiar character in their ' As the human race is a progressive whole, 
internal structure. Our knowledge of them whose parts are intimately bound together, 
is too limited to afford means for a ftiU com- so languages form a whole, marked by unity 
parison of them with other tongues. Yet it and proceeding firom a common origin. It 
is known that the roots of their pronouns is extremely probable that the human race 
agree with the same parts of speech in other and its language go back to a common stock — 
countries. Barton and Vater found in 83 to a first man, and not to several progenitors 
American languages investigated by them, dispersed in different parts of the world.' 
137 roots which appear in Asiatic and Euro- Wiseman thus reviews the effects of the 

Eean tongues, and in those of the Mands- modem study of languages on the Biblical 
oos, Mongolians, Celts, and Basques, narrative as to their origin: *The first 
By these linguistic traces Malte-Brun en- movement of this science was more fit to 
deavoured to prove that colonies from the occasion alarm than confidence, so much 
old world had settled in different districts of the more because the chain seemed broken 
America. by which all languages were of old held to 
We have thus shown bow the languages be united together. With further progress, 
of the earth, so far as they are yet known, inquirers began to discover affinities where 
by no means disprove, but go some way to they were least expected. Then by degrees 
establish, an original connection of races, or several languages were found to form them- 
of those who were the progenitors and selves into groups and pass into families 
founders of the earliest families of men. acknowledged to have a common origin. 
This original unity has been supported by New researches then gradually reduced the 
scholars of eminence. The learned Alexander number of independent languages, and con- 
von Humboldt, to whom we owe so much sequently extended the domain of the great 
valuable information regarding the Ian- masses. At last a new kind of investigations 
gnages and the monuments of America, has succeeded in establishing extraordinary affl- 
these words — 'However insulated certain nities between these families. These affinities 
languages may at first appear, how extra- are found in the character and essence of 
ordinary soever their caprices and their each tongue, in such a manner that no one 
dialects, all have an analogy one with ano- of them could ever have existed without 
ther, and their numerous relations will be those elements that constitute the reseni- 
perceived the more, in proportion as (he blance. Now this excludes a mutual inter- 
philosophic history of nations and the study change of borrowed materials between these 
of languages shall approach perfection.' languages. Moreover, these characters could 
On this subject an important testimony has not have been produced in any one by an 
been borne by the Academy of Petersburg independent process, and the radical differ- 
in the fifth volume of its Memoirs. This ences which divide these tongues forbid us 
learned body, probably in part influenced by to consider them as offshoots one of another, 
the Count Ooulianoff, who is an enthusiast We are then brought to these conclusions : 
for the unity of languages, declared that all on one side these languages must originally 
languages ought to be considered as dialects have been united in a single one, from which 
of one now lost Of the same school is they drew the common elements essential 
Klaproth, who in his great work, Asia Pol^- to them all ; and, on the other, the separa- 
gloita, while he does not conceal his dis- tion which has destroyed in them other 
belief of the Mosaic accounts of the dispersion elements of resemblance not less important, 

LAN 169 LAN 

esnnot have been caased by a gradaal es- parattoD, aoeidents, and conmption, haw 

trangement ; an active, violent, extraordinary lost nearly all resemblance. Other instances 

force alone sofflees to bring into harmony might be given. If now we may argue from 

these opposite phenomena, and to explain a part to the whole, we are led to ascribe 

at once the points of resemblanee and those the breaking np of the original tongue into 

of diversity. It would, it seems to me, be so many portions, to changes and deterio- 

difficult to say what more could be demanded rations in the soeial and individual life of 

by the most obstinate and unreasonable veiy eariy ages. I^ as far as our view ex- 

soeptieism, in order to reconefle the results tends, we go back into the remote history of 

of this science with the Scriptural narrative.* different languages, we find therein great 

(The Cemparatute Study of Ldmguage$, Sec.) changes, not seldom depravations, and the 

Of a not dissimilar bearing are &e following transformation of languages into new idioms, 

remarks by Bunsen {.Xgypten't 5. Vorr§di, But these alterations do not destroy the 

xL): — ^* German philology must, to every one organic charaoteristios of tongues. Each 

that has followed its eourse since the time newly-formed idiom retains the features of 

of F. Schlegel, have proved the great truth the family out of which it sprang. Thus 

tiiat a method has been found of ascertain* the Bomance languages, no less tiisn their 

ing the genealogieal table of the human race mother, the Latin, exhibit a resemblance to 

by means of its speech; not in virtue of the Indo-Oermanie, their common proge- 

hardy and insulated etymologies, but through nitrix. The English language offers a 

the comj>rehension and eidiibition of &e somewhat similar phenomenon. In the Nor* 

organic, indestructible oonstitution of indi- man-French it received into its Anglo-Saxon 

vidual langnages according to their families, body a foreign element. A large number 

When, regarding the matter from this point of its words are also derived from the Latin, 

of view, I had, by comparing the Coptic with From other quarters has it received con« 

already known old Egyptian roots and forms, tribntions. llie result is a whole made up 

become satisfied of the Asiatic origin of the of very diverse elements— « compound which 

Egyptians and tiieir connection with the is neither Saxon, German, French, nor Latin, 

Shemitic or ArauMsan peoples, I also, by a but contains a portion of all. Yet enter into 

general investigation of speech, came to the the structure and essential elements of the 

conviction that the education of the human English, and in its auxOiary Terbs, termina- 

race was especially the work of those two tions, articles, and conjunctions, you find 

great families, as unmistakeably related as evidences of its Teutonic origin and rela- 

tiiey were early sundered. What we call tionship. 

the histoxy of the world is the histoiy of Of the languages mentioned in the Bible, 

two races which under different names ap- the two most important are the Hebrew and 

peared on the great theatre where the human the Greek. The Hebrew is a branch of the 

mind has displayed its powers : the Indo- Shemitic (so called from Shem) family, 

Germanic is the element which conducts the widely diffused over the south- west of Asia, 

great stream of the world's history ; the With the peninsula of Arabia for its chief 

Aramaic intersects it, forming the episodes seat in ancient and modem times, the 

of that divine drama. The speech of the Shemitic spread towards the north over the 

two great families appears to me fitted, and lands between the Mediterranean and the east- 

indeed in our age called, to become the em parts of Asia Minor, Armenia, and Persia; 

foundation of all ittq[uiry respecting the and soutiiwardly it made ita way to Ethi- 

origin of the human raee and the laws of ita opia. According to the position and the 

development.' frite of these countries in which this family 

Both Wiseman and Bunsen here raise of tongues prevailed, did it in ancient times 

the question as to the manner in which these develop itself in diverse forms* In the 

varieties of dialect came into existence. We north or in Aram (Syria, Mesopotamia, Ba- 

see at the present day a minute division of bylonia), where those who spoke Shemitic 

languages, especially in those countries bordered on very diflbrent nations and 

where the culture and the social relations of tongues, and oiten received foreign words 

the inhabitants are in the lowest condition, into their speech, the great branch was less 

This, for instance, is the case in America, pure and less highly cultivated. In the 

particularly among the wild tribes on the south, among the never-subdued Arabs, it 

Oronoco, where W. Ton Humboldt found at retained its native qualities, unfolded its 

least firom eight to ten chief tongues among powers fr«ely and ftilly, and was richer alike 

300 tribes containing 80,000 persons. The in words and grammatieal forme. Some of 

Papuahs, or rude i^abitants of the woods these exeellencies are said to be found in 

of the Southern Ocean and Australia, are its extreme southern offshoot, the Ethioido. 

divided into very small communities only In the middle, between Aram and Arabia — 

remotely connected together. Accordingly, in Palestine, where, besides the Phoenicians, 

their speech is divided into a number of of whose speech we have only few remains, 

dialects, which in the lapse of timf , by se- which Oesenius has shown to resemble th« 

LAN 170 LAN 

Hebrew, and other traall nstSons, whose original, is the femine of (hat denoting men. 
dialects have left no tnoe behind, dwelt the This maj be made clear to the reader by 
children of Israel, the language, originally soppoaing that instead of woman (which, in 
at least, inclined moie to the Arabic, in ac> traUi,isafemine; oomp.L./emiita; Sanscrit, 
oordance with historical notices, whi<^ unite vamina : man is of &e common gender), 
the progenitors of Israel with Arab chiefs, we osed the form nMn''4u. And ceitainly in 
Bat since the Hebrew underwent its chief the simplicity of its construction, and the 
developments in the vicinity of powerful number of its words that are obvious imi- 
Aramean countries, it has much in com- tations of natural sounds, as well as in the 
mon with the Aramaan ; while by its own pure Hebrew of names which go back to 
independent growtti, it formed a character the very dawn of history, we have good 
iriiirh distinguishes it as well from the Ara- reason to believe that the Hebrew is a pri- 
nuean as the Arable. ^Qiatever may have mitive form of speech. In the earliest state, 
been the original tongue, Ihe Hebrew is the however, in which we find it in the Bible, it 
oldest brsndi of the Shemitic in which we is already a fiiUy-formed tongue, a literary 
possess literary treasures. Its northern language. From this, its first historical 
relative has two branches, the Eastern Arm* condition, it changes little in the lapse of a 
male or Chaldee, the Western Arumaio or thousand years. From these facts we may 
Byriae. The Hebrew (in Josephus, < tongue not unreasonably conclude, that it was in 
of the Hebrews') may be considered as the use long before it i^pears on the page of 
language ofthe descendants of Shemflirough history; and though ages may have been 
Eber, Abraham, and Isaac (GtonesiB x. dl ; requirad to bring it to its historical condition, 
xi. 11—30 ; comp. xiv. 13). In Is. zlx. 18, yet probably the changes it underwent were 
the Hebrew is termed ' the language of less considerable than such as mere modem 
Canaan,* sinoe that countiy is tiliere spoken tongues have passed through in their tran- 
of in contradistinction to Egypt The de* sition from a low to a high state of deve- 
signation * Jew's language' (Is. xxxvi. 11, lopment Daring its historical period, how- 
Id), denotes, according to Ewald (Aus, ever, the Hebrew did not remain free from 
fSrUehMt Lehrbueh der Beb, Spnuhe, 5th modifications. Our knowledge of the Ian- 
edit, 19), the modified form of Hebrew gnage is supplied by the books of the Old 
eunrent in the kingdom of Judah, which Testament, which comprise the whole of 
after the destruction of Samaria alone pre- its genuine productions. Rabbinical Hebrew 
Tailed. In the first pages of the Bible, we is so impure as scarcely to deserve the name, 
find the Hebrew employed throughont a An attentive consideration of such remains 
wide extent of country. The patriarchs and of Hebrew literature as we have in the 
their dependents speak in their joumeylngs Bible, leads to some distinctions in the lan- 
with dwellers in Mesopotamia, Syria, Ga- guage. From the vernacular tongue Hit 
naan, and Arabia, without interpreters ; also prose atyle during the flourishing period of 
Joseph's brethren with the Ishmaelite mer^ the Hebrew literature was little different, 
ehantmen ; Moees with the daughters of only that the former here and there appears 
Jethro, a Midianite oftpring of Al»«ham to have had impure expressions, and to have 
through Ketnrah ; the Israelites, after the borne more resemblance to the Aramaic. In 
conquest of Canaan, with the previous in- its essence, the Hebrew prose is throughout 
habitants that remained (Josh. ix. 6,109.); simple and inartificial, but animated and 
persons of cultivation from Assyria with capable of rising to beauty, and easily, when 
those of Judah (2 Kings v. 6, teq, ; viii. 7, the occasion requires, passes into the dignity 
109.), without any intimation being given of of verse. Peculiar in its kind and in its 
a diiversity of tongue. Yet when an inter- cultnre, however, is the true poetic diction, 
preter was needful, the fact is mentioned Its essence is an overflowing fulness, with 
(Gen. xlii. 28), and foreign words can yet be inexhaustible variety of thought and figure, 
recognized-^as in the Egyptian, for instance. We have little clear evidence of the existence 
itbreefc, * bow the knee' (Oenesis xli. 48), of such varieties in the language as are called 
Pharaok (44), ZapknAth-paaruah (45). At dialects. Once, in Jndg. xii. 6, some trace 
a later period also it is expressly said that of the kind occurs ; where we find the Ephra- 
the Israelites did not know tiie language of imites pronounce Shibboleth Sibboleth. 
the Chaldeans and other northern peoples Among other instances, mention has been 
(Jer. V. 15), which was more allied to the made of the song of Deborah (Judg. v.), the 
Zend. Dilferenee of speech is also alluded Canticles, Hosea, and Isaiah xv. — * all which 
to in oases where pecuharities of dialect were pieces,' says Ewald {Lekrb, 20), 'fall in 
concerned, as the Hebrew and the Aramaic northern Palestine, and have much that 
(Gen. xxzi. 47. 2 Kings xviiL 36). The is peculiar, and in parts strongly incline to 
author of the book of Genesis seems to have the colour of the Aramaic. Also within the 
regarded the Hebrew as the earliest spoken narrow borders of the kingdom of Judah, a 
language. This appears ftt>m oertain ety- writer from the ranks of the people, as Amos 
mologies. Bve'a name, foi instanoe, in Uie or Micah, exhibits departures from the more 

LAN 171 LAN 

formed and polished style of snoh authors masters in Pslestine (Jadg.lii. 8—10). From 
as Joel and Isaiah, who lived in the capital/ the days of David they were during a long 
At a later period, owing to foreign admix- period more or less intimately connected with 
tores, impure forms of the Hebrew tongue Israel (2 Sam. z. 19. 1 Kings t. I. 2 Kings 
arose ; after the exile, a dialect was formed xiv. 20). After the division of the kingdom, 
at Ashdod by mixture with Philistine words fhey brought the eastern tribes under their 
(Nehem. xiu. 28, 24) ; and in Galilee the yoke (2 Kings ix. 14 ; x. 82, 88), and threat- 
spoken language was oormpted by inter- ened or Tsnqnished the western (2 Kings 
course with foreigners (Matt xxvi. 78). xiL 18; xiiL 8, uq.). More decided was 
While the Hebrew, in its earliest historical the unterooorse after the Assyrian dominion 
condition,appear8 fully fbrmed,and gives elear had extended itself over South -Western 
indications of having long bevk used, thus Asia. These relations could not fail to in- 
showing that writing must have been prao- troduee, even in early tunes, Aramaic words 
tised ages before the days of Moses ; while and forms into the Hebrew, and such are 
during the earlier period of its elsssieal ez- said to be found in the oldest of the Bibli- 
istenee it underwent scarcely any change, eal writings. These of course increased, to- 
in consequenee partly of its own charaoter, gether witi^i the prevalence of foreign ascend- 
aud partly of its being kept free from oontaet anoy, and received much augmentation when 
with foreign tongues ; and iriiile it is diffl- the nation Was transplanted into Assyria, 
cult to trace any broad lines of distinction and those who spoke Aramcan were placed 
in its several ages, especially since critics in the lands of Judah and IsraeL That Ian- 
are not agreed as to the time when some of guage, as being the language of the con- 
its masterpieces saw the light or assumed qoeror, while it differed only as a dialect 
their present form ; yet from Uie days of from the purer Hebrew, beeame the ordinary 
the Kings some have detected traces of a speech of the people, and in common lilb 
marked but gradual change. This ehange was used in writing. Some specimens of it 
came from two quarters — the influence of a obtained admission into the collection of 
general oultnre oif the arts, to which Solomon sacred writings (Dan. ii. 4 — 7 ; vii. 28. Ezra 
gave an efficient patronage, and which could iv. 7— -vi. 18 ; vii. — ^xii. 26). They are the 
not fail to refine the literary taste ; an4 earliest documents which give us a know- 
the growing influence of the popular ele- ledge of the Aramaic ; others, as the books 
ment in tiie state, by which the national mind, of Judith, Tobit, and Banich, have come 
in loosening the hold of the priesthood on down only in translations. Even in Psles- 
it, and partaking of the general impulse tine, whitiier the Jews, after the permission 
given by peace, eommeree, and luxury, as- given by Gyrus, gradually retnmed, it re- 
quired an increase of activity, strength, and mained the language of common life, the 
vigour, which would lead to the production rather because tiiey held communion with 
of works interesting to the many, such as Syrians and Samaritans (Ezra ix. 10. Neh. 
the Canticles, Proverbs, and histories. As a vi. 17, ieq,). The Hebrew, however, was 
consequence, the diction not only of poets not entirely driven out of use. The book of 
and prophets, but also of historical writers, Jesus, the son of Sirach, the first of the Mao- 
becomes more concise as' well as oma eabees, the AsmonAan coins, which bear the 
mental. From the seventh, still more the old long Samaritan characters, shew tiiat in 
sixth century before Christ, the Hebrew the three last centuries before Christ, as well 
language begins to sink, together witii the as in the two preceding, it was employed in 
national chuaeter. At the time of the over actual life. This, without doubt, is to be 
throw of the empire of the Chsldees, 000 — ascribed to the operation of the schools, 
030 A. C, it, in union with the spirit of the which, together witii synagogues, were 
people, raises itself to purity and force ; but formed wherever then was a oonsiderable 
under the Persian and Grecian dominion, Jewish population. As in the latter the 
sinks again irrecoverably. And since, in Pentateuch, the Prophets, and the Hagio- 
this period of decline, foreign despotism grapha, were read, so in the former were 
proceeded mostly fit>m those who spoke they expounded in the original tongue. 
Aramaean, and since so early as the days The centre of this literary and religious ac- 
of Hesekiah courtiers learnt the Aramaean tivity was Jerusalem tUl the time of its over- 
(Is. zxxvL 11), so the Hebrew approached throw, when, under the eyes of the eoclesi- 
more and more to that sister tongue. In astioal and civil authorities, the Sanhedrim, 
the time of Dsniel, the Aramaean was pre- distinguished teachers gave lectures which 
ferred, and the Hebrew had become a kind were attended by the fatare heads of other 
of learned tongue. schools. Thus the Hebrew maintained itself 
The influence of the Aramaean may, in- in the mouths of the learned ; but the Ara- 
deed, be traced from an early dste. Those msaa held its place among the people. Of 
who spoke it had commercial relations with this tongue there were, at a later period, three 
the Israelites (Amos iii. 12). In the time separate forms: the Aramaean, as spoken in 
of the Judges, they were for a short time Edessa, Haran, and Mesopotamia; the 8y- 

LAN 172 LAN 

riac, the language of Damasons, Lebanon, barons regions,' and * the Macedonian speeeh 
and Syria, properly so called ; and the among the Indians and Persians.' What, 
Chaldee-Nabathean, spoken in the Assyrian with all their conquests, Alexander and his 
high lands and in the villages of Arach. In successors failed to achieve, the Romans 
the Western -Aramean, or Syro-Chaldee, Ailly accomplished, and in founding a uni- 
were, flrom the first century before Christ, Tersal monarehy gave currency and perma- 
written all the acts of civil lift; proverbs, nenoe to one language. Accordingly, wher- 
of which many are found in the Talmud ; ever, in most parts of the andent world, the 
certain formularies of instruction for the un- learned antiquary casts his eye, he finds, 
learned, for women and children ; popular amid ruins of once splendid cities, inscrip- 
books and official documents, as well as tions in the Greek tongue on coins and 
translations of the Scriptures, as the Targn- monuments-ndike in Alexandria, the centres 
mim ; so that, as indeed may be learnt fimn of trade and culture in Asia Minor, Jerusa- 
several words found in the Greek of the New lem, Antioch, Baalbec. If, indeed, we may 
Testament (Matt. v. 22 ; xxiiL 7 ; xxvii. 46. take the words of Jerome in their ftiU mean- 
John i. 88, 49 ; xx. 16. Mark ill. 17 ; v. 41 ; ing, * all the East spoke Greek' iProL in 
vii. 34. Acts i. 19), the Aramean became EpUt. ad GalaU), There can, however, be 
the language of conmion life. It continued no doubt that, eonjointly with the vernacular, 
its existence after the destruction of Jem- the Greek was very widely known and em- 
salem; for distingaished teachers founded ployed in eastern parts of the world. Among 
schools at Zippora, Lydda, CsBsarea, and the Jews of Egypt, its prevalence gave occa- 
especially Tiberias, where they cultivated this sion to the Greek translation of the Hebrew 
language and put forth writings, as tlie Scriptures, called the Septnagint The books 
Mi&na, which, with the Syriac translation which emanated fh>m these Israelites were 
of the New Testament, have done much to written in Greek, and at the public worship 
transmit the essentia] qualities of the Ara- in their temple at Leontopolis, the lectures 
m»an to the present day. Meanwhile, the and prayers in the synagogues, and the 
Hebrew had disappeared from ordinary life, instructions in the schools, the same Ian- 
On the Euphrates and the Tigris the Israel- guage was employed. The same was the 
ites had lost its purity, so that when para- •ase in Antioch and in other cities of Syria 
graphs were read firom the old Scripture, founded by the Macedonians. In conse- 
expositions were given in the vulgar or Ara- quence, so early as the Maccabees we find 
male tongue (Neh. viii. 1 — 8) ; and in the the Greek, togeUier with the Aramean, un- 
ordinary services on the sabbath and holy derstood by the Jews (2 Maccab. vii. 2, 8, 
days, an interpreter (methnrgeman), at first 21, 27). During the age of the apostles, in 
firom his own resources, afterwards from the Greek cities of south-western Asia, 
written Targiuis, ' gave the sense, and in Asia Minor, in the east of Europe, and 
caused them to understand the reading.' in Italy, while the Aramean was used in 

While these great changes in the She- common conversation among the Jews, Greek 

mitic dialects were proceeding, snother Ian- was the language of the synagogue. In the 

guage, one of a different family (the Indo- latter were read portions of the Septuagin* 

Germanic), we mean the Greek, was ac- translation of the law and the prophets, at 

quiring predominance in the countries of the festival of Purim the book of Esther, 

Western Asia. The diffusion of this tongue and in part also the prayers ; in it, moreover, 

over the East, as it had already been long instructions were given to the young. Even 

prevalent in the West, was a wise arrange- in Palestine, at the time of our Lord, Greek 

ment of Providence, by which the civilisa- was understood by the people and spoken 

tion of these two great divisions of the world conjointly with the Aramnan (Acts xxi. 40 ; 

might be blended together, and a new state xxii. 2). We find the Roman Procurator 

of society, together with a new religion — discoursing obviously in Greek, not only 

benign in its genius, and universal in its with learned Jews, but with Jesus himself 

tendency and scope — ^mi^t be brought into and the populace of Jerusalem ; listening 

existence. The conquests of Alexander pre- to the clamours of the latter against the 

pared the way for this diffusion of the Greek former, proposing to them Jesus or Barabbas, 

tongue. Being the language of the con- declaring himsetf innocent of the blood he 

queror, and the repository of the best know- was about to shed, and in all so well under- 

ledge and highest culture of the day, it be- stood by the people, that they give him in- 

came first the language of the courts in stant and appropriate answers, and convey 

Egyyt and Syria, then of the learned gene- to his ears intimations and threats that 

ndly, and at last was spoken by great num- compel him to yield to their unjust demands, 

bers in every part where the influence of the With the patriotic and national party who 

Macedonian hero retained predominance. identified the Greek tongue with a foreign 

In the times of the New Testament there yoke, that language was indeed unpopular ; 

mete, as we leam from Seneca (Gonsol. vi. bat the necessities of actual life in the 

8)) 'Greek cities even in the midst of bar- transactions of commerce, the intercourses of 

LAN 173 LAN 

Bociety, and the hopes of advancement, were catching and vending fish, may have found 
found valid reasons why even bigots ^oold some Greek indispensable to die successfol 
not deny themselves the advantages that transaction of their business. And both 
aecrued from familiarity with the language could not fail to improve their aoquaintance 
patronised by power, opulence, culture, and with the language, and their command over 
fashion. Among at least large numbers of its resources as a means of intercourse by 
the Jews, the HeUenists, the Greek main- speech and writing, in their travels and 
tained its prevalence till the middle of the teachings among persons and in parts of 
second century of our era, when on their die world where Greek was constantly, if 
behalf Akilas ( Aquila) of Pontus made a new not exclusively, in use. At any rate, enough 
translation of the Bible into Greek, since has been said to show the reason why the 
the Septuagiut was not found sufSoiently New Testament, though the work of Jewish 
literal. Misfortune in the course of time writers, was published to the world in the 
brought these Jews back to theur national Greek tongue; and also to prove that its 
tongue, when a fast was appointed to be writers, even if they, or any of them, em- 
held on the ei|^th of December to deplore ployed translators, had a sufficient acquaint- 
the formation of the Alexandrine translation ance with the Greek to qualify them for 
of the sacred books. exerting such a supervision as would make 
Of no little consequence is the muoh-de- the writings severally put forth on their 
bated question as to what the language was authority, accurate transcripts of their minds 
in which our Lord and his apostles gave and fit representatives of dieir wishes and 
their instructions. Between die two ex- aims. 

tremes, that Jesus taught only in Aramaan The Greek of the New Testament, how- 
and only in Greek, a third view sets him forth ever, is not the Greek of Xenophon or Thu- 
as discoursing in Aramasan wiUi his disci- eydides. Its inferiority, which by some has 
pies and with the people in Galilee, Peraa, been made a reproach and by others as un- 
Judea, and Samaria, but in Greek on certain wisely denied, proves on due inquiry to be 
occasions, as before Pilate and with the in itself an attestation to the apostolic writ- 
Syro-Phosnician woman. That while our ings. Had these compositions been written 
Lord employed the native Aramsean with in Attic purity, they would thereby have 
the people, he possessed a knowledge of impeadied, if not contradicted, their alleged 
Greek which he could use when needful, is a origin on the banks of the Jordan and in 
proposition which is not without foundation, the first century of the Boman empire. Had 
In Galilee, where he passed his early days, they been in the common Greek of literature, 
foreign influences abounded more tiian in they might have arisen in that age, but 
any other part of Palestine. The correct would in their style have no necessary con- 
use, in the body of a discourse held with his nection with Palestine. In their actual con- 
disciples, of a Greek word, etMrgstai, * bene- dition, they by unmistakeable tokens declare 
factors,' found on Syro-Macedonian coins that their birth-place is Judea, and their 
eurrent in Palestine in his day (see Lobd- age that of the earliest Casars. In the rear 
SHIP and Luke xxiL 25), shows that he not of the Macedonian conquests there gradually 
only knew, but employed the Greek. Paul formed itself a kind of Greek which, being 
having been educated in Tarsus, though he derived from that of the classic authors, and 
may not have received a thorough Greek retaining a portion of what was peculiar to 
training, was undoubtedly familiar with the Macedon, the inhabitants of whidi were not 
Greek language and some of its literature, of pure Hellenic blood, acquired peculiarities 
for he has quoted lines from its poets (Acts in each locality in which it b«oame esta- 
xvii. 28. 1 Cor. xr. 88. Tit i 12). Luke's blished, and being spoken variously in dif- 
skill in the Greek tongue, which, especially ferent parts, was by cultivated writers mo- 
in the last chapters of the Acts, approaches delled into a general fonn, which, from its 
to the style of Greek history, is not sur- being the universal language of good writing, 
prising, if he received at Antloch, the eradle was denominated common Greek. This, the 
of Gentile Christianity, a Greek education language of books, was employed, only in a 
for the medical profession (Col. iv. II, 14). deteriorated condition and under diverse 
Nor is it improbable that the Galilean apos- modifications, as a spoken language in all 
ties may have possessed a knowledge of parts of the civilised world. Those modi- 
Greek, for in that district, especially by fications, as to extent and impression, de- 
means of commerce, of settlers, of theatres, pended on the force and vigour of local and 
&c., Greek was spread among the people, national influences. In Palestine, where there 
Matthew, if on one side fitted by his native smouldered in the hearts of the people an 
Hebrew for collecting taxes among the peo- intense Hebrew feeling, the native tongue 
pie, required on the other a knowledge of strongly and deeply impressed itself on the 
Greek in order to oommimioate with his Greek. The Jews had a literature of their 
heathen employers. Peterand John, as sons own, venerated historical associations, and 
of tradesmen who supported their families by • fondly cherished hopes, all of which, bearing 

LAN r 

K d««p tinge oT Hebrew, eoold not bil to 
impart ■ itroDg oolouring to uiy new lui- 
gatgt the} might be led to emplof. The 
eliiet ^rpe of the Pilegtiniui Oreek wu the 
SeptuKgint, which, u ■ tiuulatioQ of the 
ilBbiew Seriptoree, reluned uid eommoni- 
eated no little of the impieia of the Hebnuo 
e^le of thonght and ntunuiw. Coqiointlj 
with tU> influBiitial work, Tariou* tfonTj- 
phal writingi in > kind ot Jewieh oi Alei- 
Kndrine Greek, oombined to fotm the general 
ehwaotera of the Greek of the New Teet*- 
menL Orealeal, bowsier, and moal dnntblv, 
was the impreai reoeired In llie manld 
fbnaed bj [he writers of die New Teatainent 
themielveB, who ae haling from their ^oath 
up been tnuned in and imbaed wilh Hebrew 
ideas, aaaocialiaDa, and phraaeologj, coold 
not tail to impart to the expreauoii of their 
thooghta a decided and lasting tinge ot 
Hebraism, whateTei modiQcalioDs their eda- 
cational opiniooa mighl hare nndergone, 
and whatsTer was the aatward dreti in 
which the; clothed Iheir Ihonghtt and Atel- 
ing*. Hence the New Testament in ge- 
nnal has a Hebrew or Anunaia colouring, 
in parts of a deeper. In pwrls of a tinier 

It ii thos seen that the Greek ot the New 

Teatamenl differs from the pore model in 
two eescDtial ohsracun; — Sist, it is taken 
from a foreign and (^oimpt dialect of Greek, 
and ehjeSj from that dialect as nsed in oon- 
Teiaation; Beeoudlj.itiaperrsded bjabroad 
and deep Hebrew element derived trom ae- 
reral qoarlera. This last is in eoine in- 
alancei so predominant, that we have He- 
brew, or Aramaic, thonghta and forms of 
expression in Creek cbsracteis. Hsrj'e 
hjmn of triomph, for irutanee, in Lt;ke L 
46~T9, is ao tharooghlr Hebraic, that it 
might almoat. term for term, be tomed into 
Hebrew words. Not onlj In general effect 
does the Bt;le of Ihe New Teatsmcnt, espa- 
oiallj Matthew's Gospel, beira/ marks of ila 
Aramaic origin, but in wordu also, cooatnie- 
lions, and modes of eipresaion, for the right 
and ftall comprehension of which, familiari^ 
wilh Ihe elder Scriptures in the origiiul is 
indispensabte. The anion at the seierai 
peenliarities of style to which we hsre now 
referred, forms what critics, with no great 
precision, hsve dcnomiDsled Hellenistla 
Greek, on the gronnd thai the Jewe who 
spoke Greek bore the nsme of Hellenistsi. 

It might hare been expected that, as [he 
Romans were, in the sge of Jesos and his 
apostles, mastere of Falesliae, the Lstin 
lODgne would hsie left a ge[ierBl imprsasion 
0D[he laogaageof the New TsstamgnL Bnl 
the Greek was the recognised langoaga of 
literatore and social inteicourae, and preva- 
lent iu all parts ot [he ciiilised world, while as 
yet Latin was merely [he language ofcinil and 
military despolitm. Holding for mao; jreaia 

■4 LAN 

military poweuion of Palestine, the Bomnia, 
however, oould not but to sel in cireolation 
wards and modes of eipresaion, while even 
their Greek wore a somewhat Latinised form. 
A ten instances of Latin terms and idioms 
present IhemselTea in (he New TeslamenI, 
bnl they bear a nry small proportion to the 
Hebraisms of word, thought, expression, and 
oonstrootiaD, which there aboand. 

These 90 alities, eharaoteriaing the language 
of [he later Sciiptores, afford a strong, if not 
decisive, evidence that Ihesa writings &rat ap- 
peared within the first oentury of the Chris- 
dsn era. An eailier age no one has ventured 
10 claitD for them ; a later age oan hardly be 
assigned ; for in the second eenuiry the BO' 
mans had Do longer peisonsl inlenwarse 
wilh the inhabitanu of Palestine and tlie an- 
(hariliea of the Jewish metropolis; and the 
ever-aogmenting corruption of [he Wcstem- 
Aramsan wontd hsve carried the style of ttie 
New Testament farther ^m that of Ihe Sep- 
loaginl and the Greek Apoeiypha, and nearer 
to rabbinical Hebrew. In the Urst century 
and then only, and in that century during 
the time when the Jewish temple and polity 
were still eisct, bat onder [he yoke ot Rome, 
were [he influences in aclive and combined 
operalion thai gale birlh Is Ihe altogether 
peculiar slyle of langua^ in which are found 
the esiliesi written reooida and memorials 
ot the Christian religion. 

LANTEBN8 (L. lalfrna) ie the render- 
ing, in John iviii. S, of Ihe Greek pkanot, 
whioh LQcke interpreta ai meaning ' torchee,' 
laking [be neil word, LaapaiUi, ' torohes,' for 
lanlenia. Instruments ot the kind ^ipear to 
have formed s pari of the equipments of sol- 
diers in marches and altacks by night The 
Egyptian ruins fail here lo supply certain 
illustration, though this cut seems lo pre- 
sent a lantern which i* held by one of a 
military guard. 


tMaitj for the employinent of ll^U b; Hi* 
•oUiras wha ^^ehended Jenu uow, flnt, 
bom its being night-tune (Hark ift. 27. 
John liij. 30) ; ud ueondl;, Ihongh the ftiU 
moon then (tx the PaHOter) ehone, jel it* 
light. ipeeiiUj in the deep ehidDwa in th« 
ranne on Ihe weslem aide of Olivet, wonid 
be insufflcienl u> enable Ihe gnard to diatin- 
guiah features and be sort they had aeized 
the right penon. Beeides, for aught the; 
knew, leans might have hidden himself in 
•ome honae, or behind Ihe tieei of Ihe garden. 

LANQUISH (L.lmg»«ta>, 'Igcowireak') 
ii the appropriate rendering. In Is. zsIt. i, 
of a word whleh algnifiei, uid li elaewhere 
(Eiek. xtL30) rendered b}, 'weak,' or' tM- 
ble ' (1 Sunoel ii. 0). It ii applied alao to 
Ibinga 10 denote their fading and wasting 
•vaj (Ii. itL 8. Joel i. 10, 13. Nah. L i). 

LASCIVIOUSNESa (L. Lucivia— laiui, 
'looeeneai,' 'lieenliotuneas') ia, in Gphe*. 
It. 9, need of a person who giiea Ihe rein* 
to hia paaeions ; hence the word ia aome- 
timei eqniralant to 'Inst;' ao in Bom. liii. 
13, where the conunon rertion givM ' wan- 

rs LAV 

T«Hona reading* in the mannsorlpta. Heno^ 
poanblj, Laiiaaa m^ have been the word 
written bj Ihe hiatorian. If eo, the difSeul^ 
Briiing from Ihe fast that Laaea ia nal men- 
tionad in an; other ancient writing, dil- 

LA8T DAT. See JddAkht. 

LATIK. See LAVotrxea. 

LATTICE. See CiaBiun. 

LAVEB (L. loco, 'I wash'), a roDnd, 
Urge brass bowl, standing on a leg and base 
■laa braten, made of the women'e braien 
tairrMS (Exod. zxzriiL 8), which was placed 
on the left of the altar of bomt'Oflning, in 
Ihe fote-eonrt of the sanotoarj. in order to 
afford the priMIs means (br waahing their 
hands and fbet before the; prooeeded to 
perfonn their saored office (Eiod. xxt. 16, 
Kq.; iL7, 11). 


LA6DICEA(G.) is aname borne b; sere- 
ral aneient eilie*. of which that mentioned 
in tile New Teatament la; near tlie border* 
of Phrjgia and Ljdia, on the rtrer Lyong^ 
abonl aiitf miles east of Ephesns, eighteen 
west of ColoBMB, and nearly Ihe aaiae dis- 
tance soDth of Hierapolis. The plsoe. 
named at an euler period Dioepolii, then 
Bhoas, was called Laodioes, in honour of 
Laodiee, wife afthe Syrian king, Antiochns 
II., who impiottsly b<u« the name of dnu, 
' god.' Laodieea waa for a long time a plioe 

ment of the Christian era, it held a high 
position both in commerce and riohee. In 
the year 60 A. D., il, together with Colaaem 
and HierqKtIls, insured from *n earthqnake. 
It wae reboill andei Uaren* Amelin*, hot 
nerer r^pdned its lost greatneM. 

Coimecled with the name of Ibi* eity *n 
epistle is mentioned, in Colosa.- i*. IS, as 
' the (letter) tram Lwidioe* ;' thai i*, ■ sent 
from Laodieea;'— by Paol ? Bnt was Faal 
ever In the place T (iL 1). Compare 
L 387. It may be held thai the letter in 
qiMMiMi waa one iriiioh Paid had sent to 
die Laodicean ehnroh, and lAioh the Colo*- 
tianswwe to reoelTe from Laodieea; It being, 
^t may b* mppoeed, a eirenlar letter deeigned 
lopa**ftomdinrghlo ehnreh in A^ Uinor, 
where were serenJ Christian aommnnltlea. 

LASEA, « ^aee on the easlam side of die 
iiland of Oiete, to idilata, on hi* Toyag* to 
Rome, Pml eame after hating paaeedUie pro- 
montory of Salmcme and Ihe Fair Harens, 
and which, therefore, eonld not haTe Iain far 
ttom Oor^a, the ancient name tor whieh, 
■Mily Lwisia, nuy be made out from the 

In Solomon'* temple, inttead of this larer, 
was a sea <rf molten br«*a, with ten haae* 
of hrasa, adorned with figure* of lion*, oxen, 
and chenibira ( 1 King* riL 23, Mq. ; comp. 
3 Chron. ir. S). Ahai rvmored the laver 
itaelf from the eopportiDg oxen, and placed 
it' on a paTemant of etonei (2 Kings ktL 
IT). It U possible that a restoratioa wa* 
cflbeted by Hsnkiab ; for among the taerad 
nlendl* carried to Behylon, ■ one aea and 
Um bases which Sdomon had made,' are 
menttoned (3 King* an. 16). The aeeoMI 
tempt* had one larcr of brass, to which 
a certain persmi, named Ben Katin, oiosed 
to be a[^lied not oily twelre, butead of 
two eock^ whidi them had been before, but 
also a apeoial oontrinnee for anpptying and 
letting off the water. In hie deseription of 
Ac Hetodian tample, Jose^D* (Jew. War, 
T. &) do** not mention this leaerroir- Tbe 

BintM of lh« molten (m given b^ uchmlo- nbMnw ot minule iofonnMiotl, lid hu bara 
fin* ™iy one from ihe olher, Mart, in iha drawn from the imaginition. 

eljmologieal meuing of I 
(hat which ii Uid down oi appointed, that 
ii bj a eompeleni antbcnitj, and ao ii ths 
rxfi—^oa ot the will of ■ lapeiior, who as 
being a anpcrior mnat be presumed to be 
diMisgnuhed either by power, or by that 
wiadom and goodnean which are the on]y 
souroes of troe and lasting power. Law !■, 
Iherefore, the ordinancea of nipreme iatel- 
Uience. Aa being lach, it Ib a syetem not 
el arbitrary appoinlments, but of those re- 
golalioiu lad beheui wbieb, in regard to 

.the fltlest and moat 
effeeloil in the judgment of the lawgiter. 
The lawa ot Ood are Ihentore his ordl- 
nsnoes for the tnrtheranee of hia wise and 
beneTolent pnrpoiee. ConKqaently, obsdi- 
eace on the part ofman 1b entbreed no leas by 
an enlightened aelt-interest than by the moat 
solemn and impraaaive obligationi. And 
the lawi of Ood, aa the emanations of hia 
own infallible intelligence, are the miniatera 
of his good pleasnre, not bonds imposed by 

LAW 177 LAW 

some onknown power of destiny. They of that will was denominated * law,' or ' the 

also comprehend what is sometimes called law,' thorah. The tenn, signifying ' instmc* 

' the laws of nature,' for nature is nothing tion,' serves of itself to show the natare of 

else than that which is ever being bom the communication, as being addressed to 

(nascor — natus naturui — ^'I come into human intelligence. The remark is the 

being') or produced of the great Producer more necessary, because with our higher 

or Creator, that is, God. Hence appears the conception of Jaw in general, and the nobler 

radical absurdity of the phrase, * laws of principle of Christianity, whose tendency it 

nature,' when employed as a producing or is to make every man a law to himself, we 

creating power. Law produces nothing, but are, in looking back on the law of Moses, too 

is produced ; and * laws of nature' is a form much inclined to see in it only a mass of ar* 

of speech which has no meaning, unless it bitraiy and unmeaning requirements imposed 

signify the modes of the Divine agency, the by sovereign power. In truth, the legis- 

measures of Creative power, the ordinances lation of Moses was for its time the ezpres- 

of Providence; or, in regard to created sion of the highest social and political 

beings, the course of conduct which it is wisdom, and we speak not unadvisedly when 

CKkl's will that they should observe. we add, that it contains features In the 

Law is an abstraction, to which it is dear application of the spirit of which advantage 
men could not rise in the esrlier periods of might even yet be found, 
the world. Society must have existed some The terms * law,' * law of Moses,' ' law of 
time before the elements came into being Jehovah,' denote in the Old Testament the 
out of which the idea was formed. Hence Mosaic economy in general, as well as par- 
we gain a measure of the degree of civili- ticular portions or enactments of it ; without, 
zation possessed by ancient peoples. And however, involving any systematic division 
hence we are justified in inferring that the into parts, according to the nature of the 
Bible in its earliest pages is, if not a con- requirements and observances ; for the whole 
sequence of a divine revelation, yet a pro- Mosaic legislation was, according to the 
duct of a relatively high degree of culture ; manner of a primitive age, of too simple a 
for the essence of what constitutes law is character, and was given too much as cir- 
found in its opening narratives. Superficial oumstances arose — too much, so U> say, by 
thinkers have, indeed, stumbled at particulars piecemeal and unpremeditatedly — to sdmit 
there recorded, as if to abstain firom eating of any exact arrangement. It is only, there- 
forbidden fruit might not be a test of obe- fore, as a matter of convenience Uiat we 
dience equally as well as the refusal of a oan give entire acquiescence to divisions 
crown. In the account, however, we find a made in later days. Such a division is that 
divine command given to man, accompanied- which finds in the general system bearing 
with a penalty to be inflicted on its being the name of law, I. the morsl law ; H. the 
broken. The prohibition is disregarded, ceremonial law ; III. the civil law. Of these 
and punishment ensues ; yet not without a collectively the foundation is the great 
promise of better things to come. In these spiritual doctrine which sets forth in Jeho- 
simple facts is an epitome of the Bihle, vah the absolute, self-existent, almighty 
which is in truth a sacred book, for this, if and eternal Being, Creator of heaven and 
for no other reason, that its great aim firom earth, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 
first to last is to make God's laws univer- as the God of Israel (£xod. vi. 2 ; xiii. 6 ; 
sally obeyed, and so to bring peace on eartili xix. 8, aeq, ; xx. 2, teq.). Here the universal 
and prepare the way for pure and eternal Lord enters into a peculiarly dose relation 
spiritual good. with the Hebrew race, involving special com- 

In the promotion of his own wise and milnications of light from himself, and peou- 

benevolent designs, the Creator of the nni- liar duties on the part of that people. Hence 

verse has furnished his intelligent creatures also it appears that Mosaism was not a new 

with sufficient light in all ages and in all religion, but a development of the patriarchal, 

nations (Acts xiv. 17 ; xvii. 28, Mg. Bom. i. Its founder built his church on pr»*existent 

20, Mg.; ii. 12 — 15), while to the lineal and materials — such as established and recog- 

spiritual descendants of faithftil Abraham nised truths, prescriptive usages, and vene- 

he communicated special instructions, in rable recollections, making this great truth 

order that the light thus given might be the corner-stone of the edifice, namely, * Hear, 

spread throughout the world (Genesis xU. O Israel, Jehovah is our God, Jehovah is 

8). This publication of law was at the one' ( Doctrine leads to morals, 

first made to individuals— for instance, the If Jehovah is the God of Israel, Israel be- 

patriarchs— yet with a view to its communi- longs to Jehovah. Hence, in the fiillest 

cation to others ; but in due time, when a sense of the term, every Hebrew was God's, 

people had been made fit to be its depo- Obedience was an obvious duty. Jehovah, 

sitary, God's will was through Moses made moreover, was the sole Lawgiver and King, 

known to the children of Israel, that they His will was emphatically expressed in the 

might embody it in their national insti- Ten Commandments, which formed the 

tutions and national life. The deolaration germ of the whole polity. As Jehovah wat 
Vol. IL N 

LAW 178 LAW 

the sole poBsessor and master of the nation, ritual import of the law, which they eansed 
lo did its members all belong to him — their to degenerate into an onmeaniug and pro- 
bodies as well as their minds. If, there- fitless system of outward observances, loaded 
fore, he thought fit to allow those bodies to with learned errors, grave, trifling, and hu* 
be redeemed, still were the Israelites liable man traditions. This degeneraey prepared 
to pay snob senrioes as he mi^t require, the way for its own dissolution. Yet, like 
Thus the civil and the oeremonial law ensued the fUiled phosnli, e^en in its death it gave 
from the great fundamental doctrine so birth to Christisnity. In comparison with 
pointedly set forth in the words just cited the religion of Jesus, the Mosaic law must 
(Deut v.). Hence also arose the genual in the nature of things suflbr greatly (Heb. 
equality of all Israelites ; and as, under Ood, iz. 10). But while soch a comparison was, 
they stood on a level, minor distinetiona with Paul and other writers of the New Tes- 
disappearing before the great relation borne tament, indispenaaUey it is no leas proper, 
to the one Sovereign, Bnler, and Judge,^— if we would form a just estimate of the older 
and as this great Behig aaw fit to give the revelation, to contemplate it in relation to 
Israelites a land <xf ttieir own, in which the day when, and the immediate pniposea 
wealth and power were to be gained by for which, it was given ; and in doing this, 
agriculture, ao did a diviaion ol &e land c2r competent judges must be atmck with admi- 
necessity ensue, tribsl and family distinctiona ration, and will be ready to admit that, as a 
were sanctioned and perpetuated, while his- oodeof laws* the M o sa ie system fkranrpassea 
tory was encouraged in the rudiments of any ancient legislation, 
genealogical registers, and still more in the Among the porposea which the law waa 
records required in the transmission, if not designed to answer, was so to edncate the 
given in the enaotment of ceremonisl obaer- conscience as eventually to call forth in eaak 
vancea. These outward acts were more or one's mind the knowledge of sin (Bom. iiL 
less of a aymbolieal natore. They thus 20; vii 7), without which there can be no true 
acquired a moral import and value, and turning to God, and no vital change of the 
rose into importaaee. It is an error to heart ; in other words, the law is a pre-iequi- 
limit the morality of Moaaism to the Ten aite to the great work effeded in the soul by 
Commandments, thon|^ that digeat of law the goi^eL 

will not snflbr in comparison with the laws From this as well as from other conside- 
of the Twelve Tables and aimilar compila- rations, we learn the intimate connection in 
tions; but to die well-instructed eye of a which the law stands with the gospel. This 
pious Israelite, every part, every act, every connection, dimly foreseen by ICoses (Deut. 
dress, if not every ornament, appears to zviiL 16), is explicitly dedarsd in the Mew 
have conveyed a morel signification, while Testament (Jolm i. 4ft ; v. 14. Acts iiL 22 ; 
the whole combined to carry his mind to viL 37. QaL iiL 24). The connection, of 
Grod, and make him, as a Hebrew, foel him- necessity, iuTolved both what was durable 
selfoneofa great spiritual corporation which and what was trsnsitory in the eariier reli- 
embodied high spiritusl truth, had a hif^ gion; what waa durable, because, as coming 
q^iritual mission, and was working a great from God to man, it was founded on ever- 
religious and providential work. Viewed lasting relations and conveyed undecaying 
in this light, the complexity and minuts- truth ; what was transitory, because, as de- 
ness of the ceremonial law acquire import- signed for an eariy age, it in part lost itt 
ance, and the polity, seen as a whole having fitaess when that age was gone ; and, as 
great moral aims and tendencies, appears in being preparatory, it ceased to be valid when 
« favourable U|^t, and reflects high and last- it had produced its result la, something 
xng bcnour on him from whom it emanated, ha^er than itself. Thus 1h» religion of 
We are thus led to find a reason and a jus- Moses and that of Jesus are seen to be parte 
tification of the veneration in which the of Ood's universal providence, which, by 
law of Jehovah waa held by pious Israelites, that process of transition that is an essential 
and can nnderatand how with propriety they condition of human progress, incessantly 
could ascribe to it qualities such as those oanses old things to pass away,anda]l things 
mentioned in Ps. xiz. 7, Mg. to become new (2 Cor. v. 17). And, as con- 
We have spoken of the law as it was in stituting an essential link in the cham of 
its ideal state. The actual observance of Btemal Providence, as having a realised aim 
the people fell far below the aim of tfie le- in the promotion of God's will on earth, 
gislator. For many centuries the Hebrew as executing a great work in the process of 
nation manifoated idolatrous propensities, man's education, as one grand step in the 
and so struck a blow at its vital part Kings, onwaidpiogiessof our race, the law remains 
pnesto, ud people, forgot God, and would for ever, and ean no more pass away than 
for ever have disowned his sovereignty but any other divine ordinance till all be firffilled. 
for tfie faithful rebokes of prophets. And when it wiU still survive in ite benign eSeeti 
at a later period, when they were at length (Matt. v. 18). 

converted to mono Aeism, Aey, in their ear- In the New Testament, the woid law, frtmi 

nal mmds, too easily lost from sight the api- a Greek term, tumum (hence nam, a p2«tkm 




of tiia land of Egypt), slgnliyiiig a divtolon, 
a proyiuee, means, I. dominion, or power 
(Rom. Tii. 3; comp. 1 Corinthians vii. 89); 
II. precept, or principle (Oal. ▼!. d) ; III. 
eommand, as giving a rule of life (Bom. i?. 
1ft; yii. 8, 0) ; IV. generally an order or 
manner of eonduot (Phil. iii. 0. Acts zzlL 
8); V. eivil statutes or institations (John 
▼ii. 61. Acts xxiii. 8) ; VI. the Mosaic po- 
ll^, the 'law of works,* in eontradistinc^n 
to Christiani^, the * law of faith ' (Bom. iiL 
37 ; oomp. is. 81) ; VII. the law of Moses 
considered in relation to certain require- 
ments (Lnke ii. 92. John Tii 28); Vni. 
Ihe laws of Moses in general (Matt. zziiL 
28. Acts Ti 18 ; XT. 24). < Those under the 
law' are Jews (1 Cor. iz. 20; comp. Bom. 
ii. 12; hr. 14). The passage in OaL ii 19 
seems to mean that Paul, in Tirtne of the 
diviue ordination ('law') respecting die sal- 
tation of the Gentiles, had bidden fiuewdl 
to the law (of Moses). Compare Bom. Til. 
6, where read with the margin, Oriesbach 
and Tisohendorf, * being dead to that' (tL 
2). In the epistle to the Bomans, as well as 
in that to the Oalatians, cars must be taken 
to discriminate the exact meaning of law, 
which signifies the entire Mosaic economy 
(Bom. iiL 28. GaL ii 16) — or some part of 
that system, its promises, its threatenings-^ 
or God's natural laws considered as promul-* 
gated in the law of Moses (Bom. ii. 14, 15, 
25—27 ; iii. 81 ; xiii. 8, 10. Oalatians ▼. 4) ; 
whence *fhe law' means, the law viewed as 
published by Moses, and in its moral rela- 
tions (Bom. ill 19 ; ▼. 18. GaL iii. 2—24). 
' The law,' by the figure which puts the con- 
tained for the container, also signifies the 
book of the law, the Scriptures of the Old 
Testament, or the Pentateuch (Matt xii. 5. 
Luke X. 26. John TiiL 17. 1 Cor. xiv. 21. 
Oal. iii. 10). Beference is probably made 
to tradition in 1 Cor. xIt. 84. 

The law was in the days of the apostles 
read in the synagogues (Acts xiii. 15). The 
custom arose 150 years before the Urth of 
Christ. It was read in portions, or divisions, 
aaeribed to Eoa. The five books of Moses, 
termed thcLaw,were divided into 54 chapters ; 
so thaton eadi sabbath of the (lunar) year one 
portion might be read. When the year con- 
tained less&an 54 weeks, two or more portions 
were read together. When Anttoehus Epi- 
phanea burnt 'the law' and forbad its being 
read, the Jews chose portions from the pro- 
phets,which in sense corresponded with those 
of the Pentateuch, and these they read in the 
synagogues. When they were again allowed 
to read Ac law, they continued to read 
also the prophetic portions. A portion or 
chapter of the kind was termed hajfthar$, 
or dismissal, because when the reading was 
terminated the congregation was dismissed, 
unless any member of the synagogue arose 
and delivered an address. This exception 
explains the question of the rulers of the 

synagogue made in the verse referred to 

The Boman law, as being that of the mi- 
litary superiors of Jadea, was more or less 
introduced into the usages and language of 
the people and the practice of the courts. 
In Matt. V. 25, the words refer to a legal 
usage among the Bomans. Parties amoog 
them suing each other at law might, on 
their way to the tribunal, come to a good 
understanding. If this was not effected, the 
accuser required the accused to go with him 
before (he Prestor. Should the latter refuse, 
the former, calling in a witness, might en- 
force compliance (comp. Matthew zviil. 28). 
BtiU, should the accused, while on the way, 
effect an accommodation, the matter was ter- 
minated. Comp. Luke xd. 58. 

LAZABUS, an abridged and Grecised 
form of the Hebrew Eleazar, is the name 
under which Jesus spoke of the beggar 
(hence lasarttto) whom, in his parable, he 
set in contrast with the rich man that fared 
sumptuously every day (Luke xvi. 19, teq.). 
The latter denotes the Jews, the former the 
despised and hated Gentiles. There is no 
teason to suppose, with some, that a real 
person, by name Laxarus, formed the subject 
of our Lord's brief discourse. Probably, (he 
heathen form of the name Lasarus may have 
suggested it as the denomination of the repre- 
sentative of the Gentile world, while there 
is much skiU and delicate feeling manifested 
in Christfs avoiding to mention his fellow- 
countrymen by name as those intended under 
the general description of the ' rich man.' 

Of eourse, as this parable was intended to 
operate immediately on the minds of Jews, 
{to imagery and forms of thought are scch 
as they were familiar with. It is charae- 
teristic of the universal spirit of the gospel 
of Luke, that he alone of the evangelibte has 
recorded this parable. 

LAZABUS was also the name of the friend 
of Jesus (John xi. 8), the brother of Mary 
and her sister Martha, of Bethany, in whose 
abode the Saviour appears to have found a 
home, whom he raised to life after he had 
been dead four days, and whom, as being by 
his very existence a visible and resisdess 
proof of the divine power of Jesus, the Jew- 
ish authorities, in their insane and inveterate 
hatred, contemplated putting to death. In 
the defectiveness of our narratives we are 
unable to say whether those enemies of the 
gospel were deteited by a fear of thereby 
giving a firesh impulse to the slready too 
prosperous cause of Christ; and are equally 
deprived of the means for determining how 
Lazarus acted in the woAil tragedy through 
which his friend and benefactor passed, partiy 
as a consequence of (he benefit conferred on 
himself. According to an ancient tradition, 
Lazarus lived thirty years after his restora- 
tion, being then thirty years of age. With 
this stands in opposition the Western legend, 


L A Z 180 L A Z 

that Lazarus, with Martha, proceeded into miftaken for death (conip.xil. 1), under the 

France, and preached the gospel at Mar- effects of aromatics employed at his burial. 

Bellies. and the repose and fresh air of the grotto in 

The tomb of Lazarus is shewn on the which he was laid. To saj nothing of the 

edge of the village of Bethany. It is not obvious unlikelihood that his loving sisters 

easy to determine whether this is a natural should, through mistake, have interred their 

oave, remodelled by human labour, or whoUy brother alive ; to say nothing of the cramp* 

an artificisl excavation ; most probably, the ing and benumbing effects on a siek person 

former. The entrance is about three and a of the swathing bands of deatib ; omitting to 

half feet high, and two feet wide, immedi- urge that the taled, or head-cloth, in whieh 

ately after which a descent is made, by It was customary to envelop the head and 

twenty-seven stone steps, into a dark room fbce (xl44; see also i. 216), could not have 

about nine feet square. 1^ its sides are four failed to eanse snfibcation, if liliB were not 

niches for the reception of bodies, and there already extinct, — we find in the aoconnt 

is one fractured sareophagus. Three mors above given of the structure of the tomb, 

steps lead through an exeavated passage into reason sufficient to deny that any reviving 

an arched chamber eight feet square by nine virtue could be found in that abode of death* 

in height This might readily be taken for the narrowness of whose space* and the 

an ancient Jewish tomb, which it sufficiently dampness of whose air would c(»nbine with 

resembles in its form and construction. If the oveipowering odour of the strong per- 

this is indeed the sepulchre of Lazarus, which fumes, rather to eztingaish any remaining 

there seems good reason for doubting, his spark of life than give to its toiani the 

body probably rested in the particular apart- power requisite of hbnself to burst the bars 

ment just described ; the first room, with of his prison, and ' oome forth ' up into the 

its niches, serving the double purpose of a eye of day. It is needless to add» diat when 

family sepulchre and of an ante-chamber to he did appear, Lazarus was still enveloped 

the second, after the style which prevails in in his * grave-clothes' (44) ; because the hy- 

several apartments of the tombs of the kings pothesis is constructed with an entire disre- 

north of Jerusalem. The possession of sndi gard of the recorded facts. We think it both 

a sepulchre supposes the possession of con- more easy and more ingenuous to reject the 

siderable wealUi by Lazarus and his fkmily. whole narrative at once, than thus to attempt 

That they were rich we should naturally in- an explanatiout on what are called purely 

fer from several facts mentioned by the evan- natural grounds, of what the narrator obvi- 

gelists. They extended a liberal, and what, ously regarded, and intended to set forth, as 

upon the whole, must have been an expen- a wonderful instance of Ihe exercise of God's 

sive, hospitality to Christ and his numerous power in and on behalf of his Son. 

retinue of disciples, who seem often to have This prodigy was wrought by our Lord 

retired to the bosom of this friendly funily with a view to create in its spectators a be- 

for repose and social enjoyment The box lief in him as the special Messenger of God 

of very precious ointment which was poured (42). With this view our Lord, by an ex- 

npon our Savioui^s head in Simon's house, press act of prayer, connected the perform- 

and which called forth the rebuke of Judas, ance of the miracle with the exertion of his 

was an offering from Mary, the sister of La- heavenly Father^s power (42). Take the 

xarus. The large concourse of Jews who, appeal thus made In ooigunction with the cha- 

upon the death of Lazarus, resorted to Be- racier and missioa of Christ, and the argu- 

thany to sympathise with the bereaved, is a ment was unexceptionable and eonvincing. 

sufficient proof that it was a family of note Stated in general terms, the argument was 

and substance. this — the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 

We may mention as an illustration of the attests the divine mission of Jesus, who goes 

tomb of Lazarus, one still found on the base about doing good, by empowering him to 

of the mountain on the western aide of ihe raise his friend from the dead. For those 

sea of Tiberias. It is approached through a to whom the appesl was made we can see 

cut in the rock leading to a semicircular no ground of objection. They held that Ood 

recess, in the resr of which a square entrance had of old wrought miracles for his own good 

opens into an arched chamber. Here are purposes; they held that he would enable 

three sarcophagi on the right, with as many the Messiah to work miracles ; they had 

on the left, hewn in the rock on a level with strong presumptions in his life and doctrine 

the floor, and entered by small square doors, that Jesns was the Christ; and therefore. 

We have entered into these particulars the when they saw him at a word restore Laza- 
rather because, while illustrating the genersl rus to life, with the supplicated and avowed 
subject of Jewish sepulchres, Uiey serve to aid of God, they had every reason for be- 
show how utterly improbable is the suppo- lieving that God had sent him. Msny did 
sition which, in order to escape from the so believe. That others were only made 
fact of a miracle having been performed in active in their hostility to Jesus, is only one 
the raiping of Lazarus, makes him to have among many painful evidences of the blind- 
been revived from a swoon or a sickness, ing efficacy of a wicked heart The fact that 

LEA 181 L E B 

many did believe rests not merely on the 'sharp 'as a natnnd consequence of fermen- 
•tatement of the historian (45), but is trace- tation. That the Egyptians were acquainted 
able in minor incidents found in his narra- with the operation and effects of yeast, seems 
tive (xL 08, uq, ; xii. 1 — 19). Indeed, the probable in itself, and from the high loaves 
miracle istike point of transition to the great that are seen on the monuments. The He- 
events recorded aftar it in John's Gospel, all brews were at an early period familiar with 
of which more or less immediately depend leaven, which they commonly prepared from 
on this cardinal transaction. the dregs of wine or from must, or from 

The faith of the speotaton of the miracle dough allowed to remain in water some 

becomes a source, and a valid source, of con- days. ¥rhen in haste, they baked their bread 

viction to men of later times; for we are thus without yeast (Gen. xiz. 8. Judg. vi. 19), 

supplied with a sufBcient cause of the re- as is at present done among the Bedouins, 

corded events which, without this miracle In this fact lies the reason of the law which 

and others, would appear sometimes un- commanded the Passover to be celebrated 

likely and at othen impossible. And while with unleavened bread; which thus became a 

we are thus of necessity carried back to the perpetual symbol of the haste with which the 

belief of the first disciples as the inspiring nation had quitted Egypt (comp. Exod. xii. 

cause of their indomitable and all-conquer- 9, 11, 14). According to the law, for seven 

log leal, we see also that their convictions days unleavened bread was to be eaten (10. 

were founded on grounds which, at least to Dent xvL 10 ; comp. 1 Cor. v. 7) ; and, in 

them, were perfectly valid and satisfactory, obedience to later authorities, in the night 

As to the evidence of miracle in the abstract, before the 14th Nisau, great care was taken 

then will it be time enough to discuss the in every house to remove from it every por- 

matter, when an abstract miracle shall have tion of leaven, which, when found, was com- 

been, we do not say performed, but intelli- monly burnt No meat-offering was to be 

gibly defined. WiUi such mere notions, made witli leaven, which was not to be burnt 

however, the Scripture has nothing to do. in any offering (Lev. ii. 11). This dissl- 

In a necropolis in the valley of Hinnom, lowal may have been derived firom the idea 

Kraft investigated tombs whidb throw light that fermentation is a process involving de- 

on the sul^ecL In the rock is one which is strnction. On the contrary, at Pentecost 

entered by an ornamented opening, the upper the loaves, which represented ordinary h um an 

half of which is still covered by a stone door, fbod, were to be made with leaven, as being 

This door is on the upper part fixed by probably conducive to digestion and heslth 

two hinges in corresponding holes in the (Lev. xxiii. 17). The bread which was 

two sides, and below is fastened on the offered with thank-offerings was also leavened 

door -jambs. The grave was opened by (Lev. vii. 13). 

raising the stone from below. Another LEBANON (H. tohiu), a much celebrated 
mode of securing the tomb, was by a bar of mountain in Syria, which, springing from 
wood which ran across a stone rolled up to the Tanru% runs southward, and having in 
the mouth of the cave, and was fixed in the its more imposing masses formed the north- 
side walls. This explains the form and the em boundary of Palestine, sinks down into 
sealing of our Lord's tomb (Matt, xxvii. 66). the lower hills which, dividing, constitute 
The seal was applied at the point where the the valley of the Jordan and the ridges of 
beam fastened into the rook. The interior Judea, and then rise as they go until they 
of the half- closed tomb mentioned above is reach the elevation of the mountains at the 
richly adorned, and still presents a good spe- southern extremity of the peninsula of Sinai, 
cimen of the formation of a Jewish sepul- Lebanon, viewed in itself, consists of two 
chre 'heimout in the rock' (60). Through parallel ranges, divided by a wide vale, 
the opening you enter a vaulted chamber called CoBle-Syria, or Bekaa. Of these 
twelve feet square, with half-columns cut out two, the western was specially denominated 
of the side walls, the capitals of which are Lebanon by the Greeks, while its oppo- 
very simple. On the right and the left of site received the name of Anti- Lebanon, 
these columns are small chambere, or niches, This distinction was unknown to the He- 
holding each a sareophagus cut out of the brews, with whom Lebanon stands for the 
living rock. Opposite the entrance is a se- mountain in general, or rather tlie southern 
cond door, which leads to inner chambers, extremity of AxLti-Lebanon, which runs down 
in which are sareophagi, or niches in the to Tyre, and with which, as forming a part 
sides, into which corpses were put. These of their country, the Hebrews were acquainted, 
details correspond with those given in the The mountain throws out also an eastern 
Talmud respecting Jewish rock-tombs. arm, which forms Hermon and gives rise to 

LEAVEN (L. Uvo,*I raise'), so called the Jordan. Lebanon consists chiefly of lime- 

from its 'raising' the dough and so making stone, to whose white summits, as much as 

the bread Might,' the original of which is to the highest of them being covered with 

not incorrectly translated by Wickliff, * sour- perpetual snow, it owes its appellation, Le- 

dow' (so in German, tauirteig)^ represents banon, or the whiu mountain. 

Hebrew terms which signify lobe * sour' and Varying in elevation, it reaches to the 

182 LEE 

dialrlet B; ' the bi*«i of Lebanon' (CuiL vii. 4) Ja 

;ipise* ; meant, eiibn id eleviuon or some eleguit 

edifice on Ihe moiuiuin whioh oommuided 

■ Tiew of the pandise in which Uj Duoaseas. 

■ The faouH of the forett of Lebanon,' built 
bj Solomon, was a palaoe conatracud ot 
wood from Lebanon, ot pluwd hi soma lonlj 
■pot within It* limits. To Palntine, which 
waa poorlj npplied with wood, the tieea 
gf Lebanon were ot great Talae. and became 
ol)jaeti of high ngard and pleaennble ai- 
■oeiatJona (comp. 1 Kingi T. II. 9 Kinga 
>lT. a. Pi. lail. 06; icii. 13. Cant. It. tf). 

I itself, from it! hnga maesea 
aspect, rame u> be a aymbol 
(Ia.nn. 3; tx. IS). 

flu eaaMm border is onfyoitfal ; the weatem 
•dnita of oDltora. On the eontrarj, in the 
Anti-Lebanon range, the eastern is fertile, 
tfaa weatem barren. The nngea pment 
Ihelr bare aidea to eaeh other, ao that the 
tallef whioh Ihe; form la bordemd bj deasrt 
nplanda. The only eonaiderable rlren are 
the Jordan and the Oronles. In genetal, Le- 
banm, oompared with other high lands, ia 
poor in water, fhr frran eight to nine months 
in the Tear no rain falls. Thi* fact may 
8 general absence 
...ntwealthwhich Lebanon 

ir and other trees has long LEECH, or HOBSELEECH, mentifmed 
diaappeaied. All that remain tOnn a wood only onee in the Bible (Prov. xu. 10), is a 
ot abonl a mile in chnnit (see Csdab). small water eerpent, noted for iti thirst for 
The ohist prodncta of the diatiiet now ate blood (whenoe, probably, tha name, from 
ailk, lobaoeo, oil, ootlan, and wine (Hos. a not denoting eamssi desire; oomp. Uch- 
xiv. T). One apeoiea, namely, ita ao-callsd erons, lidlierish, L. (jguiias). Its Hebrew 
gold wine, is hi^y Talaed among the Chris- original, galraUk, whose root-brm has ths 
tians of Syria. The present population of two essential letters i and fr, ot the words 
the dietriat amonnta to 1,400,000. above given, has passed through the Arabic 

In ancient times, I^banon, being well inlotheword 'ghoule.afkbnlonsAimalemon- 
coTsrad with trees, of which some were odo- slerdelighdng in destroying men, disioterring 
riferoos, was famed for Its gratefnl perfomes, dead bodies, and dealing in Irsglral rites; — 
as well ss its TSgetable riches, and the s^ams a hlood-ancker, a Timpire. Appropriately 
of water which it sent from ita weatem sidea is the leech, whose two daoghters show how 
into the sea (Cant It. II, 14, Ifi. Hoa. ily. insatlabls they are by always crying 'QiTe, 
7, eV give !' set at the head of the four things that 

By 'dM Tslley of Lebanon' (Josh. xi. are never satisfied (ID). In the falavkah 
IT), Cale-Syria Is hardly meant, but aome of Proverbs, Herder saw the Destiny ot 
vale mnning bora the mounlaiB southwards oriental table, which, like ' hell and dflstrno- 
Into Palestine, perhaps that in which Baoias tion' (irvii. 20), ia 'never foD.' 
(Dan) lay. ' The wood of Lebanon ' (CanL In Syria, brooks and basins ot foantains 

Ui. 9) has been said to beeedar; hot Laba- abound with leeches, which often caaae men 
Don prodnoed trees of various kinds, and it and horses great annoyance by getting into 
is not easy now to itetermine to which of their moulhs. When ahoree is the auiferer, 
tbes* this distinolive ^ipellation was ^plied. the leech fixes itself in the soft parts of the 

LBN 183 L E N 

janer month, And remains diere some days loan are strictly forbidden. In the sabbath 
before it beeomes swelled to a size sufficient year, hence called ' the year of release/ debts 
for its detection and retraction. The acci- and mortgages were to be universally given 
dent is sometimes very injurious to human up (Lev. xxv. 25, uq, DeuL xv. 1, le^.), 
beings. Many of Bonaparte's soldiers in when an Israelite who had sold himself to a 
Egypt were bled into a consumption by brother was to be set at liberty (Ezod. xxl. 
leeches taken into the mouth with their 0. Lev. zzv. 2, ttq.). It was, however, ex- 
drink. The Arabs, when they have a doubt, pressly forbidden to compel a creditor to 
strain the water. serve as a bond-servant (Lev. xxv. 89). 

LEES (Q. Utgtm, F. Ht), that which Uff Tet the law appears to have been broken 

or is at the bottom, Mdtment (L. atdeo, ' I (2 Kings iv. 1), and in later periods oppres- 

sit '), stands for the Hebrew ikmartmnf friiich, aion on the part of the creditor was not un- 

tmrn a root having the idea of thickness, is common (Is. 1. 1. Neh. v. 6. Matt xviil. 20) ; 

translated also * dregs ' (Ps. Ixxv. 8). 'Wine and under the Romans, the rigour which 

on tiiie lees,' in Is. xxv. d, signifies darifled marked their own code, and which more 

wine, having the rich flavour and odour than once brought Uieir state to the brink of 

(Jer. ]dviii. 11) of the fruit extracted by a ruin, seems to have intruded itself into the 

slow process, in remaining in contact with usages of the Jews (Matt v. 26 ; xviii. 80). 

the sediment deposited during fBrmentation. In relation both to this severity and to the 

In order to promote clarification, wine was Mosaic requirement that an Israelite should 

passed from vessel to vessel. The omission lend to a brother without interest, our Lord, 

of this process caused the liquor to be thick as a part of his general eode of benevolence 

and heavy. Hence * to be settled (thickened by i^ch he completed the law, commanded 

or curdled) on the lees/ mesns to be stupid his disciples to lend to fhe indigent, what- 

and indocile (Jer. xlviii. 11. Zeph. i. 12). ever their country, 'hoping for nothing 

LEGION (L.), a body of Roman soldien again' (Luke vi. 84, 80). 
consisting of trom three to six thousand The ordinsnoes of Moses in regard to 

and more men (see Cbxtubiov) ; hence a loans must be viewed in their connection 

large, indefinite number (Mark v. 9. Luke with his agrarian laws, which, making God 

viii 80; comp. Matt. xxvi. 08). This is the sole owner of the land, imposed as of 

one of ttioee Latin words which, agreeably right such burdens on ite possessors as 

to the written history of the times, show that seemed good to him for tiie promotion of 

Judea was in the days of our Lord under the general welfare, the support of an ap- 

the Ibreign yoke of the Romans. How deeply proadi to equality of social condition, and 

imprinted on the popular mind that galling die partieular benefit of the ordinsrily neg- 

bunlen was, appears lh)m the fiust, that (and lected dass, the poor and indigent Loans 

in the text cited above) the Gadarene maniac might the more readily and safely be made 

employed this military Roman term. His where in general they were sure to come 

doing so also aids us to see that his notions back in a few years. The system was in 

on demoniacal possession were of an impure, accordance with the general tenor and aims 

earthly origin. of the Mosaic polity. It manifested special 

LENDING (T., connected with loan, G. care towards tfiose who were most in need 

darMka) was enjoined on the Israelites as a of ears. It tended to restrain the Hebrews 

du^ which they owed to their needy brediren, ham trade with foreigners and keep them 

ibom whom they were not allowed to take in* an agricultural people. It prevented gorge- 

torest, though they might take interest from ous wealth and abject poverty — the two 

foreigners (Deut xv. 7, 8. Exod. xxiL 20. great evils of our present social condition — 

Ps. xxxviL 26). In degenerate times, usury evils which are fhll of danger. The partl- 

was taken (Ps. xv. 0) and severely oon» cular requiremente of the Mosaic law are 

demned (Prov. xxviii. 8. Ezek. xviii. 6. not binding on Christians, but they may 

Jer. XV. 10). In ite condemnation we see learn ftom them a lesson of benevolence. 

reason to think that the laws of Moses on The present disposition of landed property, 

this point were not totslly neglected, since founded solely on the ric^t of conquest, 

their inflnence is traceable in the moral sense needs mitigation by virtue of the influence 

of dM nation. Pledges might be taken, but of high moral considerations, which political 

were to be restored (Esek. xviii. 7), and economy cannot, and popular systems of 

should not consist of tiie widow's ox (Job religion will not, ftimish. Money is indeed 

xxiv. 8) or the hand-mill (Deut xxiv. 6) ; property, and for ite use those who own II 

and if the large dosk that envdoped the may legitimately claim a fair return. But 

body, and sometimes was the only article of the wealth, not the labour, of a country, 

dress, were taken, it was to be returned should be made to bear ite burdens. Were 

before night, when it would be specidly this the case, the indigence which leads to 

needed (Exod. xxii. 26, 27. Deut xxiv. borrowing would, under a good system of 

12, 18). In the latter passage, rudeness education, disappear. Meanwhile,mostneed- 

and force in obtaining the restoration of ths fid is it that the iron rigidnesa of onr present 

LEO 184 L E P 

system should be softened bj the genial living in mountain districts, yet larking in 

spirit of Christian love. the haunts of men. We are safe in adding 

The passage in Matt. xviiL 2d, in which that it was one of the greater spoUed cats ; 
the creditor sells not only the property, but but whether tlie felit U^rdtu (leopard), or 
the wife and children, of his debtor in order felts pardtu, is not so clear. Nor, indeed, 
to procure payment, points to a too general do these two animals appear to have been 
practice in the ancient world, by which chil- quite satisfactorily distinguished. Winer, 
dren were held responsible for their fathers' however, and Smith decide in favour of the 
debts. Among the Athenians, if a father panther, which is found in Syria, and ap- 
could not pay his debts, his son was obliged pears anciently to have abounded in Pales- 
to perform the duty, or lie in prison till he tine. In Dan. vii. 6, the third kingdom is 
died. From the danger of such a fate was denoted by Psnther, in allusion to &e cele- 
Cimon rescued, when suffering imprisonment rity with which Alexander carried his con* 
on account of a fine to the state incurred quering arms from west to east 
by his father, Hiltiades, who gained the LEPBOST (G.), a disease indigenous in 
battle of Marathon and died in prison be- Egypt and Asia (comp. 2 Kings v.), was one 
cause unable to pay the same penalty. In- of the most destructive plagues incident to 
deed, in Athens, Rome, and Asia, children the Israelites (Dent zxiv. 8 ; comp. 2 Sam. 
were sold into slavery for tlie liquidation of iii. 29. 2 Kings v. 27) ; which is, therefore, 
their parents' debts. The compulsion used mentioned as among ^ severest of Ood's 
by the creditor in verse 28, was allowed by punishments (Numbers xii. 0, 10. 2 Cbron. 
the Boman law. The ' tormentors' men- xxvi. 19), and on account of being under the 
tioned in verse d4, were a species of inqui- influence of which, ancient historians have 
sitors, who were even enjoined to employ fabled that the Hebrews were driven from 
foree in order to extort from imprisoned Egypt The leprosy, which first sppears in 
debtors a knowledge of their resources and the skin, and then, entering the cellular tex- 
compel them to miJie payment Those who ture, slowly spreads over the body, even to 
could neither by themselves nor their friends the bones, marrow, and joints, is easily pro- 
satisfy their creditors, were left in Ihe power pagated, so as to extend to children of the 
of the latter. See i2aff}isiaU(«r Morgeiiiafid, fourth generation (2 Sam. iii. 29), in such 
V. 70. a manner that the disorder gradually loses 

LENTILES (L. Utu, * a small bean ') are its virulence, and at last appears for the most 
a species of vegetable, of the leguminous part only in foul teeth, offensive breath, and 
kind, comprising beans, peas, and olher eat- sickly looks. The development of it is pro- 
able pulse, which grew abimdantly in Egypt, moted by damp, marshy air, want of elean- 
the actual preparation of food from which, liness, and eating fkt, oily food. 
iuWilkinson's opinion, may be seen in paint- Two kinds of leprosy may be speeifled: 
ing on the monuments, and which is still I. tht tokUe Upranf, which prevailed among 
used in Western Asia for making ' a pot- the Hebrews (2 Kings v. 27. Exod. iv. 6. 
tags ' — to use the words of Shaw — ' of a Numb. xiL 10), and was henoe celled Upra 
chocolate colour ;' hence the term ' red ' ap- Mosaien, Descriptions of it may be found 
plied to this palateble dish in the narrative in Lev. xiii. (comp. 2 Chron. xxvi. 19). In 
of Jacob and Esau (Oen. xxv. 80 ; compare decided cases, the entire skin assumes a 
2 Samuel xvii. 28; xxiiL 11. Ezekieliv. 9). glassy white, swollen, and strained appear- 
Lentiles formed a staple article of food among ance ; on the forehead, nose, &e., it is dry as 
the people of Egypt, the parts of which near- leather, yet soft ; it sometimes bursts so as 
est Palestine, the neighbourhood of Pelu- to form ulcers. The extremities sweU, the 
Slum, produced the best Not remote is the nails fsll off, the eyelids turn up, the hair 
only district of the Holy Land, namely Phi- comes away (Lev. xiit 42), or is covered 
listia, where Scripture presents it as actn- with an ill-smelling scab. The senses lose 
ally growing (2 Sam. xxiii. 11). If the len- their susceptibility; the eyes part with their 
til was common in the country, it is curious brightness, are very tender, and gutter al- 
tbat we find so little said of it in the Bible, ways ; f^m the nose runs a filthy liquid. 
Hence we incline to the opinion that, as At last the sick person dies of wasting, tor- 
the produce of another thou^ neighbouring mented with thint Sometimes the leprosy 
laud, it was comparatively rare wiUi the pa- breaks out of itself, and the leper becomes 
triarehs, and so was regarded by them as a white from the crown of his head to the sole 
dainty — a view which seems to afford aid in of his foot (Lev. xiiL 12,109.; eomp* 2 Kings 
the explanation of Esau's snirendering even v. 27). 

his birthright for a mess of pottage. The second kind is termed eUphantiatU, 

LEOPABD is the English rendering <the bolch of Egypt' (Deut xxviu. 27), in 

(Cant iv. 8. Isaiah xi. 6. Jer. v. 6; xiii. 28. which country it is indigenous. It is cha- 

Hos. xiii. 7. Habb. i. 8) of a word, tiamtftr, racterised by blotches and buttons on the 

which, according to the passages just re- face and on the limbs, which have the sixe 

ferred to, denotes a swift, spotted animal, at fint of a pea, and then of a walnut or 

LET 185 LET 

hen's egg. SeTere pain is not connected plained in the legal phrase; ' without let or 

with the disorder, and eruptions appear to hindranoe.* Shakspere (Hen. V. &, 2) sayi^ 

only a small extent Towards the end arise • And my speech entreats 

ulcers which are not very painful, but give That I may know tlu let, why gentle Peace 

out a bloody and offensive matter. The ex- ?>>oj»ld ">»* expel theMinconventoices, 

tremidea g^ually die, and as the ulcers And Wcm n. with her former qusUtie..' 

destroy the bones and sinews, separate them* LETTEB (F. Uttre, * a letter of the al- 

selves ^m the body. The eonntenanee phabet,' from the L. iitsra, and that proba- 

■wells and shines; the look is fixed and wild; bly fronm lino, *I smear;' as letters were 

the eye is globular, and runs continually ; among the Bomans formed by mai^ made 

all the senses are doll (Job xvi. 16) ; the on wax spread on tablets, and obliterated to 

voice becomes weak ; the speech can scarcely obtain a smooth snrfMe on which to form 

be understood; even entire dumbness some- othen, by the inverted or broad end of the 

times ensues. Then also arise an insatiable stylut or pen), whieh in Luke xxiii. 88, refers 

voracity and sexual impulse. The disorder to the signs of the alphabet, generaUy in 

of the mind sometimes reaches the highest Scripture denotes an epistle, being used in 

degree of melancholy. Night is troubled by both the singular and tiie plural form (Ezra 

want of sleep and by frightful dreams. The iv. 7. 3 Kings xx. 13) ; though * letters ' in 

elephantiasis often falls into the feet, which Jchn viL 15, is equivalent to Jewish learn- 

then swell terribly, becoming hard and tight, ing, the intimation being that our Lord was 

■o as to resist impressions firom the fingers, not, as Strauss represents him, a rabbi, or 

and acquire a chapped, scaly kind of skin, doctor * learned in the law.' It can scarcely 

The patient in other respects feels well, and be doubted that the enemies who had per- 

niay live twenty or more years. A remedy sons! knowledge of Jesus, were more likely 

has not yet been found. Death often ensues than a modem speculatist to know what 

suddenly alter a fever, sometimes in oonse- were his real character and resources in 

quence of suffocation. Most have accounted regard to human learning and social posi- 

Job's disease to be the elephantiasis (Job tion. Butif the Saviour^s wisdom and power 

ii. 7; oomp. Deut xxviiL 37, 85), with peou- were not firom below, they must have been 

liarities of which several of his symptoms from above. His own claims and the tenor 

accord (xvi 8 ; xix. 20 ; xxx. 14), while of his history eorrsspond with the probabi- 

others (viL 5 ; xvL 8 ; xix. 17) are thought lities of the case (John iii. 81, Mg.). 

to ooirespond better with the black leprosy, * Letter' is used by Paul as denoting the 

to which Jahn gives the preference and Wi- Mosaic polity, more especially in its ceremo- 

ner inclines. The two may be mingled ; in nial relations (Bom. ii. 27, 29 ; vii. 6. 2 Cor. 

poetry a strictly pathological deseiiption is ilL 6), the very minuteness of which required 

not to be expected. the requisite ordinances to be put in writing; 

As leprosy was common in Palestino, its so that the world, which has at length gone 
great lawgiver directed special attention to this far in freeing itself from the fetters of the 
IHghtfrd disorder. Wi^ wonderftal accuracy outward observances ei^oined by Moses, is 
did he (Lev. xiii.) set forth the mesns of indebted to that great man for the promo- 
knowing (diogncm) its commencements. He tion and perpetuation, and peihi^ to his 
consigned the care and treatment of sick or race for the invention, of letters. See Book. 
suspected persons to the priests. When they Letters, that is epistles, are l^requently 
deelared a person to be afflicted with leprosy, mentioned in the Old Testament as weH as 
he was held to be unclean, and as such cut the New (2 Kings v. 5. Acts xxii. 5^. The 
off from intercourse with others, his unhappy earliest letter on record is that which David 
condition being made known by dear out- sent to Joab, commanding the destruction 
ward signs (Lev. xiii. 45). Generally, lepers of Uriah (2 Sam. xL 14) ; so true is it that 
were obliged to keep without the city (46. the best instruments can be tamed to the 
Numb. V. 2, $eq, ; xii. 10, 14, Mg. 2 Kings vilest purposes. Somewhat less discredit- 
vii. 8 ; XV. 5. Joseph. Apion, i 81. Antiq. able was ihe letter which Saul desired and 
iiL 11, 8. Jew. War. v. 5, 6). They do not obtained of the high-priest, urging on the 
appear to have been confined, but, as now, Jews of Dsmascus the persecution of the 
wandered about (Matt. viii. 8. Luke v. 12; infant chureh in that seat of bigotry (Acts 
xvlL 12 ), yet keeping at a distance from others ix. 1, Mf . ). In favour of mental liberty were 
(xvii. 12). According to Lif^tfoot, they were the tone and tendency of the letter whieh was 
not even excluded from the synagogue. He put forth by the apostolic eonnoil (Acts xv. 
who had been cured of the leprosy was, under 23), and which formed die nucleus of the 
the direction of the priests, to go through priceless literature that, in the short space 
certain ceremonies and acts of purification of some forty years, the genius of the new 
(Lev. xiv. ; comp. Matt. viii. 4). religion caused to appear, and of which its 

LET (T. Saxon iottaa, 'to hinder;* comp. vital power has preserved so much down to 

Uoe) is, in Bom. L 18 (comp. Numbera xxii. the present hour ; now, God be praised ! 

0, aarg.), an old word signifying to delay, never to perish, 

impede, and prerent. It is fonnd and ex- In the East, however, letten were, and still 

LEV 186 LEV 

•re, by do meauB so comnMm as wiCli us. her husband's heart to her own* rfiaoe she 

Skill in writing not being widely diffbaed, had now borne him three sons. When, with 

messages were sent and answers received by his lkther» Levi had passed into Canaan, 

word of month (Momb. zxiv. 12. Judges zL and while yet the position of the family in 

13. 1 Sam. xi. 9. 2 Sam. zL 23, 25. 1 Kings the midst of strangers, if not enemies, was 

XX. 6. Job i. 14). When writing was em- unstable, he took a sanguinary revenge on 

ployed (2 Kings v. ; x. I), letters were sent the Hivites, the son of whose king had abused 

by special messengers (2 Kings xix. 14), ot Dinah, Levi's fbll sister, at a time when the 

were entrusted to travellers (Jer. xxiz. 1). seniors of the two tribes were eoming to 

The Hebrew prinees despatched theirs by satisfactory terms of accommodation (Gen. 

couriers (2 Chron. xxz. 6 ; see Chxbxthi- xxxiv.), and thus, together with Simeon, his 

Txs). The Persian transmitted their will over ffiUow-worker in the letribntioD, brought on 

the wide extent of their empire by posts, who, himself his father^s permanent displeasure, 

in travelling onward, received and gave re- which strongly expressed itself even in die 

lief (Esth. viii. 10). Commendatory letters patriarch's Ust moments, especially by the 

were given in the early Christian church threat that his descendants ^ould not have 

(2 Cor. iU. i). Boyal epistles, if not others, a portion of land in the common inheritance 

were commonly seeled (1 Kings xxL 8); a (xlix. 5—7; comp. Numb, xxvi 62). 
seal to give and cUy to receive the impres- l wni divide them la Jaeot, 

•ion, ars spoken of m Job xxxviii. 14. * An And Matter them in UiaeL 

open letter' Is mentioned as • remarkable When Levi went down into Egypt, he had 

thing (Neh. vL 5), probably in this p^^Mige three eons, Oershon, Kohath, and Merari 

intended to Intimate contempt (xlvi. 11), throuf^ whom he became the 

' Letters of commendmtion' (2 Cor. ilL 1), founder of • tribe on which Moses conlieired 

which attested the good character of trsvel- epeeial diatinctfon (Dent xxxiL 8 — 11; 

lers^and beapdke for them the kind •tisntions oomp. Exod. vL 16, Mg.)* Le^l reached the 

of othere, were enetom^iy of old uid among age of 187 yeers. 

the earliest Christians. This wa^ a natural LEVI, one of die twelve tribes, deriving 

expression of friendly feeling and good-wiU. its origin firom the third son of Jacob 1^ 

The Jews gave similar letters of recommenda- Leah, was in the first numbering of the 

tion. The Latins also had something simi- people by Moses found to comprise 22,000 

lar in their teiaerc kotj^Ualitatu, melee (Numb. ilL 15, 43), who on the se- 

Paul received from the high-priest letters oond numbering, shortly before the invssion 
to the synsgogues at Damascus, with a view of Canaan, had not grown to more than 
to the suppression of Ihe cause of Christ In 28,000 (Numb. xxvi. 57, 62), sn increase 
that city. Wherever the Jews were permit- so alight that, with so prolific a people as 
ted to live according to their own laws, that Israel, can be explained only on the suppo- 
Is throughout the Bomsn empire, the syna- sition diat the tribe in the intervening gene- 
gogue had authority over its members, that ration had been in the wilderness, or some 
is over Hebrews, but not to the infliction of other situation similarly adverse to well- 
death. The authorities of the synsgogues being and augmentation. While yet In the 
were aasoeialed together and communicated desert, and while the affairs of Israel were 
one with another for the exertion of general vibrating on a alender point, this tribe came 
authority over their feUow-believers. forward of their own accord to punish the 

Letters and other documents, instead of senseless idolatry and impious treason into 
being folded lor transmission, are in Persia, which the people fell with the golden calf 
at the preaent day, closely rolled, and are (Exod. xxxIL 25). For this service in so 
sealed ij means of a narrow strip of strong delicate a juncture, Moeea, who belonged to 
paper, like a piece of ribbon or tape, woand tiie tribe, rewarded its members with the 
tii^tly around the middle of the roll, and best fevours he had to bestow, in selecting 
attached by a species of wax or gum. A sea), it for the high service of the sanctuary. In 
bearing the name or titles of the writer, is order to render their consecration more bind- 
sometimes enstamped with ink upon the roO, Ing and impressive, the members of the 
where it is futened. The superscription is tribe were solemnly taken instead and in 
written with the pen near one end. The seal, redemption of the fint-bom, who, in virtue 
with ink, is used within, instead of the writ- of their being spared when the Egyptians 
ten signature of the author, though some- were smitten, belonged as of right to Jehovah 
times both are inserted. The extensive use (Numb. iii. 5, teq,; comp. Exod. xiii. 12). 
and high importance of the seal in the East, Since the number of the Levites, 22,000, fell 
forcibly illustrates the figures of Scripture short of the number of the first-born of 
which attach to it such sacred solemnity Israel, 22,278, the surplus of the latter was 
and authority. redeemed by the payment to Ac ssnctuary 

LEVI {H, joined; Oen. xxix. 34; comp. *of five shekels apiece by the poll' (45 — 

Numb« xviij. 2, 4), the third son of Jacob by 51). ^^^ 

Leah, received his nsme from the assurance LEVITES, tiie deseendanto of Levi, whose 

felt by his mother that his biith would rivet origin as an official body has been described 

LEV 187 LEV 

b lira pnnou* irtlole, ware divided into ciiiea thirteen wero uelgnei) Co Ihs priests,. 

Hq dwHSiOrwhamone cniuieted otsitDpIs and tlis renteining thirtj-fiie to the siraple 

Lvrilee, tlia other of Cohanim, at prieaW. Leiile* (Jcwli. iii. 8, <■;.)■ 1^< rerenues. 

Of tlis three ghildien of LoTi mentioaed of the luter aroae from liihes of lbs pro- 

■boTa, Kohath had four loai, the eldeat of docta of the liadB, incladiDg fmiC Ireei, and 

whocD, Amram, wu btber of Auon and Tiueyarda, u well u eattle, aacb as oieo, 

Hoaes (Exod. ri. IS — 20). The lattai, with sheep, and goats. In their inni, the Levilea 

• rare iiutanse oT aslf-denial, sought nothing paid a tenth of their tithe for Uie sappon of 

Ibr bimaelf in lb« high honoora and holy the prieata. The Leritas shared In ■ second 

ftinotioiuhehsd loasaign, biU,inan eqnally tithe, expended bj the Hebrem in pesee- 

raie freedom from jealoosf, nude Aaion hia oflkrings and aoleinn repasts M their peri- 

bioltaer the root of the saoerdoUl order odical iritiH to the central sanctnaiy. To 

among ths laraelilcs. In Ibelineof Aaion'a these repeats the Levi lea were iniited. Every 

immediate oflhpring the priesthood vaa oan- third year the aeoond tithe iras to be entirely 

fined. &U the other desaenJants of I,eTi diTidad in ereiy loeality unong the poor, 

fbrmad the Lefilea, among whom were the whether Hebrews or strsngers ; on «hii4i 

deseandantaof UosesblinselC The LeTiles, occasions the Lerilea ware not forgotten 

diTided into ftmilies, of which each had a (Lst. ixtIL 80 — 82. Himib. iriii. SI. Daab 

head or naa, were, nnder the priceU, Ih* iIt. 22—29). They had also a part in 

aerrasta and gnardians of the aanotnary, the spoils of war, thongb, according to 

•ninnd which they, ai its keepers, had their Joaei^ns, they were not required to take 

atation (see Cup), and cenain offioea in part in battle (Nnmb. mi. 47. Joseph, 

oonnsation with wluehlhsy had todlacharg*. Antiq. lit. 13, 4). The law did notpreseribe 

In the desert, for Inalanee, they bore the (or Ihem, as It did for fht priests, a pemiliar 

(abemaela and ita ntcnaOs when the eamp eoetame, though in 3 Chron. *, 12, they 

waa broken ap (Nomb. i. 00, Mf.). At* appear, when singing, 'anayed In while 

later period thn gosrded the temple, irtiieh linen.' If this were a onstoni, it must ban 

they opened, dosed, and kept dean. Its fallen into diaoae; for Jnat before the end 

(drnitnn and sacred thinga were in their of the Jewlah kingdom the Leviles obtained 

keeping, and by their handa the ahew-bread leave ' to wear linen garmcnti aa well as lbs 

and atika rsqidsites for worship were pre- prieata' (Joeeph. Antiq. ii. 9, 0), onless 

parad. Ths nrcnuas of the temple, and ita the change lay in bringing the garmenta of 

mpplies of maal, oil, ineenia, wen under the former into a nearer reaemblanoe to those 

(beir oharge (1 Obion, ix.). tinder David, of the latter. 

Ibe grand humoniea of Ibe ismple-worehip LEVIATHAN is the Hebrew original in 

ware anualaed by torn. Then, ladeed, waa En^iab letters, oar translator* not bsTing 

U that the Lavideal inatitot* begu ta m- been able to determine irtnC snimal was 

Mive Ita (Oil developmallt. That monaieb, meant. A review of the passages in which 

finding the nomber of Levilea lo be 83,00l> the word ocean, will make it probable that 

from the age of Ibiitj years, made of them ' leviathan ' is the crocodile. 
34^000 asalataau to du pritals, 1000 in 
ancoeaaiou every week to cash of tbe twenty* 
fini aaoerdotal olaaaes ; 4000 were keepers or 
watchmen of the holy place; 4000 wen iB- 
atramental mnileians anployad in pnUie 
worship i and 0000 administsnd Jnstie* 
(1 Chnn. niii. 3, tf.). ^ u 

The installation of the Levltes look plast / '' 

once fur all with great soleiDnily, nnder the / . 

direction of kloaes bimHtf The cenimaalea 
etmaiated of Inslrstions and eaori&oeB, and 
the Hebrewa, by their tepMsentatitea, the 
heada of tbe Mbes, set them ^art by impo- 
sition of bands(Namb. viii.S, 33). AtBrst, 

the dntiss of tbsir ode* began at twenty- ^ 

five and tenntnalad at fifty years of age (39 

—08, bnt oomp. tv, 8, 38, 80, 47). At a The term leviathan oeonrs flnt in Job 
later tliae, Levilea, when twenty years old, iiL B where the translator seams lo have 
wereadmitledtothi^pabliedatieB (SObran. fbnnd a rererenca to the enstoni irf hiring 
xnL 17. EiraliLe). prottaeiana) monmen. The passage appears 
Tbe Vibe of Lrvi did not partake in the to speak of persons who, in ths exereise of 
landed inheritaooa of larael, except so far fanoied occult resoureea. were thonght to pee- 
that ihey bad the right of oeenpjing forty- seas a power for evil over certain days, and 
eight towns chosen in ths posseasions of to be able tocall mooiters from theirwilei7 
Ibaii brethren, ewdi of wbieh had ■ snbnrb lairs (ace it IDO). Tbe words may be tran» 
of WOO eubita in every direction. Of theae tated — 




• Let them who cuite the day curee It, 
Than who aze expert to rouee leviatlian 1* 

In Job xli. 1 is another passage contain- 
ing the word, which WellbeloTed thus trans- 
lates : 

' Canst thou draw out the crocodile with a bodkt 
Or fiuten a cord about hl> tongue f 
Canet thou put a zeed into hit note f 
Or pierce his jaw with an iron ring? 
Will he make many supplications to thee ff 
Will he speak soothing words to thee t 
Will he make a coTcnant with thee t 
Canst thou take him as a serrant for cTer f 
Canst thou play with him as with a bird f 
Canst thou bind him for thy maidens 1 
WQl the companies (of merchants) purchase him ff 
Will they divide him among the traders f 
Canst thou fill his skin with harpoons ff 
And with flsh-speazs his headff 
Fix thy hand firmly upon him ; 
Be mindful of the battle; thou wiU not repeat 

(the blow). 
Lo, the expectation of him will pioTc deceitful} 
At the very sight of him, will not a man fUlff 
No one is so fierce as to rouse him up.' 

On which the same learned authority re- 
marks, 'The description ean be applied to 
no other animal than the crocodile (Laeerta 
Croeodilut Afneamu, Linn.) ; and with every 
thing we know respecting Uiat animal, it ac- 
curately corresponds.' This is the opinion 
of Bochart, whom most writers follow. It is 
confirmed by these considerations. The cro- 
codile is a natural inhabitant of the Nile and 
other Asiatic and African rivers; and it is 
reasonable to suppose that an animal is re- 
ferred to that was well known to one living 
in the ooontry of Job, the rather because the 
appeal is to what he knows of the works of 
Ood. The general description agrees with 
this animaL The crocodile is ordinarily 
about eighteen or twenty feet long, though 
sometimes it reaches the length of thir^ 
feet The armour with which the upper 
part of the body is covered may be num- 
bered among the most elaborate pieces of 
Nature's workmanship. In the fUll-grown 
animal it is so strong and thick as easily to 
repel a ma8ke^baU. The mouih is of vast 
width, and both jaws are furnished with nu- 
merous sharp-pointed teeth. The legs are 
short but strong. Except when pressed by 
hunger, or for tihe purpose of depositing its 
eggs, it seldom leaves tlie water. It usually 
floats along the surface, to seize whatever 
animal comes within its reach. If this me- 
thod fails, it approaches Uie bank, and waits 
in the sedges for its prey. Even the tiger is 
thus caught and destroyed. A third reason 
for holding that the crocodile is here meant, 
is, that a description has just been given (xl. 
15, $eq,) of the hippopotamus (see Bbhu- 
moth), and these two were the great riyer- 
monsters of the district with which Job was 
likely to be acquainted. They also appear 
together in ancient paintings. 

In Ps. Ixxiv. 14, the leviathan, if the ero- 
dile, the Egyptian prodigy, may be put by 
metaphor for Pharaoh. In Ps. civ. 26, the 

leviathan is represented as being in the sea. 
If by sea the ocean is meant, then the 
crocodile is not here intended, except the 
term leviathan may be taken in the general 
sense of a monster of the waters. But the 
Nile itself is sometimes termed sea (Ezekiel 
zxxii 2) ; which word was used by the He- 
brews for any large collection of waters, as 
for the lake of Galilee (Matt. iv. 18 ; viii. 
82). Other great rivers bore the name of 
sea (Is. xxi. 1. Jer. li. 86). 

Isaiah (xxvii. 1) brings before us levia- 
than as ' the piercing serpent, that crooked 
serpent, the dragon that is in the sea.* This 
passage seems connected with the fable of 
the Jews, who mention a serpent so large 
that it encompassed the whole earth (see L 
417). A belief of the existence of such a 
marine serpent is said to prevail still among 
the Nestorians. Olhers have here found a 
reference to Satan. Milton has, not in vain, 
borrowed from his own imagination when 
he describes 

< that aearbeast 

Leviathan, which God of all his works 
Created hugeet, that swim the ocean-stream ; 
Him haply slumbering on the Norway totaa. 
The pilot of some snudl night-foundered skUT 
Deeming some island, oft, as seamen teU, 
With fixed anelior in his scaly rind. 
Moors by his side under the lee, while night 
Invests the sea and wished mom delays.' 

Milton's poetic freedoms may remind us 
that we are not to expect in Hebrew, more 
than in any other poetry, especially of ancient 
times, a strictly scientific enumeration of 
qualities, or a rigid adherence to verbal con- 
gniity. In Ezekiel xxix. 8 (comp. zxxii. 
2), reference, however, appears clearly to be 
made to the crocodile, under the name of 
* dragon' (see the article, i. 520) ; and Winer 
finds here and in Is. xxvii. 1, the crocodile, 
adding, * that in symbolical language the 
crocodile is the image of Egypt,' (referring 
in illustration to Ps. Ixviii. 81; comp. Esek. 
xxix. 4; xxxii. 2, seq.). Knobel (Der Pro- 
phet Itaiah)^ however, holds that Isaiah 
speaks of Babylon, and asserts that the pro- 
phet likens the Assyrian power to a serpent 
in xiv. 29 ; comp. Jer. li. 84. May not Q^e 
term here rendered ' serpent,' be loosely ap- 
plied to the crocodile, or taken iu general 
tenus for a monster of the water? Comp. 
Job xxvi 13. It is the opinion of Gesenius 
that the term leviathan, as meaning a twisted 
animal (' crooked serpent'), may be used of 
any huge marine creature. The crocodile 
is, indeed, said by Wilkinson to be a timid 
animal ; but in early history, before he had 
been so much subject to human influence, he 
may have been fierce ; and the wonder of old 
excited by those who more or less partially 
tamed crocodiles, shows that they were then 
regarded as dangerous to man. The same 
causes which have long confined them to 
Upper Egypt, have doubtless modified their 

L I F 189 L I F 

The words of Herodotus are tme, that conscious existence in contradistinetion to 

' some of the Egyptians consider the eroco- death, comes immediately in itself, and in 

dUe sacred, while others make war upon it ; all that supports, continues, and elevates it, 

and those who live about Thebes and the from the power, wisdom, and goodness of 

lake Mcaris hold it in great yeneration.' fhe Universal Creator; and as being the 

In some places it was kept at a considerable gilt of his bounty, is Uie source to man of 

expense, being fed and attended with the all hia happiness as well as his acoounta- 

most scrupulous care ; geese, fish, and vari- bility. Life, considered as the vigorous con- 

ous meats, were dressed purposely for it; dition of all man's faculties, whether oor- 

they ornamented its head with ear-rings, and poral or spiritual, has been gradually im- 

its feet with bracelets and necklaces of gold proving and becoming a deeper and ftiller 

and artificial stones ; it was rendered tame source of good, in proportion as Ood*s mer- 

by kind treatment. After death, the body eiAil designs have been accomplished in the 

was embalmed in a most sumptuous man- development of man's higher nature, the 

ner. While these honours were paid in the subjugation of the earth, and the increase 

Theban, Ombite, and Arsinoite nomes, the of our acquaintance with the laws on the 

people of Apollinopolis, Tentyxis, Heracle- observanoe of which our well-being is made 

opolis, and other places, held the crocodile dependent. With the spread of civilisation 

in abhorrence, as being an emblem of Ty- a respect for human life has gained preva- 

phon, the evil genius. Hence, probably, lence, which has prevented that blood-^irsti- 

arose the notion which makes leviathan the ness and waste of human life which dis- 

same as the devil — a notion which finds graced and brutalised earlier stages of society, 

appropriate terms in the epithets ' dragon' The tendency of penal legislation has long 

and * serpent' been of a mOd character, so as to give reason 

LEVITICUS, the third canonical book of for the hope that we are on the eve of a 

the Old Testament See Djbutbboxomt. period when the true value of human life 

LIBERTINES (L. Uber, f^e), according will be recognised, and the words of the 

to the derivation of the term, denotes persons prophet receive a satisfactory fulfilment 

who belong to the class of lireed-men, which (Is. xiii. 12) : 

consisted of two divisions: I. those who •! wiU make a man more preciooi than fine gold, 
had themselves been set firee; II. the de- Even than th« gold of Ophir.' 
scendants of such. In Acts vi. 9, mention This desirable result is a necessary con- 
is made of a ' synagogue of the IJbertines.' sequence of the true and lofbf view of life as 
That these were of the Jewish religion is the condition, and in its remotest effects 
the only thing that is obvious and certain; the realisation, of the highest moral, spiritual, 
whether they were Hebrews who had gained and eternal happiness, which Jesus intro> 
their liberty, or Pagan slaves who had both duoed into the world, and which he exem- 
gained their liberty and adopted Judaism, plified in his career of sublime benevolence 
cannot be determined. Another opinion and paidful death. Rising above the mere 
makes these ' Libertines ' Jewish natives of animal life which man shares with the brutes, 
Libertum, a city in Africa, in which, among the Great Teacher proclaimed that our true 
other places, Ptolemy I. settled Hebrews life consists in moral and spiritual health 
whom he took from Palestine (Joseph. Antiq. and vigour, which are so paramount in im- 
xii. 1, I ; Apion, iL 4). If this is correct portance as to throw our mere earthly being 
then it woiUd appear that the Libertines, into the shade* and in certain junctures to 
Cyrenians, and Alexandrians, had a common make even death both a duty and a gain 
synagogue in Jerusalem. (Matt vi 25, teq,; x. 89; xvi. 2d. John x. 

'LICKING THE BUST,' in Ps. Ixxii. 9 10. PhUipp. i. 20—22). In this view, the 
—-an instance of the servile and fawning life to come is thecontinuation and perfection 
homage paid in the East to conquerors and of our present life. Hence Christians are 
monarchs — finds an illustration in these properly exhorted to 'lay hold on eternal 
words of Hugh Boyd in his account of an life' (1 Tim. vL 12; comp. 19), and repre- 
embassy to the king of Candy, in Ceylon : — sented by John as never properly dying 
* The removal of the curtain was the sign (John vi 00, 51, 58). Deadi in this view 
for our salutations to be offered. The way appears what it really is, namely, change, 
in which my companions manifested ' their transition, passing firom one state and mode 
reverence was the most humiliating. In of existence into another (I Cor. xv. 51). 
nearly a literal sense they licked the dust, As the life to come, understood in this hig^ 
while they threw themselves flat on the face sense, is the completion and consummation 
on the pavement, stretching out their arms of our earthly existence, so is eternal life 
and legs. After this they raised themselves emphatically declared to be ' the gift of God 
on their knees, and in the most extravagant through Jesus Christ our Lord ' (Rom. vi. 
forms uttered with a loud voice, *May the 23), who, as God's instrument in the re- 
head of the King of kings reach above the demption of the world, is ' the way, the truth, 
sun ! May he live a thousand years !' and the life ' (John vi 88 ; xi. 25) ; 'the 

LIFE (T. German Uhen), the state of author of life ' (Acts iii 15; comp. Heb. ▼ 

L I a 190 L I o 

9 ; zii. 2) ; Uie boDeflls of whose work are • Tmly the light b sweet, 

enjoyed in <life eternal* by a vital and And pleiuaat it It to behold the ton.* 

practical knowledge of the Father and the 'The heavens,' says Russiger (iii. 0), 

Son (John xvlL 2, 8). speskmg, in relation to Jerusalem, of an 

The passage in 2 Cor. !▼. 10 — 12, seems early hoar on a spring morning, * were so 

to mean, that Paol, in bearing sofleringt olear and transparent, that it seemed to the 

leading to death, in a spirit of fortitude, gave inner eye as if it oould look thiough and 

a dear proof that Jesus^ as alive, ministered behold that glory whieh in times of yore 

to him strength and grace. desoended to man in Jerusalem and Bethle- 

< The words of this life,' in Aets iiL 90^ hem.' Aeoordingly, light famishes to the 

is the doctrine announeed respecting God's Biblical writers a source of imageiy, to ap- 

merey unto eternal salvation (John vL 68)« preeiate which we most strain the imagina- 

' Life for life' was a part of that law of tion, or, what is better, familiarise onr minds 

retrlbation, Us tali&niB, which ICoses allowed with oriental scenes. With peculiar effect, 

and Jesus abrogated (llatt. v. 88, $§q.). however, was light used to describe glad 

Ito general principle, * like for like,' is ex- emotions— the sunny peace of the righteous 

amplified in these passages (Exod. xxL 28, mind, the fkvour of Ood, and the illuminating 

t$q. Lev. xxiv. 19, isf. Dent xix. 21), whieh power of divine truth (Ps. xcvii. 11 ; xxvii. 1 ; 

in practice may have been somewhat miti* oxix. 105. Prov. iv. 18) ; and ito absence, or 

gated. darkness, with corresponding emphasis, set 

The lifo of man was conceived of as im- fbrth the punishment and wretehedness of 
mediately derived from the breath, which Hw guilty (Is. xiii. 10. Jer. iv. 23) ; meta- 
itself was imparted by the direct aet of the phois whieh have their force enhanced, de< 
Creator (Gen. ii 7); whence life was spoken noting sadden calamity and the downfal of 
of as in the nostrils (vii. 22). It was also establiBhed religions and civil powers, when 
held to be specially connected with the blood even the * light*bearers ' are represented as 
(ix. 4), and aoeordini^y blood had a saored falling from heaven (Joel iii. 10 ; comp. ii 
and atoning character (Lev. xviL 11), and 10,81. Aeto Ii. 20). Sublime is the figure 
the term became synonymous with 'life' by which the Almighty is spoken of as 
(Dent xvii. 8), and blood was forbidden to clothing himself with light as with a garment 
be eaten (Lev. viL 26), a prohibition which (Ps. civ. 2) ; and with peculiar emphasis is 
would check men in devouring animals his omniscience described as being that to 
immediately after being slain and while yet whieh light can add, and tnm which dark- 
warm, and so offer an obataole to their being ness can take, noticing (Ps. cxxxix. 12). 
brutalised. Comp. 1 Sam. xiv. 82. Oenesifl Ood not only dwells in unapproachable 
xviiL 8. light (1 Tnn. vi 16), but is also < the Father 

LIFE, THE TREE OF, was, with the of lighto' (Jsmes i. 17), and light itself (1 
tree of knowledge of good and evil, made to John i. 5), in agreement with which his 
grow in the midst of Eden (Gen. ii 9), son and image, Jesus, described himself as 
whieh had the power of causing those who 'the light of the worid' (John viiL 12; 
ate thereof to live for ever (iii. 22), to pre- eomp. John i. 4), and his gospel is * mar- 
vent whieh, in his ease, Adam, after he had veDous light' (1 Pet ii. 9). 
transgressed, was expelled from Paradise The sight of the sun when it shone thas 
(28). The jealousy here implied on the gloriously, and the moon walking in bright- 
part of the Creator, as if he would prevent ness, could not fidl to attract and enchant 
his creatures from knowing good and evfl the human heart The fascination with un- 
and becoming immortal, is conceived in a informed men engendered idolatry — an * ini- 
spirit which is not accordant with his spon- quity' (Job xxxL 26 — 28) from which the 
taneous goodness sad abounding grace as Isrsielites were in tiie main preserved by the 
set forth in the Seriptares, and repeatedly strong monotiieistic tendencies ot their reli- 
exemplified in the natural world ; tiiough gions polity, and the blessing and favour of 
such a view of tiie fbeling of the gods, who Ahmighty God. 

often appear as subverting schemes of human As the rain made for itself a way through 

advancement, and converting prosperity and the donds (Job xzxviii. 20), so did light 

joy into sorrow, is in no few instances found (24), which in Gen. L 8 — is represented 

in heathen writers. Aocordinglyi we find as independent of the sun and moon, whieh 

a *tree of life' in the sacred books of the were ereated not before the fourth day (14— 

Persians. Ito name is Horn. Whoever 19). The darkening of the skies was thought 

drinks of the sap of this tree becomes Im- to be occasioned by leviathan, or a huge ser- 

mortal (Zendavesta, iii. 100). pent, that stretehed himself oyer ite disk, and 

LIGHT (T.) in the East has a brilltaney whose operation was cslled into activity by 

and a depth, and is attended by an intensity day-coiynrors, as implied in Job ill. 8, a 

of heat and a luxuriance of vegetation, which passage which receives illustration from the 

in tiiese dimes can only in a teAni degree Indian fable of Bahu, according to which the 

be conceived. Henoe the foree of the distich darkening of die sun and moon comes from a 

(EesL xL 7), dragon which has spread himself over them, 

L I 6 191 L I G 

and wbioh magioians can oaU forth or driTe J imew of the cheat, H waa not till the apoxigy 

away (V. BahUn, altes Itidien, ii. 290 ; oomp. foot of my camel had almost trodden in the 

Job xxvi 13). seeming waters that I could undeceiYe my 

In Philipp. ii. 15, Christians are ex* eyes, for the shore-line was quite trae and 

horted to ' shine as lights in the world ' — the natural. I soon saw the cause of the phan- 

reference apparently being to watch-towers or tasm. A sheet of water, hearily impregnated 

lighthouses. Of these tibie most celebrated with salts, had filled this great hollow ; and 

in the ancient world was that which was when dried up by evaporation, had left a 

built by Ptolemy Philadelphus on the island white saline deposit, that exactly marked the 

of Pharos, just off Alexandria, in Egypt spaoe which the waters had covered, and 

On the top of a tower a light was kept bum- thus sketched a true ahore-line. The minuto 

ing the night through, as a guide to sea- crystals of the salt sparkled in the sun, and 

farers and a means by which they might so looked like the face of a lake that is cahn 

avoid shipwreck. Some of these beacons and smooth.' 

were of the human shape; the Colossus at LION-ALOES, standmg in Numb. xxiv. 
Bhodea held in one hand an immense torch. 6 for the same Hebrew torm as in Ps. xlv. 
In travelling on land, which in the East 8, Prov. vii. 17, and Cant iv. 14, is rendered 
takes place to a great extent by night, torches ' aloes,' represento a comprehensive genus of 
are carried ahead of the caravan (comp. succulent plants, which greatly differ in form, 
Matt V. 14. John v. 85. 2 Pet i. 19). colour, and size. The plant intended in 
The ' lic^t fining in a dark place,' in Scripture appears, firom the passages above 
2 Pet i. 19, may refer to the small light af- referred to, to have been of great beauty ; 
forded by the seven-branched candlestiek, by also to have yielded a strong fragrance. On 
whidi only the darkness of the holy of holies the latter account it waa highly valued by 
was abated. Other terms employed find the ancients. It must not be eonfounded 
their correspondence in fkct; for every with the common aloe, which, though the 
morning, as soon as the priest^ from an best qualities yield some agreeable odour, 
elevated part of the temple, saw and an- has an offensive smell and a bitter taste, 
nounced the dawn, another entered the sane- The odorilerons aloe, named in Hebrew aho' 
tnaiy and extinguished four out of the seven loth (whence the English name aloe), was 
lamps, leaving only three to bum during the used for a peiftime of the person, as well as 
day (Joseph. Antiq. viL 8, 8). Other tern- fbr embalming the dead (Ps. xlv. 8. Prov. 
pies and sacred places were dark inside, vii. 17. Cant iv. 14. John xix. 89). There 
being originally not places iat worship, but are two, if not more, treea which yield this 
abodes of the Deity ; in which light was not fragrant wood: I. A^laria Agallodui, a na- 
needed, and darkness waa oongenial. live of the mountainous tracto east and south- 
John the Bi^tist is deseribed as a burning east from Silket, in Hindostan ; IL Aquilaria 
and shining li^t (John v. 85). This is in MaUeeensi$j a native of Malacca. The wood 
agreement with a usage of the Jews, who appears to have been first known in corn- 
called a wise man a li|^t Henoe, according merce under the name agila, which is ano- 
to the rabbina, Shua Oi|^)> Jndah's father- ther form of ito Hebrew appellation. It was 
in-law, received his name (Gen. xxzviii. 2). obtained on the island of Ce^on, or the pe- 

A leanied rahbi was termed a ' light of the ninsula of India, by Phoanioian traders, who 

law* (oomp. 2 Sam. sxi. 17. X Kinga xL 86; brought Ihe spices and precious stones of 

XV. 4). the fhrther east towards the western parte of 

The fsita morganaf to which there seems the world. Both the name aloe and the plant 

to be an allusion in these words of Isaiah are of Indian origin. 

(xxxv. 7), In John's Qospel (xix. 89), Nicodemns is 

' And the flowing und duOl beecme a ncol, "^ *? 5?"^ JS?"*^* T *'!!?^ ^"^t"" 

And the tUntybuidspringB of water,' weight of myrrh and aloes to embalm the 

body of our Lord. Objection has been taken 

is an optical deception caused by the rare- to this statement as extravagant; but proAi- 

faction of the heated atmosphere, which sion of odoriferous substances and of such 

mocks the traveller, on wide sandy plains, as resist the process of corruption, was a 

with the prospect of water. We quote the sign of munificence and a tribute of respeet 

following description of the sitswge from and ailbotioB. Nieodemns was a man of 

Eothm (271) :— * About this part of my wealth. 

journey, I saw the likeness of a freshwater The plante more strictly called aloe are 
lake. I saw, as it seemed, a broad sheet of veiy similar to the agavt (called by the gar- 
calm water, that stretehed far and fair to- deners American aloe), being of a suoculent 
wards the south— stretehing deep into wind- nature, and having H>iny leaves. They are 
ing creeks, and hemmed in by jutting pro* most commonly herbaceous, but are in some 
montories, and shelving smooth off towards cases shrubs and even trees. Like the agave, 
the shaUow side ; on ite bosom the reflected they are used, in those countries where they 
fire of the sun lay playing, and seeming to abound, as hedges for enclosures. The 
float upon waters deep and stilL Though drug called aloes is the thickened Juice of 

L I M 192 L I O 

the aloe, and is procured bycnttingtfaeleayes those for which it is used at present (Dent 

iu pieces, and pressing and boiling them. xxyii. 2, 4). Amos ii. 1, offers something 

The Mahometans, especiaUy those who Uke an anticipation of scientiGe truth, for 
reside in £g7pt, regard the aloe as a reU> bones are a phosphate of lime. The words 
gious symbol. He who has performed the are, * because he burned the bones of the 
pilgrimage to Meoca, and so has become a king of Edom into lime ;' for which Hender- 
saint, hangs the aloe over his doorway as a to- son translates, * because they ealdned the 
ken of his dignity and as a protection against bones of the king of Edom' (comp. 2 Kings 
evil. Among the trees and flowers planted iii. 27), explaining tlie act as having con- 
by Mussulmans on tombs is a low, shmbby sisted in a wanton violation of the sanctity 
species of aloe, whose Arabic name signifies of the tomb by the disinterment and burning 
patience, in allusion to the interval between of the royal remains. Comp. L 96. 
death and the resurrection. The plant is LINEN (O. linen, < flax'). See Clothbs 
snitable for the purpose, being an evergreen and Silk. 
and requiring very little water. LINTEL (F. iantsau, medittval Latin, lin- 

The different kinds of agave and aloe, UiUu$ (limen?), * the upper threshold'), a 
destined as they are to inhabit eonntries piece of wood, stone, or iron, which goes 
where the sun has great power and the soil across the opening of a doorway or window, 
much aridity, and where the rainy seasons joining toge&er the two erect posts, and sup- 
have long intermissions, are admirably pro- porting the masonry above (I Kings vi. 81). 
vided, by their succulent leaves and stems, The Hebrew original, ahyil, signifies a ram 
for the conditions under which they exist. (Qen. zv. 9). ' Lintel,' in Amos ix. 1, and 

LILY (L. <i7ttta», 'a lily') stands in the ' upper lintels,' in Zeph. ii 14, should be 

New Testament for some kind of liliaceous rendered * capitals.' See Chapitbb. 

plant growing wild in the neighbourhood The exact architectural member denoted 

of the lake of Galilee, whose appearance by ahyil (used sometimes in the plural, as 

was striking and splendid. These things in Esek. xl. 14), in our version translated 

may be inferred from Matt, vi 26 ; comp. also ' post,' or, in the plural, ' posts ' (xl. 

Luke xii. 27. But when we attempt to de* 14), it is impossible to determine; 'lintel,* 

termine the exact flower that our Saviour ' threshold,' and ' columns,' have each had 

contemplated, we find difficulty and great its advocates. It was a part that was dis- 

divergence of opinions, the rather since tinguished for strength, as we may infer 

several species of lily are indigenous in Pa- from its being termed a ram. It may also 

lestine. Some understand the tulip, which, have been wrought into some resemblance 

equally with lilies, abound even as early as to a ram's head or horns, 

the middle of Januaiy. Pocooke shows him- UNUS (Q.), a Christian acquainted with 

self inclined to this opinion in these words : Paul and Timothy (2 Tim. iv. 21). Ecele- 

— ^'I saw (March) many tulips growing siastioal writers make him first Bishop 

wild in the fields, and any one who oonsi- (Boman Catholic authorities, first Pope) of 

ders how beautifbl these flowers are to the Borne, differing only in this, diat some place 

eye, would be apt to conjecture that these him in the office while Peter was yet alive, 

are the lilies to which Solomon in all his and others after his death, 

glory was not to be oompared.' The ma- LIONS (G.) were numerous in ancient 

jority of sufihiges is in favour of the Pa]estiue,asmaybe safely inferred from there 

white lily, but it remains uncertain whether being in the Hebrew six separate terms deno- 

it is a native of the Holy Land. Smith ting the animal under various modifications 

gave preference to the ilmaryUt«ltttea,< whose (comp. Judg. xiv. 8. 1 Kings xiii 24; xz. 

golden, liliaceous flowers in autumn afford 86). They had their lairs in forests (Jer. v. 

one of the most brilliant and gorgeous 6), on mountains (Cant. iv. 8), and in the 

objects in nature; the fields of the Levant thick brushwood of the Ghor(x]ix. 19. Zech. 

at e overrun with them.' Dr. Bowring speaks zi 8), but have now disappeared from the 

of it under the name of the Syrian lily, add- country. From Prov. xxii. 18, we cannot 

ing that its colour is a brilliant red ; its siae infer that lions in Judea firequented the 

about half that of the common tiger lily, ordinary haunts of men, for the words are 

He saw it in April and May growing in great the extravagant excuse of the sluggard (xxvi 

abundance in Galilee, where it and the rho- 18). Great as was his strength and fierce- 

dodendron most strongly excited his atten- ness, yet shepherds in defence of their flocks 

tion. This flower, according to Lindley, is assailed and overcame the lion (Amos iii. 

the Chalcedonian lUy, which, with its scarlet, 12. Judg. xiv. 5. 1 Sam. xvii 34), s(»ne- 

tnrban-like flowers, is a stately object. times by the aid of pitfalls (2 Sam. xxiii. 

LIME, in Hebrew jssd, — this product of 20). Oriental rulers were accustomed to 

oxygen and calcium could easily be obtained keep menageries of lions in cavea constructed 

ftom the limestone which forms most of the for the purpose, into which criminals were 

surface of Palestine, — ^was obtained among thrown. Comp. Dan. vi 10, teq, 

the Israelites, as now, by burning (Is. zxziii. A lion was the standard of the tribe of 

12), and employed for purposes similar to Judah (Gen. xliz. 19 ; oomp. Bev. v. 0). 

L D 193 LOR 

LIZABD (L. laeerta), a general ntme for and aa snoh enrrendered to Vespasian. It was 
all eold-blooded animals whieh. In the form celebrated by the rabbins as a seat of Jewish 
of a serpent, haye four feet, is Uie rendering learning. Under the Roman dominion, a 
of a word in Lev. xL 80, Utahah, which genersl change of names took place, when 
WellbeloTcd translates by chameleon (see Lod, or Lydda, became Dlospolis, by which 
the article), and Colonel Hamilton Smith nsme it is mentioned on coins stmck nnder 
takes to be die gecko. Species of lizards are Septimins ScTeras and Caraoalla. It was 
more nnmerons in the East than with ns ; early a bishopric of the First Palestine, 
and though onr translators have rendered Lydda is celebrated as the bnrth-place of the 
by lizard only the word above given, other legendary St George, the patron saint of 
authorities have given seyeral Hebrew worda England, not less renowned in the East than, 
as signifying lizards of some kind. Mo- at a later period, in the West Here was 
dezn Arabs nsa many sorts of lizards as erected in his honour a church, which is 
food, but in the Mosaic law they are pio- said to hare been either bnilt orreconstmcted 
nounced unclean (Lev. zL 29, SO). Of the by Richard of England, the renowned cm- 
animsls mentioned in these verses, the fol- sader. Noble ruins of this edifice still re- 
lowing are scconnted species of the lizard main, which Robinson saw 'in the bright 
tribe, namely, that represented in our version yet mellow light of the ftill moon ; — the 
by * tortoise,' a kind now known to the Arabs lofty remaining arch towered in imposing 
of an arm's length, found in the desert, and mi^esty, and the effect of the whole, Uiough 
not poisonous ; that represented by * ferret,' moumfhl, was indescribably impressive. It 
the noisy and venomous abu-^rt of the transported me back to the similar but far 
Arabs; diat represented by 'chameleon,' it more perfect moonlight grandeur of the 
may be the laetrta tuUio, of an olive brown Colisstsnm ' (iii. 49). See Ltdda. 
colour, with black and white spots, and a LOIS, the grandmother of Timothy, whose 
tail a span long, while even the body does faith, transmitted through his mother, that 
not reach that size; that represented by the disciple inherited, and for which he is ad- 
word ' lizard,' which Winer describes as a dressed in terms of praise by his spiritual 
small delicate animal, a span long, found in father, the apostle Paul (2 Tim. L 5). The 
Egypt near houses ; that represented by the inestimable adTantage of pious parents is 
'snail,' probably the sand-lizard; and that here well ezemplified. The faith of Timothy, 
represented by 'the mole,' which Winer which was so unfeigned, deep, and ope- 
thinks is probably the laeerta gwko, but rative, as to call forth the aposde's eulogy, 
fioehart takes to be the chameleon. owed much of its excellence to Lois and 

LO-AMBO (H. not my people), the name Eunice. Faith, indeed, cannot, like goods 
of Hosea's second son by Oomer, given as an and chattels, be handed from mother to 
indication that God had east off the idolatrous child. It is before all things personsl in 
Israelites. A daughter of the same mother its origin, growth, and effects. Yet may there 
and father received the name of Lo-ruhamah be in a family a perpetuation of sanctity, 
('not having obtained mercy*), 'for I will which, originating in the soul of a grand- 
no more havemerey upon the house of Israel' mother, passes through the loving heart of 
( Hos. i. 6, 9). A son, the first oflbpring of the a mother, and so unconsciously forms and 
marriage, took the name of Jezreel (' seed of blesses the mind of a child, acting on it like 
God '). The whole transaction deserves to be the air, the light, and the sun, so as to foster, 
studied as illustrative of the prophetic manner develop, atrengthen, and make fraitftd all 
of warning and teaching by acts and signs, the better capabilitiea of his souL Happy 
Comp. Is. vii. 14; viii. 1. the lot of him whose inheritance is found in 

LOD (H.)> called also Lydda, Dlospolis, ancestral piety and an honourable name ! 

and in modern times Ludd, a considerable Mark also how Christianity recognises the 

city. Lod, with the towns thereof, built by worth of female influence in education, and 

the sons of Elpaal, lay in the territory of associates itself with what is purest and 

Dan, in the plain of Sharon, not far from loftiest in the character and position of 

the road which leads from Jerusslem to Joppa. woman ! 

It once belonged to Samaria, but was united LOOKING-GLASS. See Glass. 
to Judah by Jonathan (1 Chron. yiii. 12. LORD (T.), which in the English seems 

Ezra ii. 83. Neh. zi. 85. 1 Mace. z. 80; zL to have borne an import similar to that of 

84). Its inhabitants were sold for slaTcs by proprietor, and which now denotes a noble- 

Cassius alter the death of Julius Cesar, but man or master, stands (vrith other words) 

were restored to their homes by a decree of for two Hebrew terms, /ffcasoA and Jdcmit, the 

Antony. Here Peter restored to soundness first being the inconminnicable appellation of 

JEneas, who had through palsy kept his bed the Creator, the second being api^ed to God, 

eight years (Acts ix. 82, teq,). The place but more frequently to human bemgs in virtue 

was laid in ashes by Cestius Gallus, the of some ofiioe or dignity held by them. In 

Roman proconsul under Nero. It soon re- Deut x. 17, we thus read: ' The Lord (Jeho- 

vived, for not long after it was at the head vah) your God is God of gods and Lord of 

of one of the toparchies of the later Judea, lords, a great God,' — where (and generally) 


King JuDei'i inuiilUora bare printed tilt 
word which repieuau ' Jehaiih'wilh acapi- 
lul, Lord, ard that which nprawnta human 
beings, withaamalt leller, tboa, 'lords.' In 
Ibe epithet 'Lord of lords,' the unM *ord 
is iipptied to God and to man ; bnl in ordar 
la Diark that the &nt refers to tha Alnughl;, 
it atso appean with a oqiilal. Theae faol* 
not being commonly known, ths msaulDg of 
Scripture ii oflfQ misapprehended. Bj ths 
mode of tianelatiDg poraoed in the English 
Bible, the tone of passages is often impsr- 
fscll; brongbl out The pasuge joat cited 
should be rendered thus — ' Jehof ah your 
Qod i* the Sod of gods and the Lord of 
lord!.' The following are ioManoet In which 
Adonal ia applied to human ororeatidbeiiigi, 
and ia eq^iTslent to dot ' HiMer,' ' Mister,' 
'Sir' or 'Sire' (Osn. niil. 12; xfi. 3; xxlr. 
. 1 Sun. ixTi. IT, 19. 



In the Oreek of the New 

This word is Kuriat, whish is rende 
'matter' in Halt Ti. 34 ; ■ tii ' in ni. ! 
' lord ' ( applied to a man) in zriil. i 
'Lord' (ippUad to Qod) In i M; 'La 

(ap^ted to Jems) in Tii. SI. 
other instaDeei of a siuiilu kind present 
IfaemielTes; in detennining the eisct im- 
port of eaoh of which regard most be had to 
Dsagv and the oonteil. In process of time 
tha epithet ' the Lotd ' Batne to be descrlptife 
of Jeans (John II. S, 18,30. Acts ii. 11); 
henoe srose this coropoond, 'the Lord Jesua' 
(i*. lI,inTiscbeDdorf},ind' the Lord Jeans 
Christ ■ (Eom. it. fl). To be ' in the Lord," 
ii to beChristisna (Bom. iri. 11); those ' who 
die in the Lord ' are probiblj' martjra (Ber. 
xiT.18). 'Btandfastin theLord,'mesiia.'be 
Qnn in joni Christian profession' (niilipp. 
i». I). To be ' married in the Lord,' is to be 
mirried to a Cbristiaa (1 Cot. vii. 39). 

LORDSHIP, dominion, either supreme or 
SDbordinata. Tbe pssssgv In Luke xi^i. 
30, maj refbi to 6it latter. I'be epithet 
' bonsfsotors ' there ascribed fa j oar Lord to 
Oantile rulers, is a title of honour given to 
prinees and others b; slates which they ruled 
or had serred. On an inscription (oand at 
Pergamns, Ibe consul Joliua Qnadiatni is 
dasigBatad 'the benefactor (currgitn) uf 
tlK Pergimeooi.' 

On tte coins of Syrian monuelu which 

were eircnlating in Jndea in ont Lord's day, 
the tide was toand, and bom llum be may 
hare taken the term. Tbe tetoadraehm here 
engraved ia of tbe Syrian king, Antiorbna 
Ejurgita. The obrerse bean the royal por- 
trait; the rerene, Psllaa holding a flgnie of 
Victory; legend (money) ef king Antiatkiu 
Ewrgatei ; and ths date, 17S year of the 
era of ths BeleuoldB, that is 13T A. C. 

Onr Lord's object in tiie passage was to 
diaeonrage not only the assumption of do- 
minion among hia diaciplea, but alao the 
interohange of flattering titles. 

LOT (Tt Oennaa ioa) repreoente a He- 
brew word eigniiying a small stone employed